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SERIAL 372. 218 K513 v. SO 

The Kindergarten-primary 



SERIAL 372.218 K513 v . 20 

The Kindergarten-primary 

Nnlintuil-I Amis L'nivrmily 



2840 Sheridan Road 

Evanston, Illinois 60201 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

CARLI: Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Illinois 




September, 1907-June, 1908 


150 Nassau Street, New York, N. Y. 

Copyrighted, 1907 — 1908, by the Kindergarten Magazine Company 

Index to Volume XX 


A Baker's Dozen For City Children 123 

A Carpenter Builds Shelter For Some Ani- 
mals — Katherine G. Church 128 

Address at the International Congress of 
Mothers', Washington, D. C, of ^Senorita 
I^stetama Castenada. Supervisor of National 
Kindergartens, Mexico, and Representative 
ot the Kindergarten Press of Mexico City. . 335 

An Indian Legend of the Corn 39 

A Tour Through New Orleans (Illustrated) — 
May C. Nobles ' , _ 206 

Art Work In the Kindergarten and Primary 

Grades — Robert Dulk 47 j 90, 130 

Autumn Festivals — Marie Ruef Hofer...'....' SO 
Camera Culture in the School Room— Robert 
Dulk g 

Child Study Questionnaire — Mrs. Frances C 
Holden 165, 254; 303 

Difficulties of Celebrating Christmas— Mary 
Schaeffer 127 

Digest of Domestic Magazines — Bertha John- 
ston 34, CS 

Dr. Maxwell's Welcome to the Representative 
of Mexican Education 291 

Fifteenth Annual Convention of the I. K U 

Provisional Program ' 250 

Fifteenth Annual Convention of the Inter- 
national Kindergarten Union, New Orleans 
La., March 30, 31, April 1, 2, 190S, The— 
Harrietta Melissa Mills .' 337 

Important to I. K. U. Members 251 

Froebel's View of Play and Work — Fraulein 
Heerwart ^ 

How a City Child Feels About Nature — Alwin 
West 252 

International Kindergarten Union 209, 250 

International Kindergarten Union, The — Its 
Future in Relation to Other Educational Or- 
ganizations — Bertha Payne 325 

International Kindergarten Union, The Its 

Origin. Wny It Was Organized. — Caroline 

T. Haven 33 ^ 

Its Past — What It Has Accomplished. — 
Annie E. Laws 333 


Impressions Derived From Visits to the Kin- 
dergarten — An Experienced Teacher 

Kindergarten Education in Mexico 
strated) — E. Lyell Earle, Ph. D. . . . 

Mothers' Meeiings and Reading Circles — Jenn\ 

B. Merrill, Pd. D 17, 68, SI, 125 


255, 300, 

National Education Association, Cleveland 

Neighborhood House Play-ground, Louisville 
Ky ' 

Notes from the Field 18,22 

Patrick Maloney McKlooligan, Practical In- 
structor — Eunice Janes Gooden 

School Diet — A. P. Reed, M. D 

Some Rhymes and Plays 126 

Some Stories About Tommy — Anne Burr Wil- 
son 15, 50, S6, 119, 162, 205, 

The Kindergarten in New Orleans 

Free Kindergartens — Eleanor McMain. . 

Public School Kindergarten System 

Nicholas Bauer 

New Orleans Normal Kindergarten Train- 
ing School — Margaret C. Hanson 

Recreative Plays and Games. — Mari Rcuf 

Educational Value of Bookbinding, The 

Sarah J. Freeman 15G, 210, 

Kindergarten Program, The — Harriette Melis- 
sa Mills 2, 41, 73, 170, 

Place of the Mother Play in the Training of 
Kindergartners, The — Laura Fisher 

Problem of City Play-grounds, The — Dr. 
Henry S. Curtis 23, 

Thoughts Suggested by the Kindergarten Ex- 
hibit at New Orleans, H .M. M 

Right of a Child To His Religious Inheritance, 
The — E. Lyell Earle, Ph. D 

Water Cart, The — Words bv Lileon Claxton. 
Music by Isabel Valentine 

True Independence In Childhood — Carrie M. 



by Day With Nature — For the Kinder- 
arten and Primary Grades — Mary A. 
roudfoot 11, 37, 78, 121, 177, 

Water and Its Correlated Interest- 
A. Proudfoot 


Program For Kindergartens 
Plans for Primary Grades. . 

Story of a Raindrop, The 

Mill, The — Words by Mary A. Proudfoot. 

Music by Frederick J. Long 

Brooklet's Story, The 

Winter Subjects: Snow and Ice — Mary 

A. Proudfoot, B. S 

A Winter Song — Words by Mary A. 
Proudfoot. Music by Lydia F. Stevens 

Wool and Sheep 

Frost, Ice, and Snow 

Chickens, The 

A Queer Little Chick — Words by Mary A. 
Proudfoot. Music by Frederick J. Long 

Moon's Story of a Family of Chickens, 
The (Translated from Hans Andersen) 







Message of Spring.- 
B. P 

-Mary A. Proudfoot, 

awing, Paper Cutting, etc — Lileon Claxton. 
SS, 131, 167, 215, 263, 

othing as a Kindergarten Topic, with Sug- 

I gesuve Story, Songs, and Games — Frances 


sars of Berne, The — Bertha Johnston 

ur Play Corner — Teresa Y. Hatch 

ostman, The (Words and Music) — Lileon 

:' Claxton and Isabel Valentine 

aith of a Little Child, The — Marie E. Hoff- 

ecreative Games for the Schoolroom — Marie 
Ruef Hofer 159, 305, 

layhouse Corner — Bertha Johnston, 
unatic's Will — Exchange 






Industrial Education — Bertha Johnston.. 1S3 
Digest of Foreign Periodicals — Prof. F. 

Muench 32, 140, 190, 237, 321 

Talks to Teachers — E. Lyell Earle, Ph. D. 

30, 57, 92 
Manual Training Up-To-Date — Bertha 

Johnston 95 

Continuation Schools of Germany — Prof. 

F. Muench, Ph. D 103 

Review of Anniversary Report of the N. 

E. A. — Bertha Johnston 104 

Editor's ^otes on New York City — E. 

Lyell Earle 110 

Progress of Education in Italy — Will S. 
Monroe in U. S. Bureau Education 

Report 267 

Training of the Exceptional Child, The 273 

Education in Mexico 279 

Discussion of Kindergarten Education in 
the Sixth Yearbook. Part II. of the 
National Society for the Scientific 
Study of Education, The — E. Lvell 

Earle, Ph. D 224 

Southern Educational Association in Con- 
vention 230 

Education in Louisiana — Bertha Johnston 232 
Kindergarten in Louisville, Ky., The.... 234 

News Notes 240 

Celebration at the Normal School for 

Lady Teachers, Mexico 319 

Reciprocal Visit of American Teachers to 

Europe 320 

Book Notes — Bertha Johnston. . 69, 107, 

192, 146, 237 
Moral Education of Children, The — 

Bertha Johnston 133 

Notes From the Field 141 

Magazine Notes — Bertha Johnston. . 34. 

107, 142, 238 

Nature Study — Bertha Johnston 6 

Tuskegee Institute. An Industrial Community 
for Industrial Education — Booker T. Wash- 
ington 153 

Value in the Santa Claus Myth — Alice M. Cor- 

bin , 129 

What Does the Play-ground Do For the Win- 
ter Child? — Miss K. G. Billings 2 9 

What Should the Public Do For the Care and 
Training of Children Before They Are Ad- 
mitted to the Public Schools — Ada 

Van Stone Harris 197 

Physical Education — Bertha Johnston 354 



Volume XX. JUNE- 1908 Number 9 

The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine 


Devoted to the Child and to the Unity of Educational Theory 
and Practise from the Kindergarten thru the University 


Jenny B. Merrill, Pd. D., Supervisor Kinder- E. Lyell Earle, Ph. D. , 

gartens, Manhattan, The Bronx and Richmond. Managing Editor 

Mari Rtjef Hofer Daniel Snedden, Ph. D. 

Teachers College Teachers College 

Harriette M. Mills Walter F. Dearborn, Ph. D. 

New York Froebel Normal University of Wisconsin 

John Hall, A. M. Ernest Farrington, Ph. D. 

University of Cincinnati University of California 

Ernest N. Henderson, Ph. D., Bertha Johnston 

Adelphi College, Brooklyn New York Frcebel Norma 

Editorial Rooms, 59 West 96th Street, New York. N. Y. 


The International Kindergarten Union — Its Futute in Relation to other 

Educational Organizations. .... - Bertha Payne - 325 

Mothers' Meetings and Reading Circles ... Jenny B. Merrill, Ph.D. 328 

Thoughts Suggested by the Kindergarten Exhibit at New Orelcans, H. M .M. ... 329 

The International Kindergarten Union — Its Origin. Why it was Organized. Caroline T. Hav n - 331 

Its Past— Wh.t it has accomplished. - - - - Annie E. Lairs, - 333 

Adress of the International Congress of Mothera, Washington D. C. of Senor- 

ita Estefania Castaneda, Supervisor of National Kindergartens, Mexico, 

and Representative of the Kindergarten Press of Mexico City, ----- 335 

The Fifteenth Annual Convention of the International Kindergarten Union, 

New Orleans La, March 30, 31, April I, 2, 1908. - - - Harriette Melissa Mills 337 


Recreative Plays and Games, -.-..- Mari Ruef Hofer, - 346 

Day by Day With Nature in the Kindergarten and Primary Grades. - Mary s\. Proudfoot B . S. 348 


Physical Education, - - Bertha Johnston - 354 

National Educational Association, Cleveland, Ohio, ....... 3^ 

THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE Is published on the first of each month, ex- 
cept JULY and AUGUST, from 278 River Street, Manistee, Mich. 
THE SUBSCRIPTION PRICE Is $1. 00 per year, payable in advance. Single copies, 15c. 
POSTAGE IS PREPAID by the publishers for all subscriptions in the United States, Hawaiian 
Islands, Philippine Islands, Guam, Porto Rico, Tutuila (Samoa), Shanghai, Canal Zone, Cuba, 
and Mexico. For Canada add 20c. and for all other countries in the Postal Union add 40c. for postage. 

NOTICE OF EXPIRATION Is sent, but It is assumed that a continuance of the subscription is 
desired until notice of discontinuance is received. When sending notice of change of address, 
both the old and new addresses must be given. 

REMITTANCES should be sent by draft, Express Order or Money Order, payable to The 
Kindergarten Magazine Company. If a local check Is sent, it must include 10c. exchange. 

ALL COMMUNICATIONS should be addrest to the New York office, Suite 1203,150 Nassau Street, New 
York, N. Y. 

Benjamin F. Chandler, Business Manager, New York. 

Copyrighted, 1908, by THE KINDERGARTEN MAGAZINE CO. Entered as Secoud Class Matter 
In the Postofflce at Manistee, Michigan. 

Splendid Pictures 

For Decorating 
By such famous artists as 
Jessie Willcox Smith 
Ethel Franklin Betts 
Anita Le Roy 
Elizabeth Shippen Green 
E. Benson Knipe 
Elizabeth F. Bonsall 

The pictures are handsomely re- 
produced and mounted on heavy 
board. The prices are 50c and $1 
per picture. 

We publish a number of books that 
have a direct appeal to Kindergart- 
ners and have prepared handsome 
cat alogs giving full descriptions of 
them. Any of the pamphlets listed 
below will be sent on request. 

II am interested inl 








K. P. 


No Kindergartner can fail to see 
the Educational Value of these 





/F=r,edericl-<L/V.StoKe:s Gornpany 
^Publishers "Tvlevv "V6rK. 


Consisting of six sheets, beautifully printed in 
bright colors. The lion, the tiger, the bear, the 
elephant, the rabbit, and turkey can be cut out and 
made to look real live animals. 

In an Envelope (7%xll% inches) 25c 


All well known characters. Little Red Riding 
Hood and the Wolf are interchangeable and so are 
the Owl and the Pussy Cat, Mrs. Peter and the 
Pumpkin, The Princess and The Ogre, Mother Hub- 
bard and her Dog, the Hare and the Tortoise. 

In an Envelope (9x13 inches 25c 


Consisting of a chauffeur, a pirate, a clown, a 
cannibal, a farmer and a mandarin. These round- 
jointed creatures can be put together into every 
conceivable attitude. 

In an Envelope (7y 2 xdy z inches) 25c 


The series provides the rooms of the house — par- 
lor, dining-room, kitchen, etc., with all their fur- 
niture. The latter the child can cut out and paste 
upon the pictures of the rooms according to the 
suggestions given in the text, or may follow out his 
own ideas. 

Oblong, 4to, boards or loose leaves, $1.00 

Frederick A. Stokes Co. 

321 Fourth Ave., New York 

AROUND THE N. E. A. HEADQUARTERS— A Beautiful Bay, near Los Angeles, Cal. 


AROUND THE N. E. A. HEADQUARTERS-Scene on the Ostrich.Farm, near Los Angeles, Cal 


t ■ ■ — — — 

"Another inclosure which brinrs the seashore near to them.' 

' Play and exercise should be a lure to the school, not away from it.' 

' The children frolic over the horizontal bars and up and down the ladders. 
Above Illustrations by Courtesy of Appleton's Magazine. 

Ol)£ TKiniergarten- primary ^ttaga^ine 

Vol. XX— SEPTEMBER, 1907- No. 1 



We all know that the human being is or- 
ganized for doing work and that each of us 
uust take a share in the universal activity 
:hat surrounds us everywhere. The very 
nstinct of imitation makes us do what oth- 
ers do; movements even of inorganic bodies 
nvite us to move, also objects, such as 
docks, windmills, bells, and even more so 
ve imitate living objects, like the swimming 
)f fishes, flying of birds, running of dogs, 
nactivity means death and stagnation, 
novement means life. 

The structure of our body is pliable; it is 
died witli .a fluid element which makes it 
jrow through its nourishment and pulsing 
energy; it leads to strength, power, success 
md creative result. This characteristic of 
he human being inspires us to be workers 
imong our fellow-men and it inspired Froe- 
Del to help every child to become a real hu- 
nan being, to further its small efforts, to 
■timulate its feeble powers, to draw out its 
Numbering energies. 

This view is the secret of the kindergar- 
en method of education of the school and 
)f every thinking parent, of every educator 
nore or less. 

Work will, when it approaches the child 
n relation to its strength, be a pleasure, not 
j. drudgery; it will greet us as a privilege, 
lot as a punishment; it will help to over- 
:ome difficulties; it will grow with increas- 
ng power and produce cheerfulness, ease, 
lappiness. This delightful state does not 
:ome suddenly in later life; it has its begin- 
ling in early life and in gentle habits; it 
:ommences in the arms of the mother, on 
he knees of the father when he rocks the 
:hild and sings to him. 

We who are acquainted with Froebel's 
Education of Man, and with his book for 
nothers, recognize at once the passages in 
he first chapter of Professor Hailmann's 
ranslation and the pictures and explana- 
ions rendered into English by Miss Josefine 
arvis, or in Miss Blow's, Miss E. Harri- 
on's and others' admirable works written 
or the use of mothers, teachers and chil- 

dren, where we read how they interpreted 
Froebel's intentions. His books are so full 
of meaning that they give us new lessons 
each time we open them, so comprehensive 
that they lead us into depths and heights, 
which we did not see before. Froebel is 
ever a philosopher, as Dr. Harris said, — 
When we look at the picture of the weather- 
vane, our glance is turned up on high and 
all around, or at the flower-basket, we dis- 
cover color, odors, shapes, which arouse our 
love for the beautiful. If we read in the 
"Education of Man" we see that work is on 
a parallel line with religion and it shows us 
the example we have to follow. God works 
and if we count ourselves His children we 
must imitate Him in spite of our weak hu- 
man power. And if we call ourselves Chris- 
tians, we follow the footsteps of Christ. He 
worked while He was on earth; He walked 
the streets of Jerusalem, the shores at Lake 
Genesarth, visited the homes of Martha and 
Mary, helping, healing, comforting, teach- 
ing everywhere He went. 

Open the pages of the "Education of 
Man" and read pages 12, chapter 11, or page 
30; God creates and works productively, on, 
page 32. Jesus says, "My work is to do 
the will of Him who sent me." 

For all kinds of work of usefulness God 
eave us limbs, senses, muscles, above all a 
heart and a head, as well as daily oppor- 
tunities. He placed us in the midst of fel- 
low-men, of nature's beauties and of ex- 
amples all around. What kind of beings 
should we be if we did not take part in the 
progress, movement and creative work that 
surrounds us everywhere? The child itself 
teaches us that it owns a spark of the uni- 
versallife and it is our duty to trace the 
germs of child-life in order to lead the child 
in the way it has a tendency to go. What we 
often fail to understand is the feebleness of 
the child's efforts, the small end of its life; 
but once caught hold of the child will lead 
us on, till we understand each other, till it 
feels our guidance along the road of its 
wishes and we understand the growing 
child along the road of our educational 
thoughts, provided they are logical and con- 


The failure of man)' an educational sys- 
tem is that it pulls at a string different from 
the child's. 

Must we not at first have studied God's, 
Nature's and human laws, before we can 
teach them to the child? Must we not be 
active, creative and imitable before we can 
attempt to train the powers in a child? All 
this Froebel saw and expressed in the 
words, "Come, let us live with our chil- 
dren" ; he also saw the opportunities for de- 
veloping" the senses with which the child 
should enter into the world consciously 
with open eyes from day to day. The kin- 
dergarten is the place in which it can be 
done, unless the home, the family, has un- 
derstood already how to prepare the child 
for life's duties. 

There is no work too small that leads to 
the fulfillment of our manifold duties, and 
duties will henceforth be not a burden but 
a pleasure. 

Work will seem a privilege and no task. 

How beautifully does Froebel show this 
in the pictures of grass, mowing, in the car- 
penter, the wheelwright, the baker, the 
charcoal burner, the joiner. 

One picture shows the domestic scene, 
the other the industrial, the third the his- 
torical. Most distinctly Froebel points out 
the connection between the humble work of 
the charcoal burner with the necessities of 
daily wants between the blacksmith and the 
simple home, where spoons, knives, forks 
are needed to bring the daily food to the 
child. The modest implements are accom- 
panied with gentle talk and musical voice. 
A child thus brought into workshops learns 
to see beauty in the fitness during the work 
of the busy man; it will appreciate his in- 
dustry; it will thus be filled with pleasant 
pictures from early years. It will not be 
frightened at the brawny arms, but it will 
listen to the"measureed beat andslow"while 
the mother sings a rhyme to it ; the child 
learns that toiling and rejoicing go together, 
that "something attempted" leads to, some- 
thing done, leads to "earning a night's re- 
pose" ; it will sing with the mother,"Thanks, 
thanks to thee, my worthy friend." Work, 
music and poetry are thus combined. 

It strikes us forcibly that three great men, 
though far apart in time, space and experi- 
ence had the same thought. Froebel, when 
showing the child in the workshop of the 
blacksmith, Handel, when composing a mel- 
ody to the strokes of the blacksmith's ham- 

mer, and Longfellow, when writing his 
poem, "The Village Blacksmith." In music 
for the kindergarten, Supplement I, page 
1 6, the reader will find a game which com- 
bines this thought. The child is introduced 
through play to poetry, music and activity 

From imitating the work it will learn the 
beauty of work and become an industrious 
worker in later life. 

Every game should have this aim ir 
view, or else it will be an empty pastime 
without meaning". After every game in the 
kindergarten the child ought to have 
learned something worth being remem- 
bered, something: that has opened a new 
vista of the world, something that leads i 
step higher. In every game the movement; 
should be in harmony with the surrounding 
world, as in the weather-vane, the grass- 
mowing, the baker. 

"There is a deep meaning in children'! 

As Schiller says, a word which Froebe 
thanked him for when writing to Schiller': 
daughter. "Work and play mean the sarai 
thing, each unfolds the human powers, eacl 
gives pleasure, health, and brings us nearei 
to our destiny, that of a harmonious, con 
scious child of God. " 


Harriette Melissa Mills. 


For the benefit of those who have not read th 
preceding numbers of this series, published in Vol 
XIX of the Kindergarten Magazine, it may be well 
before entering upon the treatment of the subject 
matter of the program, to restate the positions tha 
have been taken in foregoing discussions. Th 
identity and universality of all educational prob 
lems have been maintained from the beginning 
It has been assumed that these problems presen 
four constant conceptions, which are constitutiv 
and regulative of all educational endeavor. The 

I. The nature and need of the human bein. 
to be educated. 

II. The aims of education. 

III. The subject-matter that constitutes th 
course of study. 

IV. The method which will render the subject 
matter effective in realizing the aim of educatioi 
and, at the same time, provide the nurture whic 
the developing human being needs. 

In the discussion of the first of these conceptions 
we found the positions assumed by the great edu 
cational reformers— Comeninus, Rousseau, Pestalozz 
and Froebel — and also those by modern psycholc 
gists, believing that the points upon which generE 
agreement can be established furnish the safes 
working hypothesis for present endeavor; for whe 
the theories of each educator have been diveste 
of that which is partial, and circumscribed b 
ephemeral conditions; when one educator has bee 


:ohipared with another and each with all to ascert- 
ain the points wherein the theories and practices 
if one contradict and throw discredit on the others, 
—there remains a residuum of truth to which each 
ubsequent advance in knowledge offers clearer ver- 
fication; and further, this residuum of truth is 
ound to be characterized by dynamic power, which 
ncludes allurement as well as propulsion. 

The implications of this essential truth are: 
irst, that all educational activity is conditioned 
rimarily by the nature and need of the human 
eing to be educated, and that this human being 
pntributes the energies and activities essential to 
:s own growth and development; and second, that 
he correlative factor in the educational process is 
urnished by the experience content of life as it 
as been continuously tested in the crucible of 
DCial relationships, and slowly fused into a pro- 
.ressive civilization. And further, the agent who 
nergizes to control experience, and the experience 
p be controlled, are both subject to the law of 
volution, and, alike, present three constant factors, 
amely, unity, activity, and development. Activity 
} the mode by which the agent reveals the unitary 
haracter of its life of physical, intellectual, and 
oiritual import, and is, also, the instrument of its 
regressive realization. Activity is also the mode 
y which civilization has developed — not in an un- 
roken movement, since, viewed in its totality, its 
regression has been retarded at many points by 
eriods of retrogression. From the point of view 
I society, or civilization, the educational process 
lakes for the conservation and transmission of that 
sperience content, which is believed to be of en- 
uring worth; it is, therefore, one of the agencies 
hereby relative permanency of societary conditions 
(' established. Yet here is presented only half of 
[ie educational process. From the point of view 
: the individual, the movement is extended to in- 
ude the "preservation of the present" and to in- 
cate the direction in which human endeavor is 
3ing in order to produce a future. The individual, 
ideed, repeats the processes and products of race 
ivelopment, because the characteristics of race ex- 
srience are stamped upon the physiological and 
: sychical aspects of its life-whole; however, the 
roducts of activity are not confined to the repeti- 
|:on of static models, but are capable of infinite 
ariation. Thus the educational process develops 
nder a two-fold, yet one movement that compre- 
; snds within its activity the conservation and 
ansmission of the relatively permanent facts and 
:orths of race experience, and at the same time 
;eks the development of the experience — fulfilling 
I hd producing capacities of the individual, since the 
trogress of civilization depends upon the exercise 
1 the "propensities to variation" in its individual 
i embers. Thus, while the indebtedness of the pres- 
lat to the past is increased from age to age, the re- 
rensibilities and opportunities for a more abundant 
idividual and societary life are proportionately 
It becomes, then, the primary problem of the kin- 
:rgarten, as of all other forms of educational en- 
i iavor, to further the interaction processes between 
■lie individual and his environment — understanding 
r.e term "environment" to include everything that 
amediately conditions his life, and all the more 
"mote circumstances that have contributed to the 
S'ivelopment of race life. 

I ; In the discussion of the second universal problem 
- --the aim of education — the position has been as- 
;.med that aims and purposes, practical and ideal, 
J ave developed simultaneously with the developing 
ihture and progressive needs of human life. In 
yaling with the concepts of activity and develop- 
ment in their relationships to individual and race 
jre, it is necessary to postulate an integrating end, 
aim, to be achieved as the outcome of activity. 

The ceaseless process of change from lower, or in- 
complete, to higher and more perfect modes of liv- 
ing is linked with the system of purpose which 
underlies all existence. What these purposes are, 
it is man's duty to learn, interpreting each lower 
expression of life in terms of its highest develop- 
ment. It is a demand of intelligence, that life be 
stated in terms of purpose. In the meaning of edu- 
cation to the individual and to the society, of which 
it is a recognized agency, lies the aim of education. 
An historical survey of the aims of education in- 
dicates that they have been subject to the law of 
evolution. In the ascending scale of civilization, 
as it can be traced through Militarism and Indus- 
trialism into its present humatarian stage, it is 
possible to find evidence that the realization, or 
achievement of purposes has ever given rise to a 
new purpose, the allurement of which constitutes 
a new determinant to activity. Static achievement 
is unthinkable. If activity is assumed to be the 
fundamental factor in the becoming process of life, 
then the idea of absolute position is forever ex- 
cluded. Activity is movement, retrogressive and 
progressive. Whatever trend the movement of ex- 
istence may take, activity must be conceived as the 
agent of the becoming process. In its positive 
movement, it is the primary factor in producing a 
larger and richer life. In its negative movement, 
it leads to the impoverishment and declension of 

The aim of life is freedom — freedom for the in- 
dividual and freedom for humanity. It is not a 
gift; it must be won through the exercise of man's 
endowment of self-activity in overcoming the ten- 
sions and dissatisfactions which arise between con- 
ditions conceived as ideal, and the unideal aspects 
of immediate existence. Again, both the history of 
civilization, and social philosophy indicate that 
whatever progress the race has made toward the 
realization of freedom has been through the in- 
creasing domination of the humanitarian ideal, 
the goal of which is the complete humanization of 
the individual and of mankind. Purposeful educa- 
tion accelerates this movement when it conserves 
the riches of human experience, and through care- 
ful selection and arrangement, transmits them to 
the individual who must not only appropriate the 
ideals that have won freedom for humanity thus 
far, but, in the interest of progress, must make 
them the instrument of a more comprehensive free- 
dom. Purposeful education may lay stress upon 
appropriative activities mainly — as in Eastern civil- 
izations where the tendency has been to arrest de- 
velopment upon a previously achieved plane; or 
purposeful education may afford opportunities for 
the functioning of adaptive as well as appropriative 
activities, and encourage their exercise — as in Wes- 
tern civilizations. Indeed, herein lies one of the 
crucial problems of educational procedure; namely, 
how transmit the accumulated riches of human ex- 
perience so that their relative permanency be not 
characterized by rigidity? and how encourage and 
foster individual initiative and efficiency, and still 
keep these powers in leash that their product may 
contribute to the perfecting of the conditions of 
living? It is the office of education to deal with 
these two modes of activity, the union of which 
yields a permanent capacity for progress in its in- 
dividual and societary aspects. Assuming, then, 
that the result of these activities makes for the 
realization of the aims of life as a whole, it follows 
that when the kindergarten program is consciously 
dominated by these aims, a freedom, practical and 
relatively ideal, may be won for childhood. 

The foregoing discussions should make clear the 
common ground of educative endeavor. The survey 
that has been made will fail of its purpose if it does 
not bring before our minds the fact that no real 
dualism can exist between the child as the object 


of the educative process, and human experience as 
its subject-matter. We should be able to see clearly 
that the needs of the individual and the needs of 
humanity are identical; and, further, we should 
discern that the principles which govern the pro- 
cesses by which these mutual needs are met must 
be as unmistakable when interpreted for the nur- 
ture of child life, as when interpreted for the de- 
velopment of civilization. We do well to seek the 
guidance of universal principles in determining ed- 
ucational procedure; but the proof of the universal- 
ity of these principles depends upon their applica- 
bility to all the varying conditions under which the 
individual and the race are searching for their 
birthright — then freedom through complete human- 

Before entering upon the discussion of a 
program, the subject-matter of which is se- 
lected in an attempt to realize the humani- 
tarian ideal, we may profitably consider, 
somewhat briefly, the general views that 
have dominated program making since the 
origin of the kindergarten. Into the his- 
torical development of general school curri- 
cula, it is not my purpose to enter; yet for 
those who would understand the subject of 
the kindergarten program in its complete- 
ness, the study of school curricula will prove 
very illuminating. There are at least three 
attempts to formulate a course of study, the 
underlying principles of which shed much 
light upon the kindergarten program. They 
are, notably, the courses of study formulat- 
ed by Dr. William T. Harris,* Dr. John 
Dewey, ! and Professor Rein. ! ! Helpful as 

*See "Psychologic Foundations of Education." 
"School and Society." 

"Child and Curriculum." 

"The Elementary School Record." 

"Ethical Principles Underlying Education," in 
the Third Year Book of the Herbart Society. 
"Outlines of Pedagogies." 

all these efforts are, and possible as it is to 
reduce them to their common denominators, 
the ideal school curriculum waits upon the 
development of deeper insight into the 
meaning of life and of education. 

That which is true of general school cur- 
ricula, is, in part, true of the kindergarten 
program. All efforts that have been made 
to formulate a kindergarten program, indi- 
cate the presence of two constant factors; 
namely, the individual to be developed, and 
an experience content presenting the rela- 
tionships of life to be interpreted to the 
child and by the child. Compared with the 
general courses of study, to which reference 
has been made, no authoritative programs 
for the kindergarten have been published. 
Nevertheless, the program has an historical 
development that has kept pace with the 
development of child-psychology and social 
philosophy, with the increasing influence of 

the theories of evolution in the domain c 
educational theory and practice, with th 
deeper and more rational interpretation c 
Froebel, and with the demand for a read 
justment of the kindergarten to condition 
which are at variance with those unde 
which it originated. When the kindergai 
ten became affiliated with the public schoc 
systems, it was no longer possible to shiel 
its vagaries of both theory and practic 
from the criticism of men and women wh 
were, at the same time, friendly to the kit: 
dergarten, and believers in Friedrich Froe 
bel's message to the educational world. Th 
inevitable outcome of these various influ 
ences was a division among kindergartner 
themselves; and with this division into con 
servative and liberal groups, the condition 
of growth and development for the kinder 
garten were assured. (The terms "conser 
vative" and "liberal" are honorable terms 
since they have been used to distinguish 
between the two forms of thought and ac 
tion that are essential to the execution c 
the world's work in every department of it 
multiform activity. The other terms b 
which these workers are designated, sue 
as "orthodox" and "hetorodox," and other; 
are freighted with meanings and tradition 
that should debar them from use in thi 

With all these influences bearing dow 
upon the kindergarten, it was impossible t 
maintain traditional theories and practice 
intact. Whatever changes were made wet 
reflected in the kindergarten program, a 
in a mirror, since every program is an err 
bodiment of the philosophy, psychology 
principles, aims, subject-matter, educativ 
materials, and methods of the system — ii 
terpreted from the conservative or liber; 
point of view — for the guidance of daili 
practice in the kindergarten. That thes 
changes were radical in a few instances, 
doubtless true ; but it is my conviction, th; 
a canvass of so-called liberal kindergarter 
would reveal to an intelligent and unbiase 
observer, practices that are wisely conserv; 
tive ; and that a similar canvass of conserv; 
tive kindergartens, would reveal to sane ol 
servation, practices that are rationally pn 
gressive. Neither is wholly conservata 
nor wholly liberal. These terms must | 
held to be strictly and impartially relativ 
Were it possible to strike a balance betwed 
the practices advocated by liberal, and tho: 
by conservative thinkers, their highest | 
forts would, doubtless, rest on commc 



round — the bed-rock of universal princi- 
les — and the differences that now seem in- 
surmountable would appear as matters of 
.mphasis and interpretation. 
'. It is no simple task to follow these diverg- 
\g lines of theory and practice, and it is 
ifficult to listen patiently when matters of 
.etail are defined as fundamental principles; 
,evertheless it is just such exercise of the 
ight of free expression that a spirit of tol- 
rance is being developed in kindergarten 
ircles, where, at- first was bitter intolerance. 
terbert Spencer says: "While it is requisite 
hat free play should be given to conserva- 
jve thought and action, progressive thought 
jnd action must also have free play. With- 
ut the agency of both, there cannot be 
jiose continual readaptations which orderly 
rogress demands."* 

i *Kindergartners will find it helpful to reflect 
pon Sections 33 and 34 of Spencers' "First Prin- 
ples," dealing with the spirit of tolerance. 

A brief survey of the history of the kin- 
ergarten program will enable the student 
3 understand more clearly the positions to 
e maintained in subsequent articles in this 
>ries regarding the subject-matter of the 
rogram. In this survey, there must be 
trict adherence to the basic principles of 
iterpretation which require that each lower 
Jnd imperfect development of thought and 
.ction be evaluated in the light of its high- 
st manifestation. But our interpretive 

ork will yield little that is inspiring if we 

rget that even the highest development is 
;self a relative standard ordy — good as 
itch, and furnishing a new point of depart- 
re for efforts which must develop a stan- 
ard that, in turn, is relatively higher. 

Every important change that has been 
lade in the theories of the kindergarten 
ince its introduction into this country, has 
een duly registered in the kindergarten 
rogram. But the sanctions for program 
"taking can be attributed only indirectly to 
i'robel. If we understand the term "pro- 
;ram" to include all the selected and pre- 
arranged experiences that shall take place 
p a stated period of time, there is not the 
.lightest proof available that Froebel ever 
ised, or gave one to his pupils. The evi- 
dence that exists points rather to the ab- 
ence of a stereotyped plan, since it reveals 
nearly that a spirit of joyousness and play 
pervaded all his associations with children. 
<Voebel understood the significance and 
unction of the play spirit in childhood. He 
.lso recognized its psychological extension 

in the festival spirit of mature years. The 
festival spirit which specialists in our land 
are seeking to revive by means of direct in- 
struction, rroebel labored to keep an un- 
broken possession to the people of his land.* 
*See accounts of festival occasions in which 
young and old participated, in "Reminiscences of 
Froebel," by Baroness von Bulow. 

Froebel viewed the play spirit as an expres- 
sion of the implicit freedom and joyous 
spontaneity of life ; but recognized in its de- 
velopment the way to an explicit, conscious 
freedom which may still retain its joyous- 
ness and spontaneity. For Froebel, "Joy 
is the soul of truth." The evidence gath- 
ered from available data, indicates that the 
activities of the children and the common 
experiences of daily life found, respectively, 
the point of departure for kindergarten ac- 
tivities and the subject-matter of its daily 
routine. These factors seem to have domi- 
nated practice in the first kindergartens. 
Probably the first conception of the kinder- 
garten program was an outgrowth of the 
exceedingly simple practices of Froebel's 
time; and when the kindergarten was intro- 
duced into this country its exercises were 
conducted in much the same manner. 

Briefly, then, the child is the determining 
factor of the first conception of the kinder- 
garten program.* By means of self-activity 

*For a more extended treatment of this, and sub- 
sequent conceptions of the program, consult "The 
Evolution of the Kindergarten Program," by H. M. 
M., published in Part II of the Sixth Year Book of 
the National Society for the Scientific Study of 

he reveals his unitary life as a child of na- 
ture, a child of man, and a child of God. 
Through self-activity, also, he is to be aided 
in realizing his kinship to nature, to man, 
and to God by appropriating the common 
experiences of life which manifest these re- 
lationships. The gifts and occupations are 
used in strict sequence ; and the formal ideas 
embodied in them were undoubtedly accen- 
tuated, since dictation was the prevailing 
method of their presentation to children. 
Songs, games, stories, and objects were 
used then, as now, to enrich and enlarge the 
experience-content of the program. 

Many serious difficulties are presented by 
the first conception of the program, one of 
which should receive special notice, since we 
shall have occasion later to consider it in 
another connection. I refer to the mainte- 
nance of a conscious dualism that interprets 
the child and his experiences in terms of 
feeling and emotions, and the gifts in terms 


of knowledge — form , number, position, and 
direction. Something akin to faculty psy- 
chology obtains within the gift series with 
its separate classes of exercises which em- 
phasize, respectively, life, beauty, and 
knowledge. The inference is that these con- 
ceptscepts can be developed in isolation 
from the general body of experience. By 
what means they are to be restored to the 
unity of experience, is not clear. It would 
appear that the law of unity has a purely 
subjective reference, its office being to re- 
unite elements that have been arbitrarily 
sundered from the general experience pro- 
cess within which they take their rise. 

The first conception of the kindergarten 
program, as such, has been subject to many 
modifications; but it is undoubtedly true 
that many kindergartners still believe that 
the child is the only standard by which to 
determine kindergarten practice. When all 
the limitations and errors of this first at- 
tempt to synthesize kindergarten theories 
into a program have been catalogued, it 
must still be conceded that this program 
contains a "soul of truth," needing only the 
development of favorable circumstances for 
its re-embodiment into a larger form. The 
influences that were at work within the 
province of the kindergarten, combined 
with influences that were steadily differen- 
tiating the old regime of elementary educa- 
tion,* notably, the child study movement, a 

*See "The History of Kindergarten Influence in 
Elementary Education," by Nina C. Vandewalker, 
published in Part II of the Sixth Year Book of the 
National Society for the Scientific Study Education. 
National Society for the Study of Scientific Edu- 

new psychology, and the extension of Her- 
bartian pedagogy — necessitated the re- em- 
bodiment of the Froebel system into more 
carefully organized programs for the kin- 
dergarten. From this point in its develop- 
ment the program became one of the most 
crucial problems of the kindergarten. The 
renewed efforts of conservative kindergart- 
ners were in the interest of the traditional, 
interpretation of the Froebel philosophy. 
The work of conserving the earlier tradi- 
tions and practices was carried on with an 
enthusiasm that was redoubled as the move- 
ment of reconstruction of the kindergarten 
gathered momentum. The final outcome 
was the fusing of the efforts of one group of 
conservative kindergartners into a "Uni- 
form Progarm" that, from thenceforth, be- 
came literally an "unwritten law" (since it 

has not been published) for the guidance ol 
this class of conservative workers in kinder- 
gartens. Before entering upon the discus- 
sion of this program it remains to be notec 
that the influences which incited kindergart- 
ners of conservative temperament to zeal- 
ous defence of traditional interpretations o! 
more flexible temperament to doubt, to in- 
vestigate, to experiment. The attitude o: 
these liberal workers was no longer one o: 
unquestioning acceptance of the prevailing 
interpretations of Froebel. They studiec 
Froebel in the light of truths that had beer 
revealed since his time, only to find that hi; 
intuitive vision had discerned them a: 
through a glass, darkly. The results of thesi 
investigations were not fused into one pro 
gram — that was impossible ; they were in 
corporated in many programs in which it i 
possible to note a unitary trend, of which '. 
shall treat in subsequent articles. 

What, then, is this second conception o 
the program, the highest development o 
which is designated the "Uniform Pro 
gram?" What attitude towards the chili, 
does it reflect? What is the principle under, 
lying the selection of subject-matter? an 
what is its attitude towards the educatio 
materials of the system? All these are fund 
amental questions of great importance. Pe 
culiar as these difficulties are, our quest c 
truth lies along this path, and faithfulnes 
to the history of the kindergarten prograr 
requires that we enter upon it. 

The second conception of the program i 
the result of many minds working togethe 
for a common purpose ; namely, the consei 
vation, preservation, and transmission c 
the Froebel philosophy, theories, and prac 
tices as interpreted by the most conserve 
tive standards. It is a laboratory program 
based upon a priori conceptions of the chill 
the subject-matter, and the educative m| 
terials of the system. Its theoretical foul 
clations having been determined, the pract 
cal elements were formulated to conform t 
them, even to the minutest detail of choic 
sequence, method, and device. The pr< 
gram was then subjected to practical te: 
in many kindergartens that were under rjg 
idly conservative supervision. Whatev< 
modifications it has undergone have been 
the interest of conservatism. Indeed, it m 
have filtered through many minds, but the 
have been of one kindred actuated by or: 

Comparing the second conception of th 
program with its predecessor, there a:: 


hany points that are held in common ; over 
Ihese we must pass to one primary differ- 
ence of fundamental significance. In the 
irst, the child is the determining factor. In 
he second, subject-matter, as it is embodied 
n type, or pattern experiences, seems to be 
ts determining factor. The second concep- 
ion of the program accepts self-activity as 
he principle of action by which the child 
an be adjusted to the five-fold riches of 
luman experience. To render the ideals 
vhich are oplicit in universal experience, 
)repotent in the development of the child, 
s its primary aim ; the development of an 
Individual experience seems to be its sec- 
ondary purpose. Its guiding principle is 
epitomed in the statement, "The universal 
letermines and conditions the individual." 
The subject-matter of the program con- 

sts of a selection of Froebel's Mother 
Plays, over thirty of which are recommend- 

d for use in a program for one year. These 
days are selected with reference to the uni- 
versal corceptions embodied in them, and 
fall into five distinct groups. The sciences 
are represented in two groups which are 
nterpreted as embodying elementary ex- 
Deriences of movement, process, and time ; 
i. g.. "The Weather Vane," "Grass Mow- 
ing," "Tick Tack." The second group pre- 
sents experiences involving form, size, num- 
ber; e. g., "The Family," "Finger Piano," 
'The Target." The remaining groups rep- 
"esent the "humanities" in the subject-mat- 
:er, and include "Trade" plays, "Light" 
songs, and "The Knights." The enlarge- 
nent of these experiences is accomplished 
n the usual manner — by songs, games, stor- 
es, and pictures. The educative materials 
—gifts and occupations — are used in the 
traditional order, of life, beauty, and knowl- 
edge sequences. Logical sequence governs 
:he use of these materials, and the formal 
deas of form, size, number, position and 
lirection, are presented to the children un- 
ler cover of a method that is nominally free 
"day and suggestion, but is, in reality, "re- 
stricted freedom," since the child is led to 
liscover the idea next in order in the series 
by the kind and amount of material given 
for his play. 

Such, then, in meagre outline, is the Uni- 
Form Program in its attitude towards the 
:hild, the subject-matter, educative mater- 
ials, and methods. An elaboration of these 
Factors is not germain to the purpose of this 
article. I wish, however, to call attention 
to the fact that the dualism in the first con- 

ception of the program is advocated and 
consciously maintained in the second ; 
namely, the drastic separation between the 
experience content, or subject-matter of the 
program, and its educative materials. The 
interests that are aroused by the experi- 
ences of the subject-matter, in no way con- 
dition the exercises with the gifts and oc- 
cupations. Here the question of the func- 
tion of the law of unity recurs; and the per- 
petuation of life, beauty and knowledge se- 
quences with the gifts and occupations, in- 
dicates that the influence of faculty psychol- 
ogy is still potent in the domain of practice. 
What the influence of this program on the 
individual teacher may be is summed up in 
a single sentence taken from a recent article 
on kindergarten education : "No primary 
or elementary course of study in existence 
leaves so little to the initiative and judg- 
ment of the teacher."* It is, indeed, a uni- 

*"Phases of Kindergarten Education," by Patty 
S. Hill, published in Part II of the Sixth Year Book 
of the National Society for the Scientific Study of 

form program. Fidelity to principles and 
practices believed to be of unquestioned va- 
lidity, dominates its every choice and detail. 
Its dissemination among kindergartners has 
been accomplished through the agency of 
explanatory lectures by conservative lead- 
ers. Every agency that has contributed to 
its influence has tended to keep it uniform; 
but the great factor in preserving its uni- 
formity is keeping it within the confines of 
the conservative body. Liberal kindergart- 
ners in general, are not in possession of its 
data. However, sufficient is known of the 
second conception of the program to war- 
rant the statement that its psychological 
foundations and its world view are identical 
with those which govern the course of study 
as interpreted by Dr. William T. Harris. 

Thus, in a most inadequate manner, these 
two conceptions of the program have been 
brought together, that their respective at- 
titudes towards the kindergarten program 
in general and its subject-matter in particu- 
lar, may be seen as common, though con- 
trasted factors. In the first, the subject- 
matter is selected from the common experi- 
ences of daily life, in response to the psy- 
chological needs of the child. In the second 
the subject-matter presents type experi- 
ences, the logical arrangement of which is 
at variance with the psychological needs of 
childhood. The exceeding definiteness of 
the Uniform Program has not been without 



its influence upon kindergartners of oppos- 
ing views. Ideas concerning the principles 
underlying the program and the selection 
of subject-matter have been growing more 
and more definite, until now it is possible 
to give them statement as governing a third 
conception of the program, the general posi- 
tions of which are in harmony with the hu- 
manitarian ideals of the nature and needs of 
the child, and the aim of education pre- 
sented in previous sections of this series. 



In these days when everything is done to 
simplify the art of photography for the ama- 
teur, it seems a pity that not more of our 
teachers take up this work during vacation 
clays to commune with nature when she is 
at her best; the results gained by earnest 
and well-directed efforts will more than 
compensate for the small outlay to say noth- 
ing of the useful material that may be gath- 
ered during the term of rest and recreation. 

An expensive apparatus need not neces- 
sarily form the equipment, since good work 
may be done with the cheapest outfit, pro- 
vided a few simple rules be adhered to by 
beginners. It may not be out of place for 
the writer to here warn his readers not to 
be mere "button pressers" and sending the 
exposed negative to be developed and print- 
ed by the so-called professional, for one of 
the chief pleasures of photography is the 
dark room experience of coaxing forth the 
hidden image and printing it after it has 
passed through the various operations. It 
is planned that these papers shall dwell on 
every phase of the photographic art useful 
to the teacher; in this one we shall concern 
ourselves with landscapes and things out- 
of-doors generally. 

Let us assume that we are afield with our 
camera and about to begin operations. We 
have come upon a likely composition, but 
let us not be hasty in exposing the negative, 
let us study it and ask ourselves a few ques- 
tions. What is the motif, the dominant fea- 
ture of this composition ? What can we do 
to accent it? Is the morning or afternoon 
light the better? or shall we take it on a 
gray day? If the reader will cut out these 
questions and paste them on the bottom of 
the camera where they may be read just 
before taking a picture many disappointing 
negatives might be avoided. Illustration 

No. i "The Birches" will explain what is 
meant by dominant and subordinate in com 
position; notice how boldly they stand on 
while all else is subservient, barely visible! 
to further accentuate their proihinence the| 
were taken when the glint of a late aftel 
noon sun would bring out their whitenei 
without getting them "chalky." This nega 
tive was exposed eight seconds, using a me 
clium diaphragm. Right here the write 
would caution the beginner against haphaz 
ard snapshots ; always carry a tripod wii 
you for time exposures and resort to quid 
shutter work only when necessary. 

In illustration No. 2 "The Approachin! 
Storm" again brings out the dominant am 
subordinate features of the composition, th 
clouds concern us most in this picture 
therefore we sacrifice the foreground ail 
its detail in order to bring out so far as w 
can the sublime beauty of the ;louds. I: 
subjects of this kind the exposure must b 
swift and recourse to a moderately quic 
shutter is taken; it is well to pave you 
camera set up and ready for iistant us 
since effects are but of moraentarj duratior 
A vivid flash of lightning may be caught i 
much the same manner at night vvhen th 
negative may be exposed for some tim 
without the danger of fogging and closin 
the shutter when you have secured you 
prize. While we are discussing clouds 1( 
us take up illustration No. 3. "The Moonl: 
Lake" effects of this kind are gotten b 
pointing the camera directly at the sun wail 
ing until it hides behind a cloud, and whe 
the psychological moment arrives release tl" 
shutter. A moderately small stop is use 
in this sort of work, selecting always son 
object in the foreground, a tree or lar£ 
boulder, that will stand out in silhouet 
against the sky. 

Illustration No. 4, "Grazing Sheep," is i 
example of snapshot work pure and simp. 
These timid creatures always make interes 
ing subjects for the camera when proper 
approached ; a good plan is to move slow 
and sitting down occasionally, stalking the 
so to speak ; by this method the writer h 
had them come up and lick his hand and 
good grouping is easily obtained. 

Illustration No. 5, "The Woodland Trai 
is another example of long exposure and 1 
ing a small stop for detail. The exposu 
here was twelve seconds ; it is needless 
say, however, that there must be but litl: 
breeze to stir the foliage when taking the: 
time pictures. Illustration No. 6, "The D 




terglow," is an example of shutter work af- 
ter the sun has set; here a large opening 
was used to permit the largest volume of 
light to act on the plate during the short 

Having returned from our camera outing 



let us hie ourselves to the dark room to de- 
velop our negatives. By dark room is meant 
a room from which every ray of white light 
has been excluded, relying solely on our 
ruby light for illumination. The writer has 
used Eickonogen as a developing agent for 

the work ; where plates are used it is 
visable to dust these with a broad car 
hair brush in order to eliminate any par 
of dust, for this would cause pin holes 
mar the resulting print; where films 
used one may follow the directions for t 
manipulation given by the manufacl 
Lay the plate film side up, in the tray 
carefully flow the solution over it, soa 
it continually until the image is bro 
out; this is determined by holding it ti 
the ruby light ; when the detail is suffick 
clear in the shadows, your negative ma 
said to be developed. Now rinse the n 
tive and place it in the fixing bath, whi 
composed of : 

Hyposulphite of Soda 

1 01 

8 o 

Keep your negative in this solution 


a number of years and recommends the fol- 
lowing formula : 

Number I. 

Sulphite of Soda Crystals 3 ounces 

Hot water 4 5 ounces 

Dissolve and add: 

Eickonogen 1 ounce 

Number II. 

Sal Soda 4 ounces 

Water 15 ounces 

To develop take 3 ounces of No. I and 1 
ounce of No. II. Unless much use is to be 
made of the developer it is recommended 
that one-half of the proportions of No. I be 
made up, since Eickonogen will keep longer 
in its dry state. 

One solution ready, let us proceed with 


the whiteness back of the plate has d 
peared, rocking as before, after whi< 
may be washed for 20 minutes under 
tap or in 10 changes of water and the 1 ! 
on edge to dry. 

We are now ready to take up the prii 
of our negative; for this the writer w 
recommend any of the printing out pa 
such as Solio, Aristo, etc. Nor is blue p 
to be despised, which needs but a few 
ings in clear water after printing, 
your negatives until the shadows ap 
somewhat bronzed, since they lose in d| 
during toning and fixing. 

Toning Solution — No. I. 

Chloride of Gold 15 grai* 

Water 7 Vi oi 




No. II. 

icarbonate of Soda 

1 ounce 
8 ounces 

1 To tone take V 2 ounce No. I and y, ounce of No. 
I, adding to this 5 ounces of water; this will tone 
pout six 4x5 prints. 

I When ready for toning wash the prints in 
bveral changes of water or until the milki- 
less in the water disappears, which is occa- 
lioned by the acid in the paper; now place 
lie prints in the toning solution, one by one, 
lare being taken not to tone more than 
hree or four prints at a time, and keeping 
Item moving about until they assume a pur- 
le tint, when they may be rinsed and placed 
l the fixing bath, where they remain for 20 
linutes. This fixing bath is of the same 
jroportion as for negatives; after fixing the 
rints should be washed for 20 minutes in 
tinning water or in ten changes o" water 
ind dried between blotting paper. "When 
ry the prints may be mounted as taste dic- 

It is well to mark all bottles and keep 
hem well corked and in a cool dark place. 
Under no circumstances must hypo be al- 
iwed to get into your solutions ; use a sep- 
rate tray for this, marking it ; use also in- 
ividual trays for developing and toning. 

In the foregoing paragraphs the simplest 
ormulae and manipulations are advocated 
nd if the reader will but follow these con- 
cientiously, the writer feels assured that 
he novice will get more pleasure and diver- 
isement out of this pastime, to say nothing 
■f the wealth of material that can be gath- 
red for nature work, etc., than can be had 
hrough any other source. 






It seems to the writer that the mission of 
he kindergarten is twofold ; to bring the 
hild into contact with life, and to serve as 
|ii introduction to the more advanced work 
iif the grades. 

To bring the child into contact with life, 
he kindergarten should furnish an environ- 
nent as nearly ideal as possible. As a true 
lome is incontrovertibly the best environ- 
nent for a child, the kindergarten must 
lave the home atmosphere and character. 

If every home were all that it should be, 
there would be less reason for maintaining 
kindergartens. The existence of the kinder- 
garten can be justified only in so far as it 
helps to supply the lack, or to correct the 
defects, in the home life of the children to 
whom it ministers. Now in the true home, 
the child is brought into sympathetic con- 
tact with the world of material things and 
also with the world of imagination and feel- 
ing; therefore the kindergarten must train 
the child to understand and employ material 
things, and must also guide into and 
through that realm of imagination where 
his ideal self will be realized. 

The Germans were the first to recognize 
the importance of definite contact with prac- 
tical things in kindergarten work. This 
phase has been developed to a high degree 
of proficiency by the newer German school, 
under the inspiration of its founder, Frau 
Henrietta Schrader. Their domestic and 
communistic turn of mind leads the Ger- 
mans to regard the kindergarten as a social 
community, where the children learn how 
to live with their neighbors and co-operate 
in useful home occupations. The child is 
carefully trained to be in sympathy with so 
much of the home life as he is able to under- 
stand, and he is made to feel that it is im- 
perative upon him to contribute to it. The 
simple phases of the housework, and the 
needs of plants and animals as adjuncts of 
the home life, are made his earliest concern. 
Of course the Germans do not exclude the 
occupations of the Froebel School, and yet 
so strongly is this home-kindergarten meth- 
od favored, that in the Pestalozzi-Froebel 
Establishment in Berlin, a well equipped 
house is actually provided where the little 
ones engage in many domestic occupations. 
The teachers represent the adults, and the 
children are made to feel definite responsi- 
bility in their service to the members of the 
family. In America, unfortunately, this 
method has not been employed to any great 
extent, and yet there is no reason why it 
should not be, for where facilities for do- 
mestic occupations are not possible in the 
school, certain homes of the neighborhood 
can be used as laboratories. The possibility 
of such privileges has been demonstrated 
by the kindergarten department of the 
Washington State Normal School at Ellens- 
burg, where small groups have gone into 
the homes of the children and engaged, un- 
der systematic direction, in the household 
employments. Incidentally, it may be ob- 



served that this teaching has had a whole- 
some influence on the community life, for 
the mothers catch the spirit of the work, 
and are stimulated to intelligent co-opera- 
tion and loving altruistic service. 

But it must not be thought that the help 
which the children thus give to the home 
is merely haphazard. On the contrary, such 
subjects are chosen for the regular kinder- 
garten program as necessitate home con- 
tact, to be properly appreciated. For ex- 
ample, we select such a subject as the po- 
tato. This is appropriate in the autumn, 
when we can really dig potatoes, and store 
them away in someone's cellar, allowing the 
succeeding experiences, as washing, peel- 
ing, boiling, and the like, to be lessons in 
actual home co-operation. In brief, any- 
thing that relates to the tangible world ap- 
peals to the child, because it is that of which 
he is the most conscious, and which above 
all else he is struggling to understand. So 
much for the child's contact with the prac- 
tical tilings of life. 

Although the Germans have rendered ser- 
vice in thus employing the utilitarian, for 
real training of the imagination they are 
wont to substitute an aesthetic handling of 
materials. Thus under the general study 
of the cow, after the children have learned 
to make butter, as a final lesson they pre- 
pare a beautiful breakfast out in the garden. 
The tables are decorated with wild flowers 
and everything is artistically arranged, and 
then the children graciously serve one an- 
other with the bread and butter they have 

This exercise tends to cultivate good man- 
ners, and it passes for the training of the 
imagination. To be sure, the Germans em- 
ploy stories and pictures, and yet, because 
these do not exert so strong an influence 
upon child life as does play, they are not 
relatively speaking, effective agencies for 
training the imagination. Rather, the child 
should be encouraged to express spontane- 
ously in play, his interpretation of the inner 
life of the things which he sees about him. 
This is genuine imaginative activity. 

The American schools, which make use 
of play, come nearer being successful in this 
respect, and yet fancy and sentimentality 
are often substituted for real training of the 
imagination. The child is ushered into an 
artificial world where tinsel is substituted 
for nature, and exaggerated sentiment for 
sincerity. An illustration drawn from the 
actual work of a certain kindergartner will 

make this point clear. In the morning c 
cle, some Autumn day, this teacher, af 
greeting her children with the "kinderg 
ten smile," asks, in an assumed tone, if a 
child has noticed the leaves dressed in th 
little gold and red coats, dancing merr 
through the air. Some child answ 
"yes." Thereupon the teacher, happy tl 
her children are growing so observant, t( 
them that these dear, unselfish, little leai 
have it as their mission to make a blanl 
for the tiny, sleepy seeds which have gc 
to their cosy little beds for the long, o 
winter. She then throws up some bits 
Jored paper, and sings "Come Lit 
Leaves, Said the Wind One Day." W 
this introduction she furnishes pretty Wi 
and sweet Mamie and all the rest with si 
ilar bits of paper, and they go through 1 
same meaningless performance. This is 
artificial representation substituted for 
substantial observation. Not only d< 
such a play make nature commonplace, 1 
all opportunity for the child's own interp 
tation and creative expression is exclud 
Such a diversion is clearly not a stimulus 
the child's imagination ; rather it is a m> 
tickling of the fancy, an insult to the chil 

Because we kindergartners are prone 
confuse imagination and fancy, it is well 
us to go occasionally to that chapter on 
Imagination Penetrative in Ruskin's Mi 
ern Painters, in which he distinguishes 
tween them. In brief, the thought is tt 
fancy merely flits upon the surface, imagi 
tion penetrates to the core. Fancy no 
the splash of color upon a flower, as wl 
Milton writes of "pansies freaked with je 
imagination gives us the very essence of ' 
flower, as when Shakespeare makes Oph( 
say,"Pansies, that's for thoughts" ; or wri 

That come before the swallow dares, 
And take the winds of March with beautj 

Whether it be dealing with an object 
nature, or with the mind and heart of m 
imagination is "the penetrating, possessii 
taking faculty" ; it is that strong think: 
and strong feeling which give insight. 

Now how can the life of the plant 
imaginatively conceived by the child? 
order to illustrate this point, the followi 
is given as an accurate account of a ser 
of nature plays based upon the sweet p 
which were worked out by the children 
one of the schools. There are several w 



lefined changes to be noted in the evolution 
)f the life of this plant. In the language of 
he child, the plant first appears "with its 
lead turned down." It then raises its head 
ind becomes a stalk ; later unfolds leaves, 
lind in its final transformation appears in 
lower. The children had planted their 
'•>eeds, placed them in the sun, watered them 
lay after day, and awaited with impatience 
!:he first sign of life. When it did appear, 
drere was great delight, and while enthusi- 
asm was still fresh, the teacher chose a little 
gardener, who, after having played prepare 
he soil, planted two or three children as 
;eeds. These were watered, the sunshine 
:ame as music, and after a period of quiet, 
vhile the rest of the kindergarten watched 
he play with breathless interest, one seed 
Jowly began to awaken, and at last a sleepy 

: lead poked its way through the ground, 
hough the eyes were closed, the head bent. 
The seed had felt the influence of the sun- 
mine. This was the supreme moment, and 

, before anything could break the spell, the 
eacher gave the usual sign that the game 
vas over. The children had evidently un- 

: ; llerstood their first nature lesson. 

The next occasion for playing was when 
he stalk appeared. This step of the play 

., vas entered upon with equal spirit, each 
;eed growing up slowly and gaining 

. [trength to hold up its head, but the chil- 

iren had apparently felt the incomplete 
rowth, and only rose to their knees. The 
ppearance of leaves also called out ready 
n iction, for the two hands represented the 
.eaves which gradually unfolded. 
One beautiful spring day, a few weeks 
|j ater, brought a bunch of buttercups. They 
.jjivere the first flowers of the season, and the 
J thildren declared that our plants ought to 
lave blossoms before long. 

"Oh, let us be plants with flowers!" ex- 
claimed one, and again the children became 
Ieeds. The sunshine and the rain nourished 
hem, the plants grew, the leaves unfolded, 
nd the children who were not engaged in 
he play waited eagerly for the appearance 
.,!;;! pf the flower. At last it came, for spontane- 
ously two faces smiled, and thus on that 
)right morning real Easter blossoms were 
>orn to us. 

Thus far we have been considering the 
nission of the kindergarten in bringing the 
:hild into contact with life. Its second pur- 
pose is to serve as an introduction to the 

Under ideal conditions the primary grade 
is but a more advanced kindergarten, the 
second grade but a more advanced first 
grade, and so on throughout. Ideally, each 
grade represents a larger circle of thought 
than the one preceding it, but a circle which 
is merely a widening out of the next smaller. 
As the kindergarten introduces the child to 
the world of experience and the world of 
imagination, so the first grade should but 
enlarge the acquaintance. There ought to 
be no break, the advance should be normal 
and evolutionary. 

In the kindergarten, the child should learn 
under perfect conditions to observe, and, 
through action and simple classification, to 
interpret what he observes. In the first pri- 
mary grade, he should attempt the more 
difficult task of interpreting through con- 
scious speech. In the second grade, he 
should be led to make more definite classifi- 
cation, more thoughtful interpretation, and 
to use more finished expression. Thus 
should he advance through the grades, 
knowledge increasing, thought deepening, 
soul expanding. 

At present it too often happens that those 
things learned in the kindergarten are not 
followed up in the grades, and so have little 
permanent value. Is it not much better, 
then, to devote the time in the kindergarten 
to those subjects which are happily design- 
ed to equip the child for his next work ? 

Now, if the kindergarten is to fulfil its 
double function of bringing the child into 
contact with life, and of fitting him for more 
advanced study, what is the most effective 
kind of work for securing these results? 
One has little hesitancy in advocating na- 
ture study, for, properly presented, it is far 
superior to anything else as a medium for 
the practical and imaginative interpretation 
of life, and is a most serviceable foundation 
on which to base almost every subject stud- 
ied in the elementary grades. Without 
question, a large percentage of the kinder- 
garten work should be nature study, and 
this work should be so mapped out that the 
kindergarten program may serve as a basis 
for more advanced programs of like char- 
acter in the successive grades. The kinder- 
gartner will then regard this work as really 
foundational, and will accomplish definite 
and lasting results, and the grade teacher 
will find her children prepared for the work 
that should legitimately be done in her 
room. Accordingly, this little volume, by 



way of suggestion, presents certain kinder- 
garten programs, and corresponding pro- 
grams for each of the first four or five 

To show how effective these programs 
may be made, the writer presents the fol- 
lowing account of a day's experience with 
her own class. When we were working 
with the corn program, after having learned 
from an Indian woman how to crush the 
corn with a pestle, we made a quantity of 
meal, and upon the next fine day all went 
to one of the little hollows where there was 
a rubbish heap with all kinds of odds and 
ends. Here we found some old pieces of 
wire, a little iron bar, and, in fact just the 
things which we seemed to need most. Hav- 
ing already studied the Indian mode of build- 
ing a fire, we experimented, with the result 
that the children set up cross stakes and 
placed the little iron bar across. To this 
they fastened their kettle, filling it with the 
proper amount of water. We then built a 
fire, using dry leaves and corn cobs, togeth- 
er with chips and pieces of brush, which the 
children gathered. We now put our corn 
meal into the water and salted it, each one 
taking a turn at the stirring. When every- 
thing was ready, the children served one 
another. Then when dinner was over, two 
Indians rode by on their pack horses. They 
saw us, and the children called to them to 
look at our fire. They seemed to approve 
of everything with the exception of the wild 
flowers with which, in a fashion very un- 
Indian, we had decorated our table. This 
was a rare kindergarten experience, and 
presented an ideal occasion for the creative 
expression of the children. The corn pro- 
gram concluded with harvest stories from 

By this time, the children had become so 
much interested in Indian modes of life that 
it seemed best to take the Indian as our 
next subject. This afforded a wonderful 
fund of materials fpr constructive occupa- 
tion, the materials of which could not be 
had for the buying, but actually had to be 
discovered by the children through their 
contact with nature. For example, in re- 
producing an Indian wigwam, or "tepee," 
which the children had seen, they selected 
and cut their own poles, and, at the sugges- 
tion of one of the boys, brought gunny 
sacks from home. These they sewed to- 
gether with grass and wrapped them about 
the poles. Then the children worked for 
days plaiting a mat of ca-tail rushes, which 

they wound around the top of the wigwam. 
The next step was decorating the outside 
with paint and colored chalk, as the fancy 
of the children dictated. They also made 
miniature Indian cradles from corn stalks, 
not to speak of moccasins, mittens, bows j 
and arrows, and feather caps. 

Time need not be taken to show that 
these programs serve to train the child both 
in material things and in things ideal. A 
glance over the illustration just given will 
show that there was food for both, that cer- 
tain exercises, as the making of corn-meal 
mush, were distinctively practical ; that oth- 
ers, as the stories of Hiawatha, and the 
adaptation of rough and ready materials in 
the preparation of the dinner, called for con- 
templative and constructive imagination. 

In selecting nature study as a basis for 
the year's work in the kindergarten or the 
primary schools, some fundamental work- 
ing principles must be in the mind of the 
teacher, viz. : 

I. Nothing should be arbitrary either inj 
the subject or method of procedure. 

II. The program must be adapted to thej 
environment, to the material at hand, andj 
above all, to the children. 

III. Whatever is attempted should not 
be imposed as a task, but should appeal to 
the interest of the children, cabins: forth 
free and spontaneous effort. 

IV. In choosing subjects, care should be' 
taken to select typical objects, so that the! 
children see and understand related objects' 
in their environment. For instance, the! 
suggestive program which has for its objecl! 
of study the potato, furnishes a typical food 
product, a vegetable. These facts the chile' 
discovers through his own practical hand-, 
ling of the same, and he unconsciousljl 
makes various classifications for himself. 

For example, the potato is similar to oth 
er root foods, and he places with it the beet 
turnip, and parsnip ; while tomatoes, cucuni 
bers and squashes, represent another group 
He is also susceptible to relative values, anc 
observes that the potato is more universal 
ly used than others of its class, during th< 
four seasons of the year. All these fact 
make it useful as a type. 

V. While one subject is the foundatior 
of the program, no teacher should be chain 
ed to it to the exclusion of what may natur 
ally and logically fall into line with th 
work. The school is a life, and to be of US' 
to the child must be lived naturally. Hence 



the programs that follow are not intended 
to be used as an exact direction for work, 
but to show how rich is the field for the 
teacher to select from in working out her 

,own programs. Some groups of children 
would not be able to touch upon half of the 
points noted. In this case, the wise teacher 
would choose judiciously the things to do 
and to emphasize. Other more advanced 

1 groups might be able to go much deeper, 
studying not only the ground and use, but 

I the chemistry of the same. 

In a word, the writer would remind the 

1 reader that these programs are merely sug- 

igestive; they are not to be slavishly fol- 
lowed, but are designed to encourage pre- 

1 paration for other programs, like them only 

;in spirit, and adapted to local conditions. 

The kindergartner is advised not to in- 
troduce any more than one or at most two 
of these nature subjects during each of the 
three seasons, as this will be a sufficient in- 
novation to the regular kindergarten pro- 

Do not let a too intensive study of a few 
nature subjects exclude general observa- 
tions. For example, though the special 
spring subject is water, study it in relation 
to other interests of the springtime. Lead 
the children to discover each new evidence 
of nature's awakening. Listen for the first 
bird's song; look for flowers, using appro- 
priate stories, songs and pictures, all of 
which will serve to bring the children into 
that universal appreciation of all that is 
good and beautiful. 

The following kindergarten plans deal 
with the practical side of the nature subjects 
suggested, supposing that each director will 
be wise enough to supplement every period 
of practical work by the use also of gifts, 
sand, clay, painting, drawing, and any of 
the Froebellian occupations which will help, 
in their turn, to strengthen the effect of the 
nature subject. No kindergarten plan, pro- 
viding for the three-fold development of the 
child, would be complete, if it did not con- 
sider aesthetic and ethical values as well as 
the utilitarian. 



*We will publish at intervals a few short stories 
about a small boy named Tommy. They are simple 
and direct in the extreme, describing experiences 
common to many children and readily understood by 
those who may not have lived them themselves. In 
simplicity of incident and language they remind one 

. of those little stories by Froebel's own pupil, Thekla 
Naveau, which were published in translation some 
years ago in the Kindergarten Magazine, and which 
a leading American authority considered models of 
their kind for use in kindergartens. We hope these 
little stories will fill a need with many kindergart- 
ners. They contain in themselves ideas for gift and 
occupation work. — [Editor.] 

Tommy's New Overcoat. 

What had happened to Tommy's over- 
coat? It was all right last winter, but when 
his mother brought it out one frosty morn- 
ing in the fall, and he put his arms into it, 
Tommy laughed until he nearly split it, and 
his mother laughed too, for she saw her 
boy's arms sticking out away beyond the 
sleeves, and his legs looking as if they too 
needed a little more coat. Either it must 
have grown little, or else Tommy must have 
grown big; anyway it was too small, and he 
must have a new one. 

It had been a good year on the farm ; the 
apple trees had been so heavy with apples 
that the branches touched the ground ; the 
pumpkins had been unusually large and 
sweet, and everything else that the farmer 
had planted had grown as if in fairyland. 
But no new overcoats had grown in the gar- 
den, nor any money with which to buy 
them. Pumpkins and apples would not 
keep Tommy warm. But his mother could 
always think of a way to meet difficulties 
and before long they had a fine plan to sur- 
prise father and Jack Frost too. 

That very afternoon they harnessed the 
safe old horse to a cart which Tommy filled 
with red and green and yellow and russet 
apples, and he drove down the straight road 
towards the grocery store to see if he could 
find anyone to buy them. Whenever he 
came to a place where he saw no apple trees 
he would call out: "Apples! Apples!" so 
that the people might know he had some to 
sell. He had not gone very far when a little 
boy came running out of a brick house with' 
five cents in his hand, and he bought two of 
the very best red apples in the cart. 

A little farther on a dear old lady came to 
the gate and asked if he had some pie ap- 
ples ; of course he had, and she bought 
enough for a good many pies, and gave 
Tommy a shining quarter of a dollar for 

He found other people who wanted ap- 
ples just as much as he wanted a new coat. 
One little girl with a lame foot, who had 
beeur sitting by the window all day, heard 



somebody calling: "Apples! Apples!" and 
when she saw the old horse and Tommy 
and a cart half full of just what she liked 
best, she nearly forgot her lame foot, and 
called to her mother to look ; and what do 
you think? Her mother bought every apple 
that was left in the cart. 

You may be sure that Tommy's father 
was surprised when he saw the pennies and 
silver pieces that were in the old overcoat 
pocket that night ; but they did not stay 
long in the pocket, for they helped to buy a 
new overcoat that sent Jack Frost flying. 


Tommy's Old Lady. 

I am sure you remeber the old lady who 
bought the pie apples, and you will be glad 
to know that they were made into some 
very good apple pies. While she was roll- 
ing out the crust, and fitting it to the deep 
plates ready for the slices of apple, she was 
thinking of the little boy who sold them to 
her. Many times she had seen him pass 
the house on errands for the farmer, and 
now she was wishing that she had just such 
a boy to go on errands for her. For it is not 
easy for an old lady to. beat Jack Frost as 
it is for a farmer or a farmer's boy. To be 
sure she had no horses and cows that must 
be fed, for she lived all alone with her old 
gray cat; but cats like a warm fire, and so 
do nice old ladies, and both of these were 
very fond of a good drink of milk, and many 
other things, too, that neither an old lady 
nor a gray cat can get when Jack Frost 
stands by the door waiting to nip one's nose 
or piles the snow in great drifts over the 
door step. 

So it would be just the thing if she could 
get Tommy to help her sometimes, and 
when she spied him running by the house 
she stopped him and told him so. As for 
Tommy, he was just thinking that Christ- 
mas comes every winter, and he must try to 
earn some money to buy Christmas presents 
for the people at home. It seems that the 
clear old lady had more pennies than she 
needed, but not a single little boy in her 
house. When Tommy heard about her not 
having any little boy he was anxious to be- 
gin right away to help her, and when his 
mother heard about it she too was glad that 
her boy could bea help to someone else. 
So it was soon settled that on cold nights 
and mornings he should carry the milk to 
the old lady's door, and should see that her 

woodbox was filled before he came away. 

Soon he found himself a very busy boy; 
he did not always have time to finish his 
play, and sometimes when it was stormy or 
dark he would have been glad to stay at 
home ; but on most nights it was the great- 
est fun. Jack Frost was always ready for a 
frolic with him, and one night the moon 
with a broad grin on her face chased along 
above him all the way; the old lady was al- 
ways on the lookout for him, and many a 
time he had one of her good sugar cookies 
or a jelly tart after the woodbox was filled. 

Then, too, there were the Christmas pen- 
nies. On the top shelf in the sitting room 
closet his mother found a bank that was 
just the place for them; it looked like a 
building in the city where men take their 
money to keep it safely, only this was so 
small that Tommy could hold it in his hand, 
and instead of walking in the door with his 
money, as the men do with theirs, he drop- 
ped it in a hole in the roof. 

There were so many cold nights and 
mornings that there soon must have been a 
good many pennies ; but Tommy could not 
count them, for they were safe inside thej 
bank and would not come out until Mother 
used the key that would unlock the little 
front door, — and that must not be until al- 
most Christmas. 

"To think we are able is almost to be so 
to determine upon attainment is frequently at- 
tainment itself. Thus earnest resolution has 
often seemed to have about it almost a savoi 
of omnipotence." — Samuel Smiles. 

370 North Madison Ave., 

Pasadena, California, 

July 25, 1907. 
Dr. B. Lyell Earle, 
New York City. 
Dear Sir: — This is to notify you that Mrs 
Frances C. Holden, the president of the kindergar- 
ten section of the National Educational Association 
appointed you as one member of a committee of five 
to confer with the International Union next sprinj 
in regard to these bodies meeting in the same placi 
hereafter, and near the same time, that kindergart 
ners in general may attend both sessions. 

(Signed) MINNIE C. WOOD, Secretary. 

The Committee: 

Miss Bertha Payne, University of Chicago. 

Dr. E. Lyell Earle, New York Froebel Normal. 

Dr. Jenny B. Merrill, Supervisor, New York Pub 
lie School Kindergartens. 

Miss Mary C. McCullough, Supervisor, St. Loui: 
Public School Kindergartens. 

Miss Barbara Greenwood, Supervisor, Pomonii 
(Cal.) Public School Kindergartens. 

The Editor cordially invites any suggestions tha 
may facilitate this object. 





Is it not remarkable that the school world 
eems to love to run in ruts ? 

The suggestion of intermediate schools 
nade by Dr. Wm. H. Maxwell several years 
go at the Congress of Science, met with 
ierce opposition by the very ones it was de- 
igned to benefit. 

Its benefits are already apparent and will 
le further realized this fall in the opening 
!>f twenty public kindergartens in two of 
he congested school districts where kinder- 
gartens have been long called for but could 
lot be opened for lack of room. 
. The concentration of older pupils in an 
Intermediate school leaves rooms for the 
ittle ones near at home. 

Now comes a new proposition along the 
iame line of thought from a Boston archi- 
>ect. We are indebted to President Eliot 
;or his clear, terse statement of this archi- 
iect's plan in the Outlook of August 10th. 
rlis presentation, doubtless, will cause an- 
other "arrest of thought in the educational 

Schools~iocated in parks have been talked 
lbout for years, but Mr. Coolidge, the Bos- 
on architect, has presented a definite busi- 
less-like proposition to build grammar 
schools in suburban parks. The transporta- 
:ion of children of this age and grade is 
within the bounds of possibility and it will 
;ave expensive school sites in crowded 

President Eliot's clear insight presents 
:his new thought convincingly to parents as 
Deing similar to two already well tested 
plans adopted by many well-to-do families, 
lamely, (1) the patronage of academies and 
ooarding schools situated in the country, 
ind (2) "the provision of day schools well 
Situated in the country within easy reach 
from the city; so that the children can easily 
:ome out from their city homes to the coun- 
try every morning and return near the close 
of the afternoon." 

This, President Eliot says, "is a compara- 
tively recent invention used with satisfac- 
tion by parents who do not wish their chil- 
dren to be wholly separated from them. The 
families who use one or other of these two 
means are well-to-do families who live in 
'the cleanest and most wholesome parks of 
the crowded cities and can provide their 

children at home with such facilities for out- 
of-door exercises as cities afford." Thus 
the "model" has been furnished. M. Tarde 
claims, "The logical laws of imitation are 
obeyed whenever an invention is imitated 
solely because it is truer and better than any 
of its rivals." Tarde defines the model to be 
copied as "an invention, the work or 
thought of some creative genius, the exam- 
ple of some one in art or medicine or law 
or education who dared to take the initia- 

Surely it will be readily recognized that 
children living in the poorest quarters of 
our city would be doubly blessed if this new 
departure gathers to it the approval of par- 
ents and the public. 

Commissioner Grosenor Backus has re- 
cently made a proposal to the Board of Edu- 
cation of New York City, which seems to 
fit in with this new Boston plan. 

In opening our "department on Mother's 
meetings, etc.," this year, we cannot pro- 
pose a more practical subject for discussion. 
Even in the meetings, confined to the moth- 
ers of kindergarten children, it will be en- 
tirely appropriate, for parents are the unify- 
ing element in educational discussions, be- 
ing interested in children all along the line 
from the kindergarten to the highest grades. 

In the kindergarten the little ones may be 
aroused to the love of nature by planting 
and caring for a single seed, by making 
make-believe and real gardens in the sand- 
box, or possibly in a window or even happily 
a small out-of-door garden ; would it not be 
inspiring for these same little ones to be 
preparing and looking forward to "the 
school in the park" or out-of-town, where 
big brother and sister go and where some 
day they will go and see more of the garden 

School gardens are numerous in several 
European countries and have been growing 
in popularity in this country for years. The 
normal school at Hyannis, Mass., makes its 
curriculum revolve more or less about its 
school garden, even to its elementary arith- 
metic and manual training. 

New York University has maintained a 
course in gardening in its summer school 
for teachers for the past two years. 

"The school in the park" means light, air, 
space, garden possibilities, physical training 
of the best kind in play, sports and athletics. 
It means better teaching in all the natural 
sciences. It means traveling and a broaden- 
ing of the child's knowledge of its city home 



and its relation to the community; hence, it 
means better teaching in geography and 

It means strengthening in moral responsi- 
bility, a looking up to future manhood and 
womanhood for the one who can be trusted 
so far from home. It means a new joy in 
"coming home," new experiences to talk 
over in the family circle. 

Yet, there are dangers which must also 
be discussed by both parents and teachers, 
and safe-guards that must be provided, but, 
again when the boy is punished who is de- 
tained from "the school in the park," where 
will be our truants? The instinctive desire 
to travel and roam, so strong in many, will 
be gratified every day. If parents approve, 
the suburban school will finally come. Con- 
sultations and discussions in parents' clubs 
and in mothers' meetings may pave the way 
for its coming. A suggestion from President 
Eliot must be considered by thoughtful par- 
ents and educators. 

Consult the Kindergarten Magazine of 
February, 1907, for an article on "Mothers' 
Reading Circles." A list of appropriate 
books is there given. Books on this list and 
many others can be obtained free of cost at 
the Traveling library, 190 Amsterdam Ave.. 
New York City, by clubs formed in Man- 
hattan, the Bronx and Richmond. 

Thoughts on Discipline from "Livanor." 

Frugal speech cultivates and strains the 
powers of the interpreting child, as riddles 

The younger the child the more necessary 
is one-syllableness ; yes, even that is not nec- 
essary; shake the head and let that be 
enough. — Jean Paul Rechter. 


The officers of the Ohio Kindergarten Association 
extend a cordial invitation to every kindergartner 
in the state to join the organization. By so doing 
a complete directory and mailing list can be made 
and each kindergartner kept in active touch with 
the state and international work. In order to make 
this practicable the membership fee was placed at 
the sum of twenty-five cents yearly. This amount 
with name and full address should be sent at the 
earliest date possible to Miss Grace Anna Fry, treas- 
urer, 451 Ludlow Avenue, Sta. E, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

The Newark Kindergarten Union begins its sev- 
enth year of efficient work with the following of- 
ficers: President, Elizabeth B. Littell; vice-presi- 
dent, Elsie E. Smith; recording secretary, Mabel J. 
Hamburg; corresponding secretary, E. Elizabeth 
Beers; treasurer, Mary L. Topping. The program 
for the coming year will include lectures and in- 
formal gatherings for mutual help and suggestion; 
the first general meeting being the annual October 
luncheon at Monomonock Inn, Caldwell. 

In June the New York Kindergarten Association 
completed an interesting and profitable year. 

Two lectures in connection •with program and 
sociology study were thoroughly enjoyed. Two 
speakers were Dr. Hamilton of the University Set- 
tlement, who spoke on the Kindergarten in the 
Settlement, and Miss Lillian D. Wald, head worker 
of the Henry Street Nurse's Settlement, who spoke 
on Child Labor, telling the effects of overwork on 
the growing child. 

In the latter part of the year reports of the dele-[ 
gates to the I. K. U. proved a suggestive topic fori 
discussion at the teachers' meetings and will doubt-| 
less react with beneficial results during the coming 

This month marks the completion of the future! 
home of the New York Kindergarten Association! 
built for it by Mr. John D. Archbold at No. 524 W.j 
42d street. The new Memorial building will be thti 
headquarters for the Association work. It will con-' 
tain offices, assembly hall, model kindergarter 
rooms, and a roof garden. A memorial kindergar- 
ten will be opened here in September. 

The year closes with the addition of two new 
kindergartens, the Riverside and the Memorial 
making thirty-five kindergartens with seventj 

A delightful closing of the year was a tea givei 
by the kindergartners to Miss Waterman, the super 
intendent, June 19th, in the beautiful room of thi 
Epiphany Kindergarten. 

Chairman of Press Committee. 

The Baltimore Training School for Kindergart 
ners, which opened October 1st, 1906, at 1205 N 
Charles street, under the direction of Miss Emm; 
Grant Saulsbury, is an outgrowth of the work car 
ried on in Baltimore for so many years under thi; 
directorship of Miss Caroline M. C. Hart, now 

Kindergartners from all parts of the city wen 
present at the opening, so great was the enthusi 
asm over the fact that Baltimore was again to hav< 
a training school. 

Miss Saulsbury has been assisted this year b: 
Miss Bessie Taylor, Miss Clara Touchstone, am 
Miss Miriam Kennedy. Another year, her sister! 
Miss Amanda Douglas Saulsbury, will be associate' 
with her in the work. Forty-four students havl 
been enrolled this year in junior, senior, post-gradj 
uate, and special classes. 

A mother's course is to be included in the futur! 
work, and other extensions are planned. 

The outlook for 1907-1908 is most promising. 

June 7, the following class completed the twJ 
years' course at the Oakland Kindergarten Train, 
ing Class, Oakland, Cal.: 

Rose M. Sheehan, 
Frances M. Arnold, 
Viva Nicholson, 
Helen S. Greensfelder, 
Isabelle Scupham, 
Anne Keith, 
Ada E. Overtreet, 
Bessie G. McFarlann, 
Frances D. Tisdale 
Marguerite Cooley, 
Flora Miller. 

There are special courses in Nature Study, b 
Miss Chapman, supervisor of nature work in th 
public schools; drawing, Prof. Augsburg, superviso 
of art in the public schools; "Fundamental Profc! 
lems in Philosophy," Prof. H. M. Overstreet, Unil 
versify of California. The juniors have share 
these courses, making a group of 35. Grace E 
Barnard is principal. 

The spring term of the private kindergarter 



laintained by the Froebel Association of Texar- 
ana. Ark. -Tex., opened Monday, March 18, 1907. 
:Iiss Sarah Sphar of Chicago University, a success- 
ul teacher of long experience, is director. The 
indergarten work begun in this twin city eight 
ears ago has made remarkable strides considering 
he unfavorable conditions for education and prog- 
less existing in so large a city. Nothing but first- 
ilass work has ever been done here, kindergart- 
ers from the best training schools having always 
leen employed. Up to the present time, teachers 
rained by Miss Patty Hill have had charge of the 
;ractice work and preparatory training class work 
mder the association. Several young ladies who 
■egan training in Texarkana and graduated under 
kiss Hill in Louisville, have filled and are filling 
:esponsible and lucrative positions. The associa- 
tion is in touch with the educational and club work 
If the two states and is a member of the I. K. U. 
)ne member of this organization will represent the 
cindergarten work for the state at the Arkansas 
State Federation of Women's Clubs, at Helena, Ark., 
n 1907. 

Corresponding Secretary Froebel Association. 
At a meeting of the Chicago Kindergarten Club, 
vlr. Edward G. Howe (who said that he began talk- 
<ng to kindergartners hack in the 70's), spoke on 
Mature Work under City Conditions. He said na- 
me work was necessary for city children because 
)f the artificiality of city life. The life of the chil- 
Iren is hedged about with limitations, not the 
east of which is the multiplicity of things going 
m all around them so that no one thing makes its 
;'ull impression. It comes, it is gone. We need 
Something to make them not only keen but thought- 
ful observers. In nature work, more than in any- 
thing else, we have the material for this. Even in 
.he slums it is possible to do a great deal with the 
material the children see and use all the time. 
For instance, with fruits, vegetables, minerals, 
nuch may be done. Why are fruits bright in color? 
Different in taste? What is the use of the cover- 
ing? Why .are fruits sour or ill-tasting until ripe? 
3tc. An exercise which all children delight in is 
trying which of a group of metals can be picked up 
With magnet, or be attracted by it. Making blue- 
prints of leaves is another fascinating occupation. 
Miss Florence E. Ward, in charge of the Kinder- 
garten Department of the Iowa State Normal 
School, gave an address on "The Kindergarten as 
the Basis of Public School Education" before the 
biennial of the Iowa Federation of Women's Clubs, 
held at Oskaloosa, May 15th to ISth. 

Miss Minnie Godfrey, assistant in the Kindergar- 
ten Department of the Iowa State Normal School, 
has been elected to a position as kindergartner in 
the Waterloo, Iowa, schools. 

Miss Elizabeth Harrison has been secured for a 
lecture at the Northeast Iowa Teachers' Associa- 
tion, to be held at Cedar Rapids in October. 

Miss Katherin Portman, now in charge of the 
kindergarten work at Kirksville, Missouri, Normal 
School, will conduct the observation kindergarten 
at the Iowa State Normal School next year. She is 
a graduate of Chicago Kindergarten College. 

Miss Mary Williams, kindergartner in the public 
schools of LeMars, has been conducting a series of 
story hours at the public library in that city. 

On June 4th the Philadelphia Branch, I. K. U., 
held its annual meeting at Overbrook. The great 
attraction was dancing on the green by about a 
score of the members. Old folk dances were given, 
the participants being appropriately gowned in 
quaint old-time gowns. Several of the dances were 
accompanied by the old songs originally used, oth- 
ers were danced to the music of the old ballads. 

Several old folk songs were sung. The whole af- 
fair was a most quaint and well-planned ending to 
a successful season's work, the May-pole dance be- 
ing especially beautiful. The large audience 
grouped on the lawn witnessed the open-air per- 
formance with great enthusiasm. Refreshments 
were served at the close of the dancing. 

The same officers were re-elected for next year; 
Miss Anna W. Williams is president. 

Corresponding Secretary. 

The Mary F. Walton Free Kindergarten for Col- 
ored Children is now at 204 West 63d street, where 
it awaits the completion of the Phipps Model Tene- 
ment across the street. Miss H. W. Maesing is 
principal. The kindergarten was founded in 1895. 
Mothers' meetings are held and there are clubs for 
the older children. Visitors are always welcome. 

The American Ethical Union met at the Ethical 
Culture School, New York City, May 9-12. One 
important session considered "Direct Moral In- 
struction." It was addressed by Prof. Leuba, of 
Bryn Mawr, Pa., Dr. John L. Elliott, Miss Alice 
Seligsberg, Dr. Walter L. Hervey and others. 

The First National Arbitration and Peace Con- 
gress met in New York during the week of April 14- 
17. To minds of the prophet order this great con- 
gress marks one of the most important occasions in 
the history of the city. It proved that the peace 
ideal is becoming a part of the consciousness of the 
generality of mankind. Murders and thefts still 
occur, although we have courts in which to try the 
offenders and wars may still occur even when a 
universal tribunal is established; nevertheless such 
a tribunal, the establishment of which must surely 
come, will mark one more step forward in civiliza- 

One afternoon the beautiful hall, with a capacity 
of 3,000, was crowded, floor and platform, with 
children of the public schools, City Superintendent 
William H. Maxwell presiding. Among the speak- 
ers were W. T. Stead, editor of the Review of Re- 
views, London; Dr. Nathan C. Schaefer, state sup- 
erintendent of public instruction, Penn.; Dr. James 
J. Walsh, St. John's College, Fordham; Prof. H. T. 
Bailey, agent of the State Board of Education for 
promotion of Industrial Drawing, Mass., who spoke 
on the Peace Movement and the Arts, and Rabbi 
Stephen S. Wise of the Free Synagogue, New York. 

Two speakers from foreign lands won the hearts 
of the children. Baron D'Estournelless de Con- 
stant, member of the French senate, began by ad- 
dressing the children in French. Seeing their per- 
plexity he asked if they preferred him to speak in 
English. "Oui, oui, oui," came laughingly from all 
parts of the house. With this introduction as an 
object lesson, he showed how easily misunderstand- 
ings might rise between countries speaking differ- 
ent languages, especially when a press was all too 
ready to foment difficulties. At his suggestion a 
telegram was sent from the children of New York 
to the children of President Roosevelt, who has 
done so much for peace. 

Senorita Huidobro, recently of Chili, told of the 
placing of the statue of the Christ of the Andes on 
the highest point between Chili and Argentina as 
a memorial to the eternal peace pledged between 
those two countries. A picture of this statue was 
shown in the Kindergarten Magazine in 1904. The 
former arsenal of Valparaiso has been turned into 
a trade-school for boys. 

It may not be generally known that all nations 
that are at peace are authorized to border with 
white their national banner. Jenkin Lloyd Jones, 
pastor of All Souls church, Lincoln Centre, Chi- 
cago, has, with this in mind, written some lines 
additional to "The Star-Spangled Banner." They 
were sung at the raising of the flag over the Abra- 
ham Lincoln Centre, Chicago, by the children of 



the Sunday school and were published in Unity, 
Chicago. Through courtesy of Mr. Jones and Unity 
we reprint them, believing that many school prin- 
cipals will be glad to have the children learn thein. 


(The Abraham Lincoln Centre Peace Flag.) 


stant, member of the French senate, began by ad- 

Our stars and our stripes are now bordered with 
To justice and peace all the nations inviting. 

'Tis the emblem of love-giving might to the right, 
All the races and creeds in truth's service unit- 

Not by powder and ball, but through love's louder 

Will the merciful banner yet wave over all 

O the white-bordered banner in beauty shall wave 
O'er the lands and the seas, all God's children to 

Repeat: Then conquer we must, etc. 

During the middle ages when European univer- 
sities took their rise, the coming of a great pro- 
fessor to a state was considered one of the impor- 
tant events in the life of a community. When the 
University of Leyden was founded by the Dutch 
States General as a reward to the citizens of Ley- 
den for withstanding the long siege of the Span- 
iards, thus saving Holland from subjugation, invita- 
tions were extended to the most eminent professors 
in the universities of other countries to accept 
chairs in the new institution. Delegations were 
sent by the government to persuade the men who 
had received these calls to accept. When they re- 
sponded to the calls they were received with open 
arms not merely by the university circle, but by 
the citizens — men, women, children, old and young, 
rich and poor, of Leyden and Holland. Their com- 
ing was greeted with bonfires, illuminations and 
celebrations such as we give to great and important 

Those days have passed away never to return, 
but the significance of the coming of a great man 
into a community has not become less but much 
greater as the years have rolled on. The modern 
university is a much more comprehensive institu- 
tion than the medieval. It reaches more sides of 
the community life and is more vital to its welfare, 
and the addition of each great scholar to its force 
is therefore more important. Prof. Goss's coming 
to the University of Illinois marks a new epoch in 
the development of engineering study in every 
branch of that work at our state university. 

Such is the interesting manner in which Presi- 
dent James of the University of Illinois leads up to 
the statement that Prof. W. F. M. Goss of Purdue 
University has accepted the chair of Dean of the 
College of Engineering and director of the School 
of Railway Engineering at the University of 

Let the children of the upper grades know the 
value set by our knowledge-hungry ancestors upon 
the universities and they will certainly better ap- 
preciate their own advantages today. 

Most visitors to the recent I. K. U. convention 
would agree that the one session set apart for a 
discussion and explanation of the various kinder- 
garten exhibits was all too short. The exhibits 
were many, involved much thought and labor, rep- 
sented various schools of thought and deserve a 
more thoughtful analysis than we can give in the 
present instance. 

Those who lived in the vicinity of New York 
were fortunate in that, during the two weeks fol- 
lowing the convention they still had opportunity 
to visit and study what was to be seen, and there- 
fore did not miss the splendid exhibits sent from 

Germany, England and the Scandinavian countries 

Several English Kindergarten Training School 
sent exhibits and there was every evidence tha 
they are keeping right to the front of educations 
progress. There were some strong, large fre 
drawings of tulips, hyacinths, etc., upon larg 
sheets of brown paper that appealed to one's sens 
of the fitness of things. The children drawin 
these did not sit in cramped, unhealthy position: 
with heads close to the paper. Much good wor 
by the teachers was also shown. A great deal c 
outside material is being used, including raffia c 
"bast" work, dyed with natural colors obtaine 
from onion, madder, cranberry and spinach. 

Large photographs showed children at work an 
we observed that ambidexterity is in use althoug 
in this country many psychologists are beginnin 
to think that Liberty Tadd's views practice on thi 
subject will bear discussion. 

Books showing the work of children in the grade 
were also shown and nature study plays here a 
important part in some schools. We noted that i 
one book in large, clear writing, the child reporte 
in short sentences his observation of different ii 
sects and animals. In one case the teacher ha 
written in red ink: "Stick to what you yourse! 
have seen." Right from the beginning that chil 
is being trained in accuracy of observation an 
statement of fact and in integrity of character. 

The German exhibit, sent through the courtee 
of Fraulein Heerwart, was historical in charactt 
and was therefore placed with the other historic; 
exhibits. In this circular room these were all ai 
ranged with much expenditure of time and thougt 
and strength by Mrs. Langzettel and her assistant 
from different local training schools. Here wei 
suspended large cardboard placards bearing poi 
traits of different early pioneer and contemporar 
workers. These were in some cases only cruel 
newspaper cuts, often secured after much troubl 
and after a good deal of correspondence from r< 
mote friends of the movement. There were picture 
also of historical buildings and newspaper clipping 
and pamphlets giving historical data, i These pis 
cards were arranged in decades, beginning wit 
1837, and one could have spent many fruitful m( 
ments here had the time permitted. 

It was after much consideration that Mm* 
Kraus-Boelte decided to bring to light of publ: 
day the many examples of early work, which st 
had preserved for these many years, but all wh 
saw them were grateful that she did so. Much ( 
the same work is still carried on in many school 
but there were some things that are not now seei 
Among these was the "moss-like ruching," made < 
a long strip of one-half inch wide white pape 
finely fringed from each edge — an exercise requi: 
ing control of the scissors. There were exampli 
of checked drawing, of fine cardboard sewing, an 
of sewing on "outside material." Among these wf 
a mat made when six years old by Blossom Gilber 
daughter of the much loved actress, Mrs. John Gi 
bert. There were skeleton hexagons and oth< 
things made with sticks and peas, so well made th; 
they had survived these many years. 

The German exhibit sent by Fraulein Heerwa 
was naturally of most interest to the student i 
beginnings. And of these we were most pleased j 
see the dark-blue cardboard sheet which Froeb 
used on his missionary pilgrimages to demonstrai 
his educational system. Upon a cardboard shei 
were glued tiny third gift cubes, half size, in 
series illustrating forms of knowledge. Othi 
sheets would have shown other gifts with forms c 
life and forms of beauty. They required compan 
tively little space and seeing one enables us to pi! 
ture the great lover of childhood standing before h 
audiences and delivering his message. 

There were shown also large two-inch cube 



linted white and bearing in black German type 
atements or questions like the following: "Can 
>u see my center?" "Every corner ends in a 
)int," etc. 

The label of each gift-box bore, in addition to 
:e number of the gift, the familiar legend, "Come, 
t us live with our children." 

The colors of the six first gift balls were not the 
ire, pleasing dyes which we now rejoice in, but 
ere more crude and less defined, though years may 
ive faded the once bright hues. 

Some of the weaving and sewing was of material 
■ fine as to make American eyes and nerves ache 
ith merely looking upon them, but the work was 
;autifully done. 

As we looked upon some paper-folding done with 
d, discarded copy-work paper we wondered if we 

today half appreciate the advantages we enjoy in 
le beautiful manufactured goods now so easily ob- 
inable. The great teacher, however, does not 
;ed perfect materials in order to truly help the 
lild in his upward climb. Better the good teacher 
id crude materials than the best of materials and 
Le poor teacher. 

What pleased us as much as anything were the 
vo tiny books of sewing and weaving made by a 
ttle girl and purporting to be the work of her doll, 
ais seemed to bring us into direct contact with the 
ial child and showed that the kindergartner had 
ved close to the children. The books were long 
ilders, like our sewing-books of today, only each, 
hen folded up, measured only about two inches 
[uare. When extended it would measure, with its 
:n leaves, about 22 inches. There were thus ten 
ee forms of knowledge made by this little girl in 

The London (Ontario) Froebel Society devoted the 
rst two weeks of july to a summer school for kin- 
irgartners. Thirty of the London kindergartners 
;tended the classes and a dozen teachers from 
:her places in Ontario. The first week was in 
large of Miss Mary Adair, of the Kindergarten 
raining Department of Philadelphia Normal 
:hool, who devoted the morning session to a dis- 
lssion of the program, with games, and in the af- 
:rnoon took up the subject of children's literature, 
ith story illustrations. Miss Adair is particularly 
appy in her correlation of the art work of the 
ifts and occupations, and is also strong in showing 
le connection between the child's earliest litera- 
lre (Mother Goose) and its higher development in 
mg and story. A busy but very delightful week 
lis was voted by all present, many of whom are 
oping that next summer will find Miss Adair again 
i Canada. 

From July 8-12, Professor Earl Barnes was in 
tiarge of the school. The morning sessions were 
evoted to Child Study, and the development of the 
aild along physical, intellectual, artistic, moral 
nd religious lines was considered. In the after- 
oons some sociological aspects of education were 
ealt with in very suggestive ways. The effect of 
aese afternoon discussions was to make those in 
ttendance more conscious of their responsibilities, 
s women and as citizens, and to give a wider view 
I the relation of each to all. Four evening ad- 
iresses were given to larger audiences. The topics 
sleeted for these were: The Powers of Work — a 
itudy on Cecil Rhodes; The Power of Love, a Study 
p Robert Owen; The Place of Woman and Her 
'uture in the Teaching Profession. Those familiar 
nth the work and personality of Mr. Barnes know 
hat he is never commonplace; and the week spent 
nder his leadership is counted by all who shared 
t a most fortunate and inspiring experience. The 
aembers of this summer school will return to their 
hildren in September with renewed interest and 
resh inspiration. 

Professor R. G. Moulton of the University of Chi- 
cago will begin his third course of lectures under 
the auspices of the London Froebel Society (On- 
tario), during the second week of November. The 
topics chosen are: The Wandering Jew; The Legend 
of Temperance from Spenser's Faerie Queen, second 
Canto; The Cane of Mammon, a single picture from 
the same book; St. Matthew — The Literary Study 
of the Bible; The Indian Song of Songs, and The 
Hebrew Song of Songs. 



The Kindergarten Section of the N. E. A. held 
its first meeting in Immanuel Presbyterian Church, 
Tuesday afternoon, July 9th. 

In the absence of the president, Miss Mary C. 
May of Salt Lake City, the vice-president, Dr. Elmer 
E. Brown of Washington, D. C, presided, until 
Mrs. Frances C. Holden of Redlands was appointed. 

The first address was given by Miss Grace Everett 
Barnard of the Kindergarten Training School of 
Oakland, the subject being, "The American Ideal 
of the Kindergarten." This was followed by Dr. 
Margaret E. Schallenberger, whose topic was, 
"Motive for Work." Dr. Schallenberger comes from 
the San Jose State Normal. Discussions followed. 

A nominating committee was appointed: 

Miss Stoval, San Francisco; Miss Grace Wood, 
Trenton, N. J.; Rosalie Pollock, Salt Lake City. 

Also a committee on resolutions: 

Mrs. Millspaugh. Los Angeles; Miss Greenwood, 
Pomona; Miss Ellis, Phoenix, Arizona; Miss Ran- 
dolph, Kansas City; Miss Rowell, Pasadena. 





The Kindergarten Section of the N. E. A. held 
its last session in the Immanuel Presbyterian 
Church, Thursday morning, July 11th, Mrs. Holden, 
the president, presiding. 

"Home and School Life in Germany" was the 
subject of the paper given by Miss Amalie Nix, 
president of the German Pedagogical Society of 
Minnesota. After the reading of the paper many 
questions were asked, which Miss Nix answered in 
a very able and interesting manner, she having 
lived in Germany several years. 

Edwin Ressler, president of the State Normal 
School of Monmouth, Ore., who was to have given 
a paper on "The Kindergarten Curriculum" did not 

The section proceeded with business. The com- 
mittee on nominations presented the following 

President, Miss Bertha Paine, Chicago, 111.; Vice- 
President, Miss Barbara Greenwood, Pomona, Cal. ; 
Secretary, Miss Bertha Rockwood, Cleveland, Ohio. 

This report was accepted, and the motion for the 
secretary to cast the ballot for the election of said 
officers, which was done. 

The committee on resolutions submitted the fol- 
lowing report: 

Resolved, That it is the voice of the Kindergarten 
Department of the N. E. A. that we, as kindergart- 
ners deeply interested in child life, use our influ- 
ence in such a manner that mothers will demand 
a higher standard of culture in the nurses or maids 
intrusted with the home care of children. 

Resolved, That a committee of five be appointed 
to confer with the officers of the I. K. U. for the 
purpose of bringing about a closer affiliation be- 
tween the two departments. 

Resolved, That we extend our thanks to the of- 
ficers of the Ebell Club for the generous offer of 



their club house for the reception given to visiting 
kindergartners and educators. 

Resolved, That we thank the members of the 
From Line to Line Club and all others who have 
made our stay in Los Angeles a pleasant one. 

Resolved, That we appreciate the careful way in 
which the press of Los Angeles have reported our 

Resolved, That these resolutions be placed upon 
the minutes of the meeting of this department. 
LUCY ELLIS, Phoenix, 



Dear Miss Johnson: 

I am going to add a personal word to you about 
the N. E. A., from which I have just returned. The 
kindergarten section on the whole compared favor- 
ably with many of the others, but there was a 
strong feeling that if the kindergarten is to receive 
recognition in the educational world, that the kin- 
dergarten section of the greatest educational meet- 
ing of the country should receive the hearty sup- 
port of all kindergartners. That this support is 
not given because kindergartners continue — in spite 
of strong counter-tendencies — to be an "esoteric 
body" holding their great and enthusiastic gather- 
ing at a separate time, and in their own place apart 
from the broad and deep educational currents which 
center in the meeting of the N. E. A. A resolution 
was adopted providing for the appointment by the 
chair of a committee from the kindergarten section 
of the N. E. A. to confer with the I. K. U. to see if 
these two gatherings could not be brought nearer 
together in point of time and place at least, if not 
by merging the two. I hope you will use your influ- 
ence to this end. I wanted to appoint you on this 
committee (I was chairman), but could not find 
your name among the N. E. A. active members. 

You are undoubtedly familiar with the Sixth 
Year-Book of the National Society for the Scientific 
btudy of Education. I had looked forward to their 
meeting for the discussion of this year-book with 
unbounded enthusiasm, as to a feast prepared for 
the very elect. The shock of disappointment was 
so great and so sudden that I am still finding new 
bruises received from the fall. Not a speaker at- 
tempted to state the problem — nor any problem — 
much less to grapple with it, or with any! Kirk- 
patrick's article was referred to with horror by Dr. 
Long and several others, but in just what its awful- 
ness consisted was not intimated, and the Philis- 
tines were not given a chance to ask. After a care- 
ful reading, it still appears good to them. But 
somewhat too much of this. 

Please do all you can to create a sentiment in 
favor of making the N. E. A. the great kindergarten 
meeting of the year. 

Sincerely yours, 


The Outlook sums up the best features of the 
N. E. A. as follows: 

For five days, in the hottest July on record in 
California, twelve thousand teachers assembled, 
week before last, in Los Angeles, for the fiftieth an- 
niversary convention of the National Education As- 
sociation. Preliminary to the meetings of the As- 
sociation the workers among the Indians assembled 
under the direction of Commissioner Francis E. 
Leupp. The exhibit and the reports there made 
should convince the most hopeless pessimist of the 
certain and steady march of the Nation's wards to 

an independent and self-respecting citizenship. | 
a layman the "N. E. A." (as it is familiarly callei 
presents a body of serious and self-restrained me! 
orists. One is struck with the moderation and qui 
patience of these middle-aged men and women wl 
have in charge what seems at times to be the mo 
serious task confronting the American people. Tl 
quiet approval of the audiences, which are coi 
posed of women and men in the proportion of thr 
to one, is given only to accepted doctrines of educ 
tion and tested methods of teaching. A visit 
finds, after mingling with these men and womi 
for a week, that there are not likely to be any vi 
lent experiments made in teaching the children 
the Republic. At the same time he is impress* 
with the progressive spirit everywhere manifeste 
The leaders of the Association have evidently a 
cepted the new psychology without further que 
tion. Froebel and Pestalozzi are in control, j 
learn by doing is the current maxim. Manual trai 
ing in the grade, agricultural training in the rur 
schools, and increased laboratory methods in ; 
lines of work are assumed to be the true directii 
of normal development, but there is some hostilit 
for instance, to spelling reform. The active mei 
bership of the Association, which is permanent, a: 
votes and organizes, as distinguished from the a 
sociate membership, which takes advantage of 1c 
railway rates to attend the meetings perhaps on 
in a lifetime, is composed of the administrators 
schools — State and city superintendents, preside! 
of universities and colleges, and principals of t 
high schools. Their enthusiasms are qualified 
experience. One notes the solemnity of all t 
meetings and an absence of humor. At the me< 
ings this year the strong men in the teaching fa 
ulties of Yale, Princeton, Harvard, Cornell, a:j 
Ann Arbor were absent; the high school and graj 
teacher seldom appeared upon the program; bl 
there were strong, vigorous personalties present 

The Association does its most important work 
Its committees of investigation appointed by t 
eighteen sections and departments. The procee 
of an increasing endowment fund are used for the 
investigations. Thus, the report on the preparatij 
of high school teachers, the result of a thorou.: 
investigation by seventeen competent experts undj 
the leadership of Principal Halleck of Louisvili 
will be published in permanent form and may cc| 
stitute the last word on that subject. In the comi 1 : 
year committees furnished with suitable approprc 
tions will investigate the time allotted to the punj' 
cultural element in education, to the teaching 1 
morals in the public schools, to the cause of w 
shortage of teachers, and to the teaching of exer- 
tional children. A committee was appointed ) 
urge upon Congress the establishment of a Natioil 
University in Washington. The Association i 
pressed itself warmly in favor of pensions for 
tiring teachers and the increase of their compen: 
tion. It sent enthusiastic greetings to the Hag 
Peace Conference. The new constitution and 1 
laws authorized by act of Congress incorporati 
the Association under National instead of st; 
laws was adopted without serious opposition. Thi 
were many notable addresses. Bishop Conaty 
the Roman Catholic diocese of Southern Califort 
brought "a kindly greeting and a message from 1 
consecrated men and women in the Cathc 
schools." The retiring President of the Assoc 
tion, Nathan C. Schaeffer, for fourteen years St 
Superintendent of Pennsylvania, spoke for the | 
of the school in promoting international peace. I 
perintendent E. G. Cooley of Chicago, fresh froDS 
successful fight to prevent the public schools n 
Chicago from passing under the control of soci- 
ists and the labor unions, was unanimously chofl 
President for the coming year. 




;port of the Supervisor of Playgrounds to Philadelphia, Chi- 
cago, Pittsburg, New York and Boston, to Invest- 
igate Playgrounds and Playground Equip- 
Iment of these Respective Cities 
i There has been so much written and spok- 
b about the new system of parks and play- 
grounds in Chicago that scarcely anything 
|iat can be said about them will appear to 
je new. No one can see this system without 
[ feeling of admiration and wonder at this 
lagnificent civic enterprise. Taking all in all 
( nd considering the magnificence with which 
c is planned, the great number and variety 
if new features which have been introduced 
nd the rapidity with which it has been ac- 
omplished, this seems to me one of the 
host remarkable undertakings that has 
ieen carried through by any common- 

The South Park Commissioners, appoint- 
:d by the judges of the circuit court, and 
hus independent of politics, have always 
)een men of the highest ability and integ- 
ity. The actual supervision of the parks 
md playgrounds has been in the hands of 
vlr. J. Frank Foster, a man of tireless en- 
:rgy and unusual ability, for the past 
wenty-seven years. He has had the same 
reedom in making appointments and dis- 
:harges that a man has in his own private 
msiness. South Parks is a separate taxing 
>ody and levies a tax of two mills on South 
Chicago for the support of this park system, 
;o that it is independent of the city both in 
ts officers and its funds. It gets its appro- 
priations directly from the state. It has a 
separate police force, a separate water sys- 
em and is now installing a separate elec- 
:ric light plant. This form of organization 
las doubtless added to the efficiency of the 
system, yet, still the new South Parks Sys- 
:em remains a work of almost inexplicable 

A little more than two years ago, the 
South Parks System received $4,000,000 for 
miall parks and playgrounds. Since that 

time it has received $2,500,000 additional, 
West Parks has received $3,000,000, and 
North Parks $500,000, making $10,000,000 
in all. This increase of $6,000,000 over the 
original appropriation seems to show that 
Chicago believes in her new system, and is 
ready to tax herself for its support and in- 

One of the first features to strike the eye 
of the visitor is that this park playground 
has the beauty of the park and the utility of 
the playground at the same time. It is in 
fact a playground for all ages and sexes and 
yet so beautiful that it seems like an oasis 
in the coal-grimed desert of South Chicago. 
Each of them is surrounded by a high iron 
fence, but even now the fence is so far con- 
cealed by trees, flowers and shrubs that it 
can scarcely be seen from the inside, and 
soon it will entirely disappear. On entering 
one is first impressed by the athletic field, 
where baseball and tennis are played dur- 
ing the summer, football and tennis in the 
fall, and skating and tobogganing are en- 
joyed in winter. The water is sprayed on 
with a hose, so that the ice is frozen as soon 
as the thermometer drops one or two de- 
grees below the freezing point. As these 
parks are in crowded sections the ice is lit- 
erally covered with skaters. A slide is 
erected at one edge for tobogganing. The 
shelter house on one side is closed in and 
heated for the skaters and coasters. 

A second notable feature is the athletic 
field and gymnasium for men. This is also 
surrounded, as are each of the features of 
the playground, by a high fence of sharp 
iron pickets. This field is surrounded by 
what they claim is the best running track in 
the world and which is certainly among the 
best. The outdoor gymnasium is large and 
complete, being furnished by the Xarragan- 
sett Machine Company with every detail of 
outdoor gymnasium equipment. There is a 
separate place for each field event, such as 
putting the shot, the high and broad jump, 
pole vaulting, etc. 

Not far from this is the outdoor gymnas- 
ium for women and girls, which is similarly 
equipped but smaller, and with more fea- 


tures intended for play rather than syste- 
matic exercise. 

A fourth feature is the playground for 
small children, also surrounded with a high 
iron fence, and equipped with all the most 
improved forms of playground apparatus. 
In the center is a good sized wading-pool. 
Running nearly around this is a concrete 
sand bin often as much as 150 feet in length 
and 15 feet in width. It is covered with an 
awning. Around this on a concrete plat- 
form runs a concrete seat for the mothers. 
This is also about 150 feet in length. I was 
told that it was nearly filled during the sum- 
mer months with mothers who come to put 
their little children in the sand while they 
sit on the bench and sew or read or watch 
the children. 

A fifth feature is the outdoor swimming- 
pool. This is the most popular feature of 
the whole playground during the summer 
months. It is a concrete pool a little less 
than half an acre in size and ranging from 
three to eight feet in depth. It is surround- 
ed by a beach of white sand in which the 
bathers burrow and bask as they do on the 
seashore. Around this are some two or 
three hundred bathing booths. The gate- 
way into the pool is through a shower house 
containing some ten or fifteen showers, 
through which everyone is required to pass 
in going into the pool. Just outside are the 
waiting benches where about two hundred 
people are usually collected during the mid- 
dle of the day waiting for an opportunity to 
go into the pool. Each group of bathers is 
given one hour, and then at the sound of 
the gong, they leave the pool and another 
set of bathers take possession of it. The 
park furnishes bathing suits, towels and 
soap. It is open four days a week for men 
and two days for women. The pool is 
lighted by electric lights and is open until 
9:30 every evening. The attendance ranges 
between 500 and 1,500 daily. 

The most notable and distinctive feature 
of these new parks however, is the field 
house. These field h uses were built on the 
plans of Mr. Burnham of Chicago, at the 
cost of about $90,000 apiece. The material 
used in nine out of ten buildings is concrete 
and the roofs are green mottled tiles. The 
approach is by a broad flight of steps ex- 
tending almost the whole length of the 
building. On entering one is struck by the 
magnificent color scheme and the wonderful 
harmonies of the reds, browns, greens and 
blues and other colors which have been used 

in the decoration. The broad entrance hall 
contains a circular rack of potted plant; 
which enlivens the interior and reminds onej 
that he is in a park. At one side of the en- 
trance is a restaurant or lunchroom al 
which such small refreshments as soups 
sandwiches, coffee, ice cream and pie, are 
served. All of these viands are sold at cost. 
The five-cent dish of ice cream, which is 
made by the park department, is said to be 
the best ice cream in Chicago and is certain-! 
ly delicious. So excellent is this simple; 
lunchroom that many working people in thej 
vicinity are now going there for theiii 
lunches in place of going to other restaur- 
ants. The settlement workers say that theyl 
are having a strong influence against the 
saloons; that the people find it a pleasant] 
place to come and sit down and have a cup 
of coffee or a dish of ice cream, and that the 
attractive surroundings give it advantages 
over saloons. 

On the other side of the entrance, in a 
number of buildings, is a branch of the Chi- 
cago Public Library. All of these libraries 
are used to the fullest extent, and the Chi- 
cago librarian, Mr. Hurt, says that the one 
criticism that he has is that the rooms are 
not large enough to hold the people who 
wish to make use of them. I can testify for 
my own part that in the libraries which I 
visited there was scarcely a vacant seat. 

At one end of the building is a gymnas- 
ium for men. This is completely equipped 
with the best modern apparatus, so ar- 
ranged that the apparatus goes up on pul- 
leys to the ceiling, thus leaving a clear floor 
for games of basket-ball, indoor baseball, 
etc. Just off from this are the best steel 
lockers which can be had, five or six shower 
baths, and a plunging pool usually about 15 
or 20 feet in length. 

At the other end of the building there is 
exactly the same equipment for women. 

Sometimes on the ground, but more often 
on the second floor, is a large auditorium 
with movable chairs which is used for public 
lectures or public meetings of any kind, or 
for dances or social gatherings. One of the 
greatest perils of South Chicago, as of most 
cities, are its dance halls. These halls are 
generally connected with saloons and often 
with Turkish or Russian baths as well. The 
South Parks system is offering to the peo- 
ple a clean, attractive, well-lighted hall 
which may be used for any neighborhood 
purpose where the best influences prevail. 
They have already done much to lessen the 



.ise of the surrounding dance halls, and it 
Is hoped that they will soon be able to close 
nany of them. 

. Off from the auditorium are four or five 
:lub rooms. 

A notable feature about the use of the 
lew parks, and especially the field houses, 
s that the ones in the better sections of the 
:ity are most used. In Hamilton Park, 
which is surrounded by a professional and 
business population of men who are sup- 
posed to earn from two to five thousand 
lollars a year, all of the features of the field 
louse are used almost to their full capacity. 

The keeping of this system is fully up to 
:he level of the plan itself. Every part of it 
s faultlessly clean. Every piece of appara- 
tus is tested every morning before the chil- 
dren are allowed in. During the summer 
:ime there are from fourteen to twenty at- 
tendants in every one of these playground 
oarks. There are three life-savers at the 
swimming pool. There is one who has 
:harge of the shower-bath house and sev- 
eral attendants at the bathing-booths them- 
selves. There are three janitors, and a 
force of three or four men to mark out the 
running tracks, tennis courts, care for the 
apparatus, etc. There is a manager in 
charge of the building. Gymnasium in- 
structors from May to November have 
charge of the outdoor gymnasium and fields 
and from November until May they have 
charge of the indoor gymnasiums. The 
hours are from 2 to 9 130 in summer and 
from 3 130 to 9 :30 in winter. All of these in- 
structors are high type men and women, 
most of them being college graduates. They 
'are receiving, at present, $1,100 a year. Ev- 
ery part of the playground is open until 
.9:30 at night. On Sundays there is a special 
director, who is an assistant to the regular 
athletic director, and who takes charge of 
the work on that day. 

If one may venture a criticism on this 
truly magnificent system, it is that the chil- 
dren's playground is much in need of a kin- 
dergartner, and that the manager of the 
building should be a rather higher type man 
and more of a social organizer than the one 
who at present has charge. 

On the whole the impression which is left 
from the visit is one of wonder that any 
system with so many new and progressive 
I features could have sprung into existence in 
such a brief time. It is along the line of 
progress in other cities, but it seems to 

have skipped ten or fifteen years of growth 
and given us at once a finished product. 

There can be no doubt but that Chicago 
appreciates its new system of playgrounds. 
The attendance for the last nine months of 
this year was 4,442,768, which is consider- 
ably more than twice the attendance for last 
year. These figures are re-emphasized by 
the fact that $6,000,000 have been voted to 
this purpose by Chicago since the first parks 
were completed, and the two new parks, 
contracts for which have been let within the 
month, are to be finer than any of those now 

A remarkable state of affairs exists at 
present in the Chicago schools with refer- 
ence to their use for social and educational 
purposes by the people. There is a law 
which states that the school building may 
be used twice a year for public lectures or 
meetings, provided that all expenses of jani- 
tor, heat, lighting, etc., are paid for, but as 
an actual fact it is very difficult to secure 
the use of a school building even twice a 
year for the benefit of the community. The 
new charter of Chicago, however, reads : 
"We recommend the widest possible use of 
the school buildings for public lectures, 
clubs, parents' meetings, or any other unde- 
nominational or non-political purpose." 

Before leaving Chicago I was asked to go 
to Milwaukee to speak on playgrounds in 
order to help the council to decide whether 
the $250,000 which the city has set aside for 
parks shall be spent on small parks and 
playgrounds, such as those of Chicago, or 
on the purchase of a large park on the out- 
skirts of the city. 


Pittsburg has had a system of public play- 
grounds for the last ten or twelve years. 
The initiative in the movement was taken 
by the women's clubs of Pittsburg, which 
have been raising some $10,000 annually for 
this purpose. Three or four years ago the 
city took up the work, and they now own 
three playgrounds, most of which contain 
field houses, though much simpler than the 
ones in Chicago. These houses contain a 
small gymnasium, a few shower baths, toil- 
ets, and a storeroom for the playground 
equipment. They have received this year 
$80,000 for the finishing of a new play- 
ground. The contract is about to be let for 
the field house. It will be on a much more 
ambitious scale than any of the others. 

Philadelphia was really tlw first city visit- 



ed. The supervisor was asked to go there 
in order to consult with the superintendent 
of the Star Center with reference to the 
equipment of their playground for which 
the city has just given them $5,000. The 
school playgrounds of Philadelphia are in a 
unique position, in that they are under the 
control of the supervisor of children's gar- 
dens. They are some thirty in number. 

There was strenuous endeavor made in 
the council this year to secure $100,000 to 
equip a recreation center like those of Chi- 
cago, but the battle has gone over until next 


New York has undoubtedly the costliest 
playground system in the world. The two 
and one-half acres of Seward Park cost the 
city, equipped, $2,500,000, or $1,000,000 an 
acre. About one-half of the new municipal 
playgrounds had to be made by demolishing 
five and six-story tenements. The other 
half was made by giving the children one- 
half or one-third of some existing small 
park, which seems like only the merest jus- 
tice to them. The latest playground fin- 
ished, the Thomas Jefferson, cost the city 
$3,500,000, and the eleven now finished have 
probably cost in the neighborhood of $15,- 
000,000. One cannot help being impressed, 
in looking over this system, by the foolish- 
ness of its management. The interest on 
$15,000,000, at 4 per cent., would be $600,- 
000 a year. It is obvious that a city cannot 
afford to run so expensive a plant much be- 
low its maximum efficiency, yet the city is 
certainly not getting more than one-half or 
one-third of the possible use of these play- 
grounds for the lack of $30,000 or $40,000 
spent in further equipment and competent 

The sites for eleven new municipal play- 
grounds have been selected during the past 

The school playgrounds in New York are 
much better managed. The recreation cen- 
ters, which have grown to some thirty in 
number, are maintained throughout the year 
and are constantly increasing in popularity, 
so that now they have very nearly reached 
their full capacity. The recreation centers 
for boys consist of a small reading room, a 
large room for games, such as checkers, 
dominoes, lotto, authors, etc., a study room, 
with a teacher in charge, four or five club- 
rooms and a good sized gymnasium. The 
boys' clubs are largely debating, social or 
gymnastic. The girls' clubs are largely lit— 

erary. In all the girls' centers the last hal: 
hour of the evening is given to dancing. 

There are twenty-one playgrounds now 
belonging to the city of Boston. A notablt 
thing about them is the cheapness witl 
which they have been secured by the city 
A very large part of them have been mads 
by filling in ponds or marshes, or on lane 
which was secured at an early date by tin 
city at a small cost. They are under th< 
park department, and there is no separatt 
supervisor of playgrounds. This seems tc 
be rather a weakness in the system, as tin 
park superintendent has more than enougl 
to look after the park system of Boston 
The park ideal has pervaded the playgrounc 
development, so that they are rather place: 
to play than playgrounds in the moden 
sense. They are mostly baseball and foot 
ball fields, which are flooded for skating ii 
the winter, and which in general have thei 
largest attendance in the winter time. The; 
also have courses with board boundaries fo 
hockey. There are many acres devoted t( 
tennis in Franklin Park, and there an 
twenty-one baseball diamonds in Franklii 
Field alone. 

In the smaller playgrounds there an 
swings, sea-saws and teeter ladders for tin 
small children, and a kindergartner is ii 
charge during the summer time and an at 
tendant after four during the rest of tin' 
year, but on the whole the system seemeoi 
to be insufficiently supervised, and very fev 
children were making use of its advantages 
The supervisor has no doubt in his owi 
mind that a competent director put intj 
each of the playgrounds would more thai 
double their attendance. The park superin 
tendent would be very glad to give more di 
rection to these grounds, but the appropria 
tion is cut down to such a small figure eacl 
year that they have to be run on the mos 
meager basis, but it is certainly a question 
able piece of economy to cut down expendi 
tures until a system which cost the city $3, 
000,000 can only be run at half its efficienc) 
Then, too, the benefit which the childrei 
get from an undirected field are not at all ii 
proportion to what they would get under ; 
skillful athletic director. There is a gym 
nastic instructor, of course, at Charlesbam 
and Wood Island Park, and there will be a: 
athletic director in the two new outdoo 
gymnasiums which are now being equippec 

The park superintendent assured me tha 
the playgrounds were very popular in Bos 




ton, and that one of the most popular things 
that an alderman could do was to try to se- 
cure a playground for his ward. The play- 
grounds of Boston are, some of them, now 
nearly twenty years old. 

There is a public bath and gymnasium 
commission, who have charge of a series of 
ten public gymnasiums, and there is a cer- 
tain feeling that the playgrounds ought to 
be put in their charge. Some of these are 
adjoining the playgrounds of the park de- 
partment, and it certainly is a pity that the 
two should not be under one management, 
but the writer is not in a position to state 
which would be the better board of control. 

The new municipal building on Columbia 
Road seemed to me one of the most admir- 
able civic centers that I have ever seen. It 
resembles the held houses of Chicago, ex- 
cept that it is not connected with the park 
system. The basement has a fair-sized 
swimming-pool. On the first floor are a 
large auditorium and a good-sized public li- 
brary. The second floor was devoted to two 
large, splendid equipped gymnasiums. The 
building is not large enough to accommo- 
date the people who wish to use it. 


Since the experiences, failures, successes, 
of one part of play-ground workers must 
necessarily throw some light upon the prob- 
lem of others, especially those who are new 
to the held, we are pleased to give some 
illuminating extracts from the 1906 report 
of the Neighborhood House Play-ground in 
Louisville, Ky. We read that : 

The crowd was always composed mainly 
of boys; the girls making from one-quarter 
to one-third of the total number. 

The smaller number of girls was accounted 
for by several facts. First, the chief amuse- 
ments possible were the rough sports that 
boys engage in. Again, by carrying on such 
activities the boys absorbed most of the 
available space. The girls of the neighbor- 
hood have very little time to spend on the 
play-ground, as they have to help in the 
homes. The presence of a number of rough 
boys in the yard, discourages the girls from 

Playground Groups. 
The general play-ground population was 
made up of loosely defined groups each of 

which showed special characteristics. The 
boys, eleven to fourteen years old, usually 
monopolized the baseball privileges in the 
daytime and shared in the basket-ball, rac- 
ing and other pursuits of the evening. This 
group of about 20 boys benefitted more by 
the play-ground than did any other group. 

A group of smaller boys, some of them as 
young as six years, led a precarious sort of 
life in the play-ground. They used the sand 
pile, the swings, attempted to play ball in 

Hancock Street Play Ground of the Louisville Colored 


Courtesy of the Presbytery of Louisville. 

many confined spaces, took part in the races, 
and invented makeshift amusements from 
time to time. They crowded each other 
out of these various employments and were 
crowded out by other groups. Their amuse- 
ments on the whole were cramped and car- 
ried on under difficulties. Under such cir- 
cumstances each individual grasped all he 
could get, with small regard to his neigh- 
bor's rights; and considerable friction re- 

The girls were subjected to much the 
same difficulties as the small boys, but their 
situation was somewhat better from the 



fact that they made more use of the swings, 
and were able to invent games such that 
most of the setting was imaginary. In the 
evening they engaged in ring-games, and in 
basket-ball and racing, on equal terms with 
the boys. 

The groups of large boys might be de- 
fined roughly. One, of boys, mostly of 
whom worked during the day and came to 
the yard only in the evening. They spent 
the time in basket-ball and track athletic 
events, were easily controlled, and seemed 
to enjoy the play-ground. 

The others were a group of about a dozen 
boys, from 16 to 19 years old, who either 
loafed through the entire summer, worked 
spasmodically, or worked only a part of 
each day. Most of them were inveterate 
cigarette smokers; they drank beer more or 
less, and some of them frequented houses 
of ill fame. There was a strain of crooked- 
ness in this group which came to light sev- 
eral times when the police made inroads on 
their numbers. Some were fascinated by 
the attractions of tramp life and occasional- 
ly engaged in train riding; making trips of 
from a few hours to a few days' duration. 
On such trips their conduct would be, of 
course, a matter of doubt ; and their tend- 
ency to be on the streets at all hours of the 
night also laid them open to the suspicion 
of nefarious work. In their conversation 
they affected the vernacular of thiefdom. 
Generally speaking, it seems probable that 
they are drifting toward the crook's life, not 
because of need, nor not primarily in the 
hope of large gains, but because dominated 
by a spirit of braggadocio and allured by 
glimpses of the life of the under world; they 
are gradually becoming bolder and eventu- 
ally may permit themselves to be drawn 
into the criminal fraternity. 

In the course of the summer nearly all of 
these boys were at one time or another ex- 
pelled from the yard, and all but three were 
permitted to return. 

They had very little consideration for the 
rights of the girls and smaller boys, and it 
was chiefly on this account that they fell 
into trouble in the yard. However, as the 
season went on these boys grew more tract- 
able and finally seemed to resign themselves 
to a situation which forced them to concede 
to others the chief privileges of the play- 
ground. The larger boys were allowed to 
use the baseball space for a limited time 
each day and were allowed to share in the 

supply of base balls with the smaller boys, 
in the ratio of about one to four. 

The Apparatus. 

At the beginning of the season the play- 
ground was supplied by the Recreation 
League with a small amount of baseball 
material, with rope and steel rings for the 
ring-toss game, and later with a basket-ball 
and some additional baseball material. At 
the same time a supply of five-cent base 
balls was guaranteed; it being left to the 

- I 

Preston Street Play Ground of the Louisville Colored! 

Courtesy of the Presbytery of Louisville. 

play-ground management to decide how. 
many should be used. 

The matter of the number of balls to be 
given out, remained the matter of some 
friction between boys and the management 
until the difficulty was lessened by the boys] 
themselves taking charge of the ball sup^ 
plies. A committee of three was appointed 
each Monday morning and was given an 
thority to use a certain number of balls dur- 
ing the week. A saving was to be rewarded, 
by allowing the use of a better quality of 

The swings were busy constantly and the 
question of the rights of each individual in 
the use of the swings was a live one at all 
times. The sand box was rather popular 
with the small children, but might have per-! 
formed a much greater service if it had been' 
larger and supplied with a better quality oi 



The ring-toss game was popular during 
he first half of the season and furnished a 
;reat deal of entertainment ; but later the 
hildren grew tired of it. 

Play-Ground Methods. 

In conducting the play-ground it seems 
•lesirable to give the child all the freedom 
hat he can use without infringing upon the 
lights of others. Much can be accomplished 
j>y making individuals or groups responsible 
jor the right conduct of a game or the right 
pse of certain apparatus. 

To the extent that children were incapa- 
>le of properly using freedom, or of re- 
1 ponding to suggestion, repressive meas- 
ures were employed to prevent abuse of 
privileges. Especial lack of consideration 
or each other or for authority seemed to 
nake repression necessary; but such meth- 
ods were used reservedly and were relin- 
quished in the case of each individual as 
uiickly as possible. 

The children here are inclined to be sus- 
picious and cannot always understand that 
ve are endeavoring to treat them fairly, 
inured to the necessity of fighting their 
>wn battles they cannot understand the sit- 
lation in which the intention is to protect 
hem from the selfishness of each other. 
\ccustomed to seeing every one take what 
lie wants according to his strength, the ne- 
cessity of looking after number one at all 
rosts has been forced upon them. Conse- 
quently, they need to be taught considera- 
tion for others, which results in mutual 
lelpfulness instead of mutual suspicion. 

The only means of correction open to the 
blay-ground director, is in the line of de- 
privation of privileges ; the extreme of 
which is suspension, or expulsion from the 
ground. The suspension need not be re- 
garded as punishment : but rather as a sus- 
pension of privileges which the individual 
pas failed to use properly and which will be 
'restored whenever there is sufficient reason 
to believe that common privileges and the 
rights of others will be respected. 

If the play-ground is to be available as a 
factor in producing good citizens, the atti- 
tude of the child toward the play-ground is 
Icertainly important. Each boy should have 
Iconsciously or unconsciously, a sense of his 
own interest in, and responsibility for, the 
success of the play-ground. He should real- 
ize that this ought to be a place of enjoy- 
iment for all and that each one should help 
others to have a good time. 


As we are unable to give space to the 
somewhat detailed description of the Brook- 
lyn Public School play-ground, written by 
Miss K. G. Billings of New York City, we 
will give a brief condensation in which she 
names a few of the ways in which play- 
ground helps the winter school. 

"AYhat does the play-ground do for the 
winter school?" It takes the place of the 
summer's outing that the children of more 
fortunate parents enjoy. 

Just as our boys and girls recuperate and 
build up for the fall in the delightful coun- 
try, with its sunshine, green grass, and free- 
dom, so the poor child in the awful and 
over-crowded tenements of the city, in the 
summer play-grounds, prepares for the fall 
and winter work. 

You say they know no better and there- 
fore do not miss the good things of life that 
we enjoy. Yes, they know no better and in 
some ways it is just as well, too, for they 
are contented and you and I who know bet- 
ter wonder how they can be so happy. 

And yet this beautiful world of ours God 
intended for his poor as well as the rich. 
And if our institutions made by man have 
cut our fellow man off it is our duty to help 
him regain some of the privileges. 

Play-ground and summer school work of- 
fer us the opportunities to do this. It makes 
many a teacher's heart ache, when she takes 
her class out on one of these day excur- 
sions into the country for nature work, to 
realize how little these children whom she 
has learned to care for and love ever have 
an opportunity to see any of the country or 
of nature. 

Oh, what a few wild flowers mean to 
these little people ! 

The play-ground helps the winter school 
in another way. The parents of the chil- 
dren, particularly the mothers, are nearly 
all of foreign birth. The school is to them 
another of those dreadful mysteries of 
America. They stand in great awe of the 
building itself and as to the principal and 
teachers, they do not only stand in awe but 
often in fear and dread of them. 

How must the hearts of these poor moth- 
ers ache when they see their little ones 
start off for school in the morning and the 
door closes behind them. But these same 
people came to America to get a good start 
in life and to enable their children to get a 



better one. So they send them to the Amer- 
ican school. Personally I do not wonder at 
the East-side disturbances we have had late- 
ly in the schools. But these poor foreign 
mothers come into the play-ground and 
meet the teachers, see the inside of the 
building and have some pleasant hours 

And when the school reopens in the fall, 
they feel less afraid to send the children and 
perhaps they come in sometimes just to 
look around and see what is going on now 
that the ice is broken. Thus, the winter 
teachers have an opportunity to know and 
help these mothers and the mothers begin 
to feel a confidence in the teachers which 
make things easier for both. 

Yes, play-ground work is still young, and 
there are great things for it to accomplish 
in the future, but there is no doubt that it 
is and will prove of great help not only to 
our winter school but also to the poor of 
our great city in many other ways. 



During the past year we have received a 
great many letters from teachers in re- 
sponse to an invitation, to send in sugges- 
tions, and to ask questions on any topic 
connected with their work. In exact figures, 
these letters number 278. One hundred and 
twelve refer to subjects that the writers 
would like to have treated in extension in 
the magazine during the coming year. 
These were answered in the prospectus sent 
to each subscriber setting forth the articles 
to appear in the magazine during the cur- 
rent school year. The remaining 166 will 
be answered in these monthly talks to 
teachers. The method of treatment will be 
as simple as the subjects permit. 

The queries arrange themselves well un- 
der the two heads of theory and practice 
and we were surprised and really gratified 
to find that over two-thirds of them were 
concerned more with principles of educa- 
tion than with mere method, or daily de- 
vice in the schoolroom. This fact clearly 
indicates the tendency among teachers to 
know the principle upon which any given 
practice can be properly based. 

Another convenient division of subjects 
suggested in the letters might be the psy- 
chological foundations of education, the in- 
dividual to be educated; and the sociologi- 

cal foundations of education, or the end 

Which the individual is to be trained and 1 

subject and means best suited to effect t 

end. It has been thought best to be; 

these talks with the questions on the p 

chological foundations. 

Here is a letter from a teacher who 

reading and thinking about the latest thii 

in education : 

"Editor Kindergarten Magazine: 

"Dear Sir, — I am accepting your invitation 
write you about some aspects ot educational the 
which are far from clear to me. I find certain 
pressions used by educational writers genei'E 
and recourse to books and even some univer 
work have not cleared up the matter. Will 
explain simply what is meant by the cellular tht 
of life and what is the relation to education? j 
what is meant by the physical basis of indivic 
differences and individual interest. Again, whi 
a clear definition of panpsychism and how all tl 
theories are going to affect teaching and particu 
ly the kindergarten and primary? Please d 
send me a list of books, as my bibliography f 
my summer course in psychology is almost a 3 
long in several languages and not at all obtain: 
in my small town library. 

"Yours gratefully beforehand, 

There is an old saying about the abi 
to ask questions that call for wisdom 
preme in the answering. But there is 
foolishness in these questions and we do 
our ability to give the desired light there 
But we are committed to the task. 

The cellular theory of life is an atter 
to explain how the human organism coi 
to be, genetically. It goes on the assur 
tion that all life begins with a unicelh 
organism. This propagates itself by 5 
tion, as is the case in the amoeba. Th 
new cells combine and in combining lo 
some of the earlier characteristics wh 
become rudimentary, while others beco 
dominant, or show new composite abilit 
Environment and indivdual need are 
factors that emphasize certain cellular a 
ities, which in a common way are del 
minable to several forms of activity. v ( 
determination in plant life is a sample 
the loss of abilities once necessary or pie 
urable for that particular organism, 
now become rudimentary. How far th 
rudimentary abilities can be re-develope< 
still a question for the biologist to answ< 

According to the cellular theory, ev 
higher organism is in a way a summary 
all organisms below it. Man would, the 
fore, be the sum total of all the cellular a 
ity of all the organisms that have prece< 
him, some of the abilities becoming rt 
mentary, others dominant. The celh 



lominant ability of a given human being 
vould be his strongest subject and would 
urnish a native physical basis for individual 
lifferences and a physical basis for his na- 
ive interests. 

Good teaching would consist in finding 
mt the child's dominant native interest, be- 
ginning with this and connecting with it 
ither abilities necessary to modify or rein- 
orce his dominant ability to success. How 
his may be determined will be taken up 
liortly. First we must answer another 

What is panpsychism? 

Panpsychism, literary, means all soul. It 
s a theory which says that every atom in 
jxistence has soul, not necessarily a soul. 
It neglects the distinction between organic 
jnd inorganic matter and considers the only 
.ndication we have of soul is activity and 
Vherever activity is found there is a soul — 
he extremes being indeed immesurably 
eparated. It illustrates its position by a 
eference to chemical activity. For instance 

zinc and hydrochloric acid are apparently 
t rest when kept apart. As soon as the 
inc and acid are brought together a most 
rigorous action takes place. The zinc 
freaks up the acid and combines with the 
hlorine producing zinc chloride and driv- 
ng out the hydrogen. This hydrogen wan- 
fers around restlessly till it is brought 
nto contact with oxygen through heat and 
mmediately it combines therewith in an ex- 
•losion so anxious is it to be with oxygen 
nd becomes perfectly calm on its union in 
he production of water. 

Chemically this may be represented by 
he formulaes : 




zn ch 2H. 

The panpsychist considers the bringing 
if those two substances together, the prop- 
r stimulus and activity or soul manifesta- 
ion is the result. Everything therefore has 
oul according to the panpsychist and there 
3 no division of matter into organic and in- 
irganic and every cell in man has soul and 
he sum total of these is the composite man 
oul, at least in so far as it responds to ma- 
erial stimuli. 

Man, therefore, is not a single self, save 
n a composite or dominant sense, he is a 
tiultiple self, a manifold Dr. Jekyl and Mr. 
lyde according to cellular structure and the 
aried constitution thereof. Thus the rea- 
on for the thousand and one mysterious 

tendencies to this and that, the innate re- 
sponse to field, and stream to sea and sky, 
to song and speech, to the multiplied calls 
of multiple stimuli. 

Let us see now what is the relation of 
panpsychism and the cellular theory to 

Take as a starting point that children do 
as a fact manifest different abilities in dif- 
ferent subjects and show a natural interest 
in some subjects in preference to others. 
Some children are good in mathematics and 
science, and not so good in the languages 
and art. By a comparison of thousands of 
examinations in New York state it was 
found, generally, that the following would 
be a type illustrating an individual's marks 
roughly : 

Mathematics 90 per cent. 
Science .... SO per cent. 
Langnages . 70 per cent. 

Art (5 A per cent. 


Art 00. 

Language 80. 

Science 70. 

Mathematics 60. 

Several other combinations of the above 
might be made. 

According to the cellular theory those re- 
lative per cents represent the dominant rela- 
tive cellular ability of a pupil. 

Let us make the mathematical or any 
other dominant ability in a given subject 
equal a thousand in cellular ability. 

Several other combinations of the above might be 

Mathematics 1000 

Science 900 

Language 800 

Art 700 

In doing mathematics the child would feel 
good because he would be realizing to their 
fullest his cellular ability and we like to do 
what we can do well. The quantitative ele- 
ment of mathematics might be found in a 
proportion of 9, 8, 7, parts and in other sub- 
jects as only a portion of all would be stimu- 
lated there would be only a partial response 
and consequently a partial result. The cell- 
ular theory thus suggests a physical basis of 
different school abilities in children and a 
physical basis of interest. 

This theory again furnishes us with a 
physical basis for beauty or the perception 
of the beautiful, as it is called in the study 
of literature. If man is a summation of all 
the cellular ability of all the organisms be- 
low him, there is a reason why certain 
things appeal to him along the lines of the 


beautiful. Certain of the cells that go to 
make up a given organism may have been 
concerned in their lower forms with things 
that regarded rhythm with the roll of the 
beautiful landscapes, the sighing of the 
winds, the colors of the heavens, the songs 
of the birds, the calm and peace and beauty 
of the wood. All the rhythmic forces of na- 
ture, that act on the sensitive receiver of the 
beautiful, as a highly organized being, were 
originally exerting their influence on the 
elementary cells of which this true respond- 
er to nature is built. The call of the wild is 
truly one of the most unmistakable tenden- 
cies in every human being, and the call of 
the wild is simply the hungering of the cell 
to reach out and touch the original stimulus 
that called it into activity and made it pos- 
sible for it to climb higher in the plan of 
organic life. 

This theory, furthermore, would illus- 
trate, naturally, how poetry came into ex- 
istence before prose. The rhythmic influ- 
ences of nature, the rise and fall of its puls- 
ing life, the music of the spheres, the re- 
sponse of living organisms to heat and light 
and plenty, all would emphasize the rhyth- 
mic element in an expressing being that 
would give rise to some form of poetic ex- 

We recall a case in a country high school 
where a clever principal used the cellular 
tendency and dominant interest of a pupil 
to give him a fair all-around education. The 
student was a Spanish-American boy who 
loved mathematics and science. To work in 
the laboratory was a delight. To get this 
privilege he would suffer any school hard- 
ship. He pleaded he could not study litera- 
ture or composition or history. The princi- 
pal had to pass him for college in English 
and history. So he called the young man to 
his office, told him he wanted his help in 
some chemical experiments, set him to mak- 
ing and testing the elementary gases and in- 
cidently to look up the discoverers, the com- 
mercial and art uses and present market 
prices, etc., etc., and hand it in on Saturday 
in writing. The boy's face, all aglow during 
the reference to the experiments, fell some- 
what at the written assignment. But his 
whole being was pulsing at the prospect, 
every cell was responding in the anticipa- 
tion of the proper stimulus. 

On the following Saturday the boy came 
to the principal's office, threw down on the 
desk six pages of solid matter without para- 

graphs, punctuation marks or capitals. B 
carefully handling him the principal showe 
how much better the report would be if c\ 
erything about discoveries or use of marks 
values was put together, and paragraph 
and marks and capitals grew out of the nee 
of the subject. And that boy was trul 
learning history and composition and liter;! 
ture, the only kind he could ever learn well 
To conclude, he won high honors in scienc| 
and mathematics, just made his Englisll 
while his low mark in history was condone 
for his high marks in science and mathti 

The final word is that he graduated froij 
the engineering department of Columbi| 
and is now worth a million dollars or morl 
and is importing mercury and rubber froi 
Guatemala, where he is a prominent citizeil 
And he is writing business circulars th?| 
are strong compositions, language expre.'l 
sions of his scientific, mathematical cellula 

The educational corollary is, first find th 
child's dominant interest and cellular tenc 
ency by accurate tests in school and life sut 
jects and then make a correlation table c 
the relative per cents. Begin with materi; 
and method to arouse his native interes 
connect with this subjects necessary for lif 
needs, and success and a great step shall b 
made toward good teaching. 

This is especially true of education in th 
early stages of kindergarten and primarj 
when the native interests and tendencies an 
clearly manifest, and artificial habits of lif, 
have not buried them under or poor teacl, 
ing starved them to death. 



That excellent Monthly "Die Deutsch 
Schule," the organ of the German Teacher; 
Association, furnishes in the first monthl 
issue of its eleventh annual edition an abut 
dance of interesting articles, some of whic 
especially appeal to the attention of Amer 
can teachers. Among these we enumerat 
an article by H. Pfeifer, entitled: "Recoi 
ciliation of Modern Science with Christia 
Belief" ; also one by Mr. M. Speckelaky o 
"Written Compositions." These are tw 
contributions that recommend themselve 
in a particular way to American teacher: 
The one, a contribution to the History c 
Pedagogy, is an essay entitled "Kant an 



Basedow," by Mr. Richard Wagner, in 
vhich the author presents these two great 
Educators as men of one mind as to their 
eformatory work and furnishes abundant 
Evidence as to the very efficient aid which 
vant, the theorist, gave to Basedow in the 
atter's practical efforts in the cause of ed- 
ucation. The other article is a very favor- 
ible criticism of Mr. Camparey's work on 
'Horace Mann and the Public Schools in 
he United States," by Mr. E. von Sallwurk, 
jvhich furnishes an abundant proof as to the 
ippreciation which the American peda- 
gogue's life-work enjoys even in Germany. 

The Seventeenth Year-Book of the "Hu- 
manistische Gymnasium," issued by Win- 
er's University Publishing House at Heid- 
dberg, is a very comprehensive summary of 
ill the deliberations of the many and various 
• eachers' associations of Germany, institut- 
ed during the course of the year 1906; and 
while it is impossible for us to particularize 
imong the multitudinous and valuable re- 
ports which this Year-Book contains, it 
puggests the pertinent question, why such a 
^ear-Book has not long ago been gotten up 
n this country, as it could not fail to be 
productive of the highest benefit to Ameri- 
can public-school education. 

Another notable magazine is the "Archiv 
iuer die gesamonte Psychologic," edited by 
Prof. E. Meumsen and W. Wirth, and pub- 
lished by W. Engelmann at Leipsic. Its 
principal essays are "Experimental Psy- 
chologic Investigations About Thinking," 
by Aug. Messer; a "Report of the Second 
Congress for Experimental Psychology," 
by Dnen, "Principal View's of the De- 
cription in Elementary Psychology," 
by F. E. Otto Schultze; and a "Treatise on 
Attention and Velocity of Its Promotion," 
by W. Peters. Of these articles the two 
last-named are especially noteworthy on ac- 
count of the numerous explanatory draw- 
ings which accompany them. 

Not as erudite as the fore-mentioned 
magazine, but practically suggestive in 
'many ways is the "Paedagogische Studien," 
'edited by Dr. M. Schilling. Its articles ap- 
fpeal to the special attention of the primary 
teacher, and abound in valuable hints for 
the conduct of primary schools and classes. 
(Among the most important articles of the 
|last number of this magazine we notice a 
'treatise on "Instruction and Interest," by 
'Dr. M. Schilling; the primer-question, by P. 
Schmensick; a treatise about the "Best 

Methods of Enlivening Our Language-Les- 
sons," and one about the "Educational Im- 
portance of the Study of Natural History" 
in its present condition of development. 

"History of Pedagogics," by Aug. Schorn, 
edited by Frederick von Werder and pub- 
lished by Duerr at Leipsic ; a most compre- 
hensive and elaborate work, favorably com- 
mented upon by German critics. 

"Pestalozzi's Wie Gertrude ihre Kinder 
Chrt." with explanatory notes by Dr. Her- 
man Walsemann, published by Johannes Ib- 
beken in Schleswig. 

"Pestalozzi's Leinhard and Gertrude," 
with notes and explanations, by Dr. A. 
Thorbach, published by Velhagen & Klas- 

ing, Bielefeld. 

(To be continued.) 

The Revue Pedagogique presents this month a 
very creditable number, containing a number of 
well-considered essays, among which we may enum- 
erate: "The Organization of Layman's Morality," by 
Alexis Bertram; "The Technical Schools," by A. 
Gasquet; a very timely and suggestive essay, even 
for Americans. "The Esperanto Congress at Gen- 
eva," by E. Boirac. Esperanto, as is well known, 
is the new World's language, which supplants the 
old Volapuk. Whether Esperanto will share the 
latter's fate, has yet to be seen; the author of the 
above article for one, seems to be well disposed 
towards the use of Esperanto as a conversational 
and correspondential medium, but not as a literary 
language. At any rate, the article is well worth 
reading, especially as it is lucid and to the point. 

The Revue International de l'Enseignement ably 
maintains in its last issue the high rank and dis- 
tinction which it has gained through the excellence 
of its numbers published during the year 1906. 
Among the many meritorious articles which the 
present number presents, we mention especially one, 
the like of which is rarely found in even the best 
educational magazines. We refer to an article en- 
titled "Teaching in Germany," and written by 
Georges Blondel. This article proves conclusively 
what we have mentioned in one of our former Di- 
gests, viz., that the French mind is ridding itself 
more and more from the Chauvinistic ideas that 
were at once its despots and its banes, and that it 
has in a great measure emancipated itself from vain 
nationalistic prejudices. The underlying causes of 
all the pedagogical achievements for which Ger- 
many has attained so just a reputation, have been 
revealed by Mr. Blondel in so clear a light and in 
so forcible a language that his countrymen will un- 
doubtedly derive from it a lasting benefit. 

The Journal for School Hygiene, edited by Prof. 
Dr. Fr. Erismann, in Zurich, to which a number of 
the greatest German savants monthly furnish the 
most valuable contributions, contains in its last 
number a necrologue of Dr. Herman Conn, the 
founder and lifelong promoter of German school 
hygiene. The reader of this excellent obituary 
must be deeply moved, both by the description of 
an active life, as perhaps, no other can equal it, and 
by the magnitude of wide-spread benefits which 
this busy philanthropist has conferred upon the im- 
portant department of school hygiene. 

The Revue de l'Ensignement des Langues Vivan- 
tes (Review of the Instruction in Living Lan- 
guages), presents in its January number an article 
by M. Selwyn Simpson, on "F. E. Brown, the poet 
of the Isle of Man." Mr. Brown, according to the 



author's opinion, well deserves a lasting reputation 
as poet, educator and benefactor to the human race. 
Mr. Timmerman, a regular contributor to this jour- 
nal, is continuing in this number his "Etymologi- 
cal Excursions," reaching the review of the letter 
"K," which he treats in a thorough philological 
manner. Mr. Gustav Ritrau writes on "The Choice 
Between German and English," which option comes 
before all parents whose children enter the seventh 
or eighth grade of the French public schools. Cer- 
tainly, in most cases, it must be an extremely dif- 
ficult choice, and therefore Mr. Fritrau confers a 
great benefit upon French parents, whom he aids 
in this matter. The best thing, however, that 
French school authorities could do, would seem the 
obligatory study of both languages, the German and 
the English, since France is so situated between 
the two countries, as to render the acquisition of 
both languages equally necessary for every French- 

The Journal of Experimental Pedagogy, edited 
by Dr. E. Meumann, of the University of Koenigs- 
berg, with the assistance of a great host of contri- 
buting savants, reveals to us the existence of a 
learned dispute, concerning which we must confess 
our inability to judge until we are better informed 
about the particulars of the matters at issue. The 
latter concerns the criticism published by Prof. 
Cordsens, of Halle, of a work entitled "Experiment- 
al Didactics," and written by Prof. W. A. Lay, of 
Karlsruhe. This work has met so favorable a re- 
ception by pedagogical magazines and reputable ed- 
ucators that it has been placed by many among the 
most valuable productions of the world's pedagogi- 
cal literature. It has criticism and even grave 
charges of plagiarism against the author in this 
country in an English translation by Prof. Munster- 
berg, of Harvard. The excitement caused by Prof. 
Cordsen's unfavorable criticism and even, grave 
charges of plagiarism against the author of the 
work may be easily imagined. It would seem as if 
all Germany were divided into two camps, one sus- 
taining the author, while the other is strongly op- 
posed to him. We shall not fail to report to our 
readers in our next monthly Digest further particu- 
lars about this great pedagogical dispute. 

The Jahrbuch des Vereins t'uer wissenschaftliche 
Paedagogie (Annals of the Society for Scientific 
Pedagogy), is a volume replete with articles on all 
possible educational subjects, among which we may 
name "Politics and Ethics," by Thraendorf; "Pla- 
ton's Euthyphron," by Falbrecht; and "The Renais- 
sance of Pedagogy," by Glueck. 


Charities and the Commons for August 3 is a 
play number devoted largely to the great play con- 
vention recently held in Chicago. There are twenty- 
one papers and addresses dealing with the subject 
from various standpoints. Two hundred "play- 
mates" we learn, gathered here from thirty cities, 
representing play-ground supervisors, park super- 
intendents, school teachers, principals, board mem- 
bers, settlement folk, Y. M. C. A. physical directors, 
etc. Three hundred kindergarten children led the 
march, breaking into nine circles in which they 
played the out-door games familiar to most kinder- 
gartners. Schoolyard games followed, demonstrated 
by eight groups of children, representing the grades 
of the normal and practice schools. Each grade 
played one or two games different from each of the 

Gymnastic dances had place also, seven national 
dances being represented in addition to some of the 
ancient classic dances. Folk games were played by 
thirty Chicago kindergarten teachers. 

Each of the ten municipal playgrounds had rep- 
resentation, the different groups engaging in char- 
acteristic activities such as hurdle racing, wrest- 
ling, high jumping. 

The recreation center gymnasiums showed eve 
greater variety. 

Luther Halsey Gulick's contribution to this syr 
posium is entitled "Play and Democracy." He saic 
"Anti-ethical play is worse than no play at all. 
is not merely play that our cities and our childre 
need. They need the kind of play that makes fc 
wholesome, moral and ethical life, the play th; 
makes for those relationships between individua 
that will be true to the adult ideals which belon; 
and should belong to the community." Agair 
"The development of the ethical, social self mm 1 
begin as soon as the child is old enough to have n 
lations to other children of his own age, and 
must continue as long as human life continues." 

The burden of Dr. Gulick's paper is the need ( 
training for self-control and thoughtfulness in ne 
directions. Life is much more complex than hen 
tofore; owing to new forms in which material civi 
ization has developed, the great concentration ( 
capital, the enormous scale on which manufactui 
ing is conducted, all these create a new form c] 
social interdependence and responsibility to met! 
which a training in civic consciencious and in coij 
porate self-control is essential. The writer coil 
tends that the playground is the field upon whicl 
these virtues essential to the life of the communiti 
are to be grown. 

"Democracy must thus provide not only a sea 
and instruction for every child, in the school, bu 
also play and good play traditions for every chil; 
in a playground. . . Upon them rests the d« 
velopment of that self-control which is related t 
an appreciation of the needs of the rest of thi 
group and of the corporate conscience, which i 
rendered necessary by the complex interdependenci 
of modern life." 

From Mr. Joseph Lee's paper we give only thl 
last pregnant paragraph: "Our boys must b 
so well; that the true loyalty involves at its ver;j 
heart not loyalty to the immediate object alone bui 
loyalty to the loyalty of others, including your op 
ponents; loyalty to the spirit of loyalty whereve 

Jane Addams, in a brief, but as always, forcibl 
address on "Public Recreation and Social Morality'] 
pointed out how closely allied are the two and sincJ 
modern conditions have so reversed the old-time on 
der of things that work and play do not go alonjj 
normally together, we of the cities must make opl 
portunities wherein the young people can have tin 
legitimate pleasures and recreation that should h 
theirs. The dance hall, with its evil environment 
must be replaced by something more wholesome an< 

Henry S. Curtis, secretary of the Playground As 
sociation of America, tells of "Playground anq 
Progress and Tendencies of the Year." 

Dwight H. Perkins advocates the union of Play 
ground and Public Schools. Mary McDowell de 
scribes the Field House of Chicago. Dr. Favil 
speaks of Playgrounds as a prevention of tubercu 
losis. Commissioner Elmer E. Brown has a fev, 
words upon "Health, Morality and the Playground,' 
"Playgrounds and the Board of Education" is tin 
topic of Charles Sueblin's address, wherein he sug 
gests the need of co-ordinating the various socia 
activities of the city rather than merely enlargim 
the scope of the Board of Education. Seth T 
Stewart describes the recreation centers in Ne'fl 
York City. Myron T. Scudder tells of Organizec 
Play in the Country, etc., etc. We have surely sug 
gested enough of important reading in this oni 
journal to make all interested in childhood and th( 
welfare of the republic anxious to read it. 

Appleton's for August has a most interesting anc 
live article on "The School in the Small Park." 

Throughout the country all sorts and condition: 
of men are asking, "What is wrong with our publi 



lucation?" and they are not asking it with a de- 
iched curiosity hut with an insistent desire to be 
aswered — answered in a way that will show them 
low to change this wrong education into a right 

. The best answer to this general questioning has 
:cently been made in Chicago, disguised as a series 
I: small parks. A happy combination of legal au- 
tority, ample resources, marked intelligence, and 
enevolent instincts on the part of those who de- 
i.sed the plan and those who are executing it, has 
i-oduced a most gratifying result. 

Twelve of these centers have been opened, and 
ley vary in size from three to sixty acres. One of 
le largest and most satisfactory is Sherman Park, 
Inch fronts a boulevard and a well-to-do neighbor- 
Dod, and backs against the homes of the stock- 
ird employees. Into this sixty-acre space crowd 
>iildren of varying races and social conditions and 
tnd to fuse into a coherent whole. In the middle 
t this park is a meadow where baseball, football, 
Innis, and games requiring wide room are played, 
'his is ringed by a water way crossed by bridges 
e the four corners, and alive with rowboats. It 
jso bears one electric launch, a sort of aquatic 
lu-ryall, on which, seated high on a comfortable 
Sirden bench and viewing the sixty acres of scen- 
|y, one may circle the canal twice for five cents, 
outh of the water way are the buildings — piles of 
•ay stucco with touches of color along their edges. 
[ere is the clubhouse with its beautiful ball-room, 
bening through glazed doors on verandas where 
ie dancers may promenade. Here are the rooms 
Ihere the different clubs have their meetings; the 
Jation of the Public Library; and a reading room 
'ocked with current magazines of all sorts. Here 
,so is sold prepared milk for the babies at a cost 
| one and two cents a bottle, put up to suit differ- 
lt ages, with printed directions. 

Across from this clubhouse are gymnasiums fitted 
ith the best apparatus, in charge of trained di- 
lators. But during the summer months these are 
bt used, for then the children frolic over the hori- 
mtal bars, and up and down the ladders, swing 
l the rings, or spin round on the giant stride in 
ie open air. Or if they are too little for these, 
lere is another inclosure which brings the sea- 
'lore near to them in the shape of a wading pool 

ith banks of white sand, where there is a little 

erry-go-round, tiny swings, and low teeters. 

These parks— which are not only parks, but play- 
rounds, schools, gymnasiums, clubs, libraries, and 
ties as well — are becoming gymnasiums where the 
hildren may practice at real life; were intended 
6 places where the theories taught in the schools 

lght be translated into terms of practical exist- 
J ice. 

The fact that our system of public education 
oes not prepare the children for any probable fu- 
ire, is made the excuse, on the one hand, for pri- 
ite schools which attempt to fit the children of 
ie rich for a future of prosperity; and, on the 

her, for the prevalence of child labor, an effort to 
lapt the children of the poor to an existence of 
jiese two things were not a sufficient accusation 
jainst this system, every truant officer is in him- 
slt a confession of failure. The things for which 
lie normal child seeks the streets — play and exer- 
,se — should be a lure to the school, not 

om it. 


That the children of the rich should be badly 
lucated is not a vital thing, because there are com- 
iratively few of them; but that the children of 
ie poor should grow up in ignorance is the great 
e " ac ; e of f^e future. Even supposing that the 
nld-labor committees succeed in driving the child 
it of industry, only one step toward the solution 

the problem has been made. The boy who asked 
Jdge Lindsay of Denver, "Can't a feller git an ed- 

dication in a plumber's shop?" has confounded us 
up to this time. 

But now, through these park centers, the great 
idea that a real education is the right of the people, 
is being pushed to the front. Hitherto we have be- 
lieved that such education might come through 
manual training and domestic science; through 
bookkeeping and a knowledge of weights and meas- 
ures. But all these are makeshifts without intent 
of permanence; palliatives which have been applied 
to the reluctant infant mind like medicinal plasters, 
and the general educational disorder is now seen to 
be too fundamental for these external applications. 

The greatest fact of all — that the people crave 
and take advantage of these centers — is shown by 
the enormous increase in their use. In one of the 
first parks to be opened, which is now about a year 
and a half old, the attendance has increased from 
about one hundred and fifty a day to a daily aver- 
age of nearly eight thousand. There is no question 
that these centers are schools — schools willingly 
attended and therefore effective. The general su- 
perintendent said: "These parks belong with the 
schools, and I suppose should be under the direc- 
tion of the Board of Education instead of in our 
hands. Of course, if you look at it in the biggest 
way, all the park system is a part of public educa- 
tion; but most people think that parks are for pleas- 
ure only — they do not see that education and pleas- 
ure can be made the same thing.' 

Bookbinding for Libraries, by John Cotton Dana. 
This is a little volume packed with information for 
those interested in the practical side of bookbind- 
ing. Those employed in public, private or settle- 
ment and mission libraries, will find it useful. It 
gives not only suggestions as to the actual binding 
and repairing of books, but gives points which will 
help the inexperienced librarian to decide whether 
or not a book is worth rebinding or repairing, and 
just what to do with it in case it is not. One chap- 
ter tells how to treat pamphlets. There is a brief 
chapter on paper making, and some general notes 
on leather, how prepared, the best kinds to use for 
different purposes, etc. There is a descriptive list 
of the different kinds of leathers and of various 
bookcloths and imitation leathers, with points as 
to which is best to use in a given case. A list is 
given of makers and dealers in bookbinders' ma- 
terials and a bibliography of the best books on 
bookbinding. With the rapid increase in libraries 
within the past decade it would seem that such a 
compact little volume would be most timely. Pub- 
lished by the Library Bureau, Chicago. 

The Home Kindergarten School, conducted by 
Clara D. Mingins, Detroit, Mich., will prove a boon 
to many a mother who feels that in planning oc- 
cupations for her children she wants to give some- 
thing that has thread of progression in it; that is 
not entirely haphazard. This will help the mother 
to consciously help her child in doing and making 

To those who pay the ten dollars annual sub- 
scription price, each month is sent an envelope con- 
taining occupation materials suited to a given line 
of thought, with printed matter, telling how to 
use the material to the best educational advantage 
and with other helpful suggestions. Worsteds, 
cards, wooden beads, sticks, weaving papers, etc., 
are thus sent, one thing one month, and another 
material another month. All things considered, 
the fee is a moderate one. The material and print- 
ed suggestions can in no way take the place of a 
kindergarten, or the wise guidance and supervision 
and insight of a trained kindergartner, but since 
children will always want to make and to create, 
such a systematic use of occupation materials will 
develop both mother and child. Songs, stories and 
music are also given. Address Miss Clara D. Min- 
gins, Home Kindergarten School, Cleveland, O. 


For Home, School and Kindergarten 



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HENRY SABIN 1907 14th Season ELBRIDQE H. SAB1N. 

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Registration fee holds good until we secure a position for you, 

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See Page 38( 

A Kindergarten Husking-Bee. 

3l)£ "Kindergarten- ^primar? Mlaga^ine 

Vol XX-OCTOBER, 1907- No. 2 





Subjects: The Corn and the Potato. 

This subject should begin with the plant- 
g of corn in May. The corn can be har- 
;sted in September or October. Local con- 
itions will determine the proper time for 
anting. The lessons here suggested will 
:gin with use of corn. 

Observation of the Children's Garden of 
Green Corn.* 

Visit the children's bed of green corn ; 
ather a basket-full and bring it back to the 

[. The Use of Corn on the Ear as a Food 
for People. 

Conduct little groups into the homes of 
weral of the children, and there let them 
usk some of the corn and boil it, thus con- 
ibuting to the preparation of the family 
inner. During the interval for the corn to 
bil, the children can occupy themselves by 
)litting the husks into ribbons, these to be 
sed in some future occupation. They can 
so help in setting the table. If it is im- 
assible to enter the house for these lessons, 
ley can be given in the kindergarten, a 
nail oil stove being used. Let the corn 
ius cooked be sent by agreement to the 
ome of one of the children. 

[I. Observation of a Field or Patch of 
Ripe Corn.** 

Visit a large field or patch of ripe corn, 

*In a kindergarten in the heart of Berlin, the 
dldreu planted wheat in the spring in a space five 
et by five feet in the back yard, and in the fall 
trvested the little crop. "The farmers scarcely 
ok forward with more expectance to the first 
ring month than do certain city children whose 
rm land consists of a plot four feet and a half by 
x and a half in the garden of their school. This 

in Boston. In each of the Philadelphia gardens, 
a crowded foreign district, children work every 
iy from May to October raising tomatoes, peas, 
iets, beans, lettuce, cabbage, while classes from 
iighboring schools visit the gardens for lessons in 
tture study." — The Outlook, February, 1905. 

walk through the rows of corn, listen to the 
rustle of the leaves. Let the children count 
the number of rows, also the number of ears 
on each stalk. They should carry a basket- 
full home with them when permitted. 

IV. The Use of Corn as Food for Animals. 

Feed some of these ears to a work-horse, 
or some animal which has served someone 
in the neighborhood. The children can also 
cut down the stalks still standing in their 
own garden and feed this fodder to the 

V. Observation of the Cutting and 

Visit the large field and arrange to have 
the children see the first steps in the harv- 
esting of the corn : a. The cutting; b. The 

VI. The Husking of the Corn by the 

a. The children husk the corn by un- 
wrapping the ear and breaking it off, leaving 
the husk attached to the stalk, b. They 
then gather the corn into piles. 

VII. Cribbing of the Corn, and the Stor- 

ing Away of Fodder. 

a. The children gather the corn into 
their own little wagons and haul it to the 
crib. At another time, they load their 
wagons with the fodder that still stands in 
the field, and carry it to the barn where they 
store it away. 

VIII. The Use of the Shelled Corn as 

Food for People, 
a. In the shelling of corn, even the little 
children can participate, b. The parching 
of the corn can easily be done in the kinder- 
garten. Place the shelled corn in a skillet 
with salt and butter, parching the kernels 

**Where the observation of a field is impossible, 
teachers can omit step three, and still successfully 
use the corn which can easily be obtained. Pictures 
of corn fields may be drawn upon the blackboard. 



till they are soft. This can be easily accom- 
plished by the use of a small oil stove. 

IX. The Use of Shelled Corn as Food for 


Allow the children to go to one of the 
neighbors and feed the chickens. 

X. The Use of Crushed Corn as Food for 

Man or Animal. 

a. Allow the children to find two flat 
stones and let them make corn meal. Some 
of it may be ground in the coffee mill. For 
the use of this food, the children would en- 
joy setting up a tripod out of doors and 
cooking the corn meal as mush. A more 
detailed suggestion for conducting such a 
lesson may be found in the Introduction, 
b. The children may also feed the corn- 
meal to chickens, a pet lamb, or some other 

Some of the possible uses of the products 
of the corn, together with occupations are 
indicated in the following: 

i. The use of cobs as fuel. 

2. The use of husks to fill cushions and 
doll mattresses. 

3. The use of husks to make dolls, 
their clothes, and doll hammocks. To 
make the dolls, split the dry husks into 
ribbons, double several af these together, 
and half an inch from the closed end wind a 
thread. This will make a head, and another 
thread wound around the middle will make 
the waist line, a full skirt hanging below. 
A stick can be inserted for arms. The corn 
silk can be used for hair, and a dress can be 
made of the husk. 

The Potato. 

The following plan for the subject of the 
potato should not be used during the same 
autumn that the children study the corn. 
One of these nature subjects is sufficient for 
this particular season. 

This subject should begin with the plant- 
ing of the potato in the spring. The potato 
can be harvested in the autumn. As the 
season of frost approaches, the children be- 
gin to wear warmer clothes, the leaves to 
fall, and the family to make its prepara- 
tion for the winter. At this time, let the 
children inspect their garden and decide up- 
on whom to bestow their crop of potatoes, 
and then store them away for the winter. 

I. The Digging and Storing of Potatoes.* 

Gather them into a pile, load one of the 

children's wagons, carry them to the cell; 
of the person to whom the potatoes are 1 
be given, and store them away. 

II. Boiling of Potatoes. 

a. Let the children wash and peel pot; 
toes. b. In the interval of waiting for theij 
to be cooked, feed the peelings to tb 
chickens, or clean a water bottle with son 
of them by breaking them up and shakirJ 
them around in the same with water. Th 
whole lesson can be given in the kinderga 
ten ; but if at the home of one of the chili 
ren, the potatoes should not be eaten by m 
children, but the work can be done as 
service to the family, though one potat 
might be tasted. Enough more than tho; 
required for the family dinner should h 
cooked that a few may be taken to tl 
school for use the next day. 

III. Fry Potatoes, Using Some of Thos 
Boiled on the Previous Day. 

(In contrast to the lesson of the day b 
fore, let this one be given in the kindei 

a. Each one can slice one potato, ani 
turn the same into the skillet, b. Whi'l 
waiting for them to brown, assign differer 
occupations to different members of th 
group. Two at a time can watch the pc 
tatoes, some set the table, and decorate 
with autumn leaves, while others put tli 
kitchen corner of the kindergarten int 
order, sweeping the floor and washing tli 
soiled pans that previously contained the 
potatoes. Of course, at least an hour's tim 
is essential to complete this lesson in a 
orderly way. 

IV. Grating of Potatoes for Potato 

a. The children grate the potatoes i 
water. Turn this grated mass into a cheesi 
cloth bag and squeeze out the water, (sai 
ing this water with its sediment until tb 
following day), b. Beat both parts of on 

*As in the study of the corn, if it is impossible 
visit a field, several potatoes may be planted in 
window box, and this plan may still be adapted 
suit conditions. In this case, omit step one, an 
let the children, or even the teacher, buy some P 1 
tatoes, which can be added to the several the chi 
dren have raised. Enough potatoes may be raise 
for an experiment by placing a number in a dai 
warm place in damp straw. 

This subject is a valuable one for any city Mr 
dergarten. The author has made the experimei 
in the heart of Chicago as well as in Berlin. 



gg, pour it into the grated mass, thinning 
t with a little milk, grease the frying pan, 
nd bake the cakes, letting each one take 
iart. Let this be done as a surprise for one 
if the teachers, the children presenting 
hem to her. The children, of course, should 
iiave a taste. They should be given time to 
vash all the dishes and to put everything 

V. The Making of Starch. 

This can be done by pouring off the 
olored water from the sediment left in the 
!>an from the previous lesson. The sedi- 
nent will prove to be starch. Let the child- 
en find this out by the pouring on and off of 
:lean water till it grows entirely clear, 
3raw off the last water entirely, and let the 
■tarch dry in the sun. 

VI. The Dolls' Washday. 

The dolls come to the kindergarten with 
heir soiled clothes, and the children wash 
hem. Be sure to have them sort the white 
md colored clothes and make laundry 
)ooks. See a more complete description of 

how to plan this lesson in the kindergarten 
outline under the subject of water. 

VII. Ironing Day. 

Of course the ironing of these clothes 
must follow the washing, and then the dolls 
can be dressed in their clean clothes and be 
invited to listen to a story, and look at some 
appropriate pictures. 

See the set of pictures illustrated by Lud- 
wig Richter. There are several drawings 
consisting of children washing their doll's 
clothes, and the like. See his Aus dem 
Kzndcrleben containing twenty-four pict- 
ures, songs and rhymes. 

In all these lessons while the children are 
busy with doing, call their attention to the 
different changes as they occur throughout 
a complete process. Do not tell them be- 
forehand that the potato contains starch, 
let the truth present itself. It will be ob- 
served that all these miniature science 
lessons, however, contain a strong ethical 
value, the children's activity being based up- 
on an inspiration to serve others. 


Once long ago an Indian named Kanati 
ind his wife Selu, were masters of both 
orest and field. Early in the morning 
.vanati would go out into the forest and 
eturn with some animal or bird, while Selu 
vith her basket brought back ripe ears of 
:orn from the field. 

Where they kept these animals and where 
hey found the corn were secrets. Though 
hey had many children, no one of them had 
:ver seen beast or bird in the forest, or corn 
n the field. 

One day after the father and mother had 
eft the home as usual, the boys and girls 
>egan to wonder why they, too, could not 
jo out and bring back a deer or a basket of 

"I know what I shall do," said the eldest 
on, "I shall follow my father tomorrow 
norning and find out where he goes." 

"And I," said one of the daughters, "shall 
vatch mother." 

"We will all go !" shouted the rest of the 
ittle Indians, and the next morning both 
>oys and girls started out. The boys crept 
long quietly behind their father, darting 
rom the protection of one tree to another, 
mtil they saw him stop in front of a great 
ock. This he pushed aside, and before 
hem appeared the mouth of a deep cave, 

filled with birds and animals of every kind. 
The father called to a beautiful deer, and it 
came bounding toward him. He then rolled 
the stone back into place and returned with- 
out seeing the naughty boys. 

At once from behind the trees, all the 
boys rushed to the rock. 

"Push !" cried they, and with a loud crash 
the rock fell apart,andwith a great noise out 
flew flocks and flocks of birds; then wolves, 
bears, tigers, and all kinds of animals came 
leaping out, and, plunging into the forest, 
left the children behind them. Too fright- 
ened to even scream, the boys ran home as 
fast as they could. In the meantime the 
girls had followed their mother out into the 
field until they came to a house built of logs 
and mud, and set 1'igh off the ground. It 
had no windows, and only one small door. 
This was the first time they had ever seen 
such a house, and it looked very strange to 
them. To the children's surprise the mother 
went in and closed the door after her. At 
first they were afraid they would not be able 
to see her, but one of them picked out a 
piece of mud from between the logs, and 
through the little chink that was made, each 
in turn could see what the mother did. 

Setting her basket upon the floor she bent 
over it, and folded her hands in front of her 



as if praying to the Great Spirit to help her. 
Then into the basket fell the ripe ears of 

The children had wanted to know the se- 
cret, but when they saw this they felt 
ashamed and hung their heads. That night 
at supper neither boys nor girls nor mother 
nor father had a word to say — and the 
children did not feel hungry. 

Afterwards the parents called the children 
to them, and the father with tears in his 
eyes said, "My children, now you know our 
secret. You have done wrong, and we can 
no longer help you, you will have to go out 
in the forest and hunt for yourselves." 

"Your good mother can no longer find 
corn and pound it into flour, can no longer 
make it into bread for you. Both of us must 
leave you." 

"Yes, children, said the mother, bending 

her head low to hide the tears, " and I ha 
only one ear of corn left to give to yo 
When the springtime comes, each of y< 
must plant seven kernels, and then wati 
them to see that nothing harms them f 
seven days and nights. During this tin 
you must eat no food and must pray to tl 
Great Spirit. If you are good children, tl 
corn will grow." 

"Save the seed every year and plant it : 
the spring, watch and care for it during tl 
summer, and every fall you will have 
harvest to lay away for the long cold wii 

The parents then said "farewell," anl 
sailed out upon the sea, far away toward til 
west into the very sunset. The childref 
from the shore saw them floating, risinj 
sinking with the waves, till at last the 
seemed to be lifted into the very golde 
heaven itself. 


Words by Dr. Ella Harris. 

Melody by Frederic Jamis Long. 





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-g--V n 

n ^ s, — r* r 






i. Rus - tie, rus - tie, what a bus - tie, What's it all a 

2. Don't you hear the corn - fields grow-ing ? Hear them laugh and 

3. In the val - leys what a bus - tie. What's it all a 

bout, . . 
sing, . . 



>{ <- 


ur Cr" 


tr TT 

i -0- i » 

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r T i 




Winds are blow - ing, 
Like the sound of 
Thick - ly there the 

corn is grow - ing, Hear them laugh and shout. 

wa - ter flow - ing, Or of birds a - wing . . 

corn is grow - ing, Hear it laugh and shout. 



























Subject Matter. The Humanitarian Principle as the Basis of Its Selection. 

It now remains to follow out a third con- 
option of the program, the basic principle 
which is humanitarian — using the term 
its widest significance. In the develop- 
ent of this principle in the life of the child 
id that of the race, it is possible to discern 
jie practical functioning of the principle, or 
w of unit) - which was for Friedrich Froe- 
1 the ultimate principle of life, the center 
pon which turned all his efforts for the Up- 
t of humanity. A careful reading of Froe- 
l's works, especially "The Education of 
an," reveals the presence of a trinity of 
eals — the unitarian, naturalistic and hu- 
anitarian — as indissoluble factors in his 
lilosophy.* For Froebel. each human be- 
g is a child of God. of nature, and of man. 
For man, as such, gifted with divine, 
irthly and human attributes, should be 
ewed and treated as related to God, to na- 
ire, and to humanity: as comprehending 
ithin himself, unity (God), diversity, (na- 
ire), and individuality (humanity), as 
ell as also the present, past and future."** 
he third and latest conception of the kind- 
"garten program is dominated by the trin- 
y of ideals that are the very fibre of the 
roebel philosophy; but the humanitarian 
eal is regnant as interpretive of the uni- 
irian and naturalistic ideals, from which it 
m in no way be separated. 
The principle of humanitarian domi- 
ites a world view which holds that the 
sue of life, which is physical, intellectual, 
id psychical freedom, depends upon the 
^velopment and functioning of the essen- 
ally human qualities and attributes of 
. r ery human being. If we look to civiliza- 
on for the verification of this principle, we 
id that its constant outreaching has been 
•r the humanization of mankind ; but the 
alization of this ideal has had asitsaccom- 
iniment the realization of the unitarian 
eal — the God relationship, and the reali- 
ition of the naturalistic ideal — the nature 

*See "Education of Man 
**"Education of Man," 

," Sections 14, 15, 16, 24. 
p. 17. 

relationship. Of these relationships Froe- 
bel writes : 

"The comprehension of the purely spir- 
itual human relations . . . furnishes the 
only key for the recognition and apprehen- 
sion of the relation of God to man and of 
man to God." 

"The observation of nature and the ob- 
servation of man, in comparison and in con- 
nection with the facts and phenomena of 
the general development of humanity, are 
mutually explanatory, and mutually lead to 
deeper knowledge, the one of the other."** 

The development of race life in an as- 
cending scale from lowest savagery to 
highest civilization, has been marked by 
corresponding development in the know- 
ledge of nature and the knowledge of God. 
These stupendous results have been 
achieved through the development and 
functioning of humane attributes in oppo- 
sition to the lower attributes present within 
the life process. If we look to the child for 
verification of the humanitarian princi- 
ple, we are confronted by a being whose 
highest energiesare the efflorescence of ages 
of activities reaching out and up toward a 
humane life. It is by the exercise of the es- 
sentially human qualities and attributes that 
every achievement of freedom is won by the 
child as it has been won by the race. Fur- 
ther, this world view holds that the material 
universe is a manifestation of one indwell- 
ing spirit whose highest revelation is writ- 
ten in the human soul. The physical world 
is held to be explicable, not as a thing in 
itself, but only as relevant to the develop- 
ment of human life ; and is intelligible to 
man. since the "power manifested through- 
out the universe distinguished, as material, 
is the same which, in ourselves, wells up 
under the form of consciousness." Finally, 
the world view- underlying the third con- 
ception of the program, holds that purpose- 
ful education is the great instrumentality 

*"Education of Man," p. 145. 
**"Education of Man," p. 161. 



devised by mankind for the fulfillment of 
the deepest needs of individual and race 
life, and the realization of their highest 

It must not be understood that the human- 
itarian ideal has been entirely wanting in 
either the first or second conceptions of the 
program — which were discussed in an earl- 
ier number of this series — since this would 
be untrue; but it is not the cardinal fact 
which dominates their respective world 
views. It is futile also to assert that liberal 
kindergartners who have exercised the 
right to make their own programs, have 
been fully conscious of the dominance of 
the humanitarian principle in their work ; 
and yet, a faithful study of these programs, 
and observation in many kindergartens re- 
veal the presence of a principle that is con- 
sonant with the one that is today conscious- 
ly dominating social, ethical, educa- 
tional, and religious activities. It must 
be acknowledged that the exercise of 
the prerogative of liberty in formu- 
lating programs, has been character- 
ized in many cases by capriciousness and 
triviality; but, in the main, these programs 
manifest an earnestness of spirit that seeks 
to profit by every light which modern 
thought has thrown upon the problems of 
child life, and at the same time remain loyal 
to those theories and practices of the Froe- 
bel philosophy which bear the stamp of 

No claim can be made that the third con- 
ception of the program contains anything 
that is new. It is, rather, the known taking 
on new meanings in the progressive expres- 
sion of a principle that has been the generat- 
ing and organizing force of the province of 
human life since its remotest beginning — a 
principle the method of which has been to 
integrate human thought and human activ- 
ity into a system of mutual understanding 
and helpfulness. This system, which com- 
prehends the temporal and finite condition 
of existence, reveals to human conscious- 
ness the linkage of its life with the Eternal 
and the Infinite. Knowledge of the eternal 
law of unity is born of the consciousness 
that the life of man and the life of nature, 
past, present and future, form a unity, the 
purposes of which are progressively re- 
vealed by the slowly moving method of evo- 
lution. Being human, man must feel after 
the truth and find God, "though he be not 
far from everyone of us." Froebel's system 
was the result of his search after truth; and, 

in accepting his views, using, interpretini 
and finally enlarging the comprehension < 
the truths revealed to him — truths whic 
grow ever more clear by extension, — his fo' 
lowers prove the dynamic character of th 
basic principles of his system. 

The three conceptions of the prograi 
proceed from a unitary ideal, or motive 
but their respective plans of action by whic 
this ideal is transmuted into the practica 
real, proceeds from three different startin 
points. In the first conception the child a 
individual is the standard and dominatin 
factor; a view that is more or less under th 
control of feeling and sentiment. In th 
second, the universal, as it is embodied i : 
type or pattern experiences, is the dominari 
factor in the development of a kind of chile! 
universal; a view that has logical rathe; 
than psychological determinants. The doirl 
inant factors in these conceptions, nameljl 
the child as individual in the first, and th 
universal as represented by types of rac 
experience in the second, meet in the thir 
conception of the program hi a middle terr 
which spells humanity, or civilization. I 
it there is no room for dualism. Each indi 
vidual human life requires for its develop 
ment a universal human medium of whic' 
it is at once product and producer; and hu 
inanity, as universal, requires the humai 
medium of the individual soul to sustain an 
give to it progressive expression. Here, i 
this conception of the program, there are n 
hard and fast distinctions between the child! 
as the object of the educational process, ahJ 
human experience, as its subject-matter. 
These, then, are the "given" factors witl 
which purposeful education of the kinder 
garten must deal ; namely, the child and th 
valid experiences of humanity which hav<) 
been the means of its progressive civiliza 
tion. Thus it becomes the office of educa 
tion to devise ways and means for the es 
tablishment of interaction and inter-relatioi 
processes between the child as the agent o 
his own self-revelation and self-realization 
and civilization as furnishing the situations 
or environment, into which each individua 
life must function for the fulfillment of it: 
nature and its needs. 

In order to proceed with definiteiiess, i 
is assumed that activity is the cardinal fac 
of child life. The psycho-physical life of th< 
child is a center of instinctive and impulsivf 
activities of both positive and negative im 
port, which are characterized by plasticity 
and exist to be modified. It is the business 



f psychology and child study to catalogue 
lese characteristics of child life. It is the 
ffice of educational insight, to evaluate 
lem, and then select those which are most 
vailable in the development of the life of 
Dntrol of self, and of experience. It will be 
;membered that in Sections II and III of 
lis series two classifications were made of 
istincts available in the educative process ; 
ie first, the result of profound psychologic 
nd educational insight of Dr. John Dewey; 
he second, the result of the keen observa- 
on and intuitive insight of Frederich Froe- 
el. Each has made a four-fold classifica- 
on of these instincts; and by placing them 
1 parallel columns, it may be seen at a 
lance that each is in substantial agreement 
r ith the other. 

,'rederich Froebel, 1826* Dr. Dewey, 1900.* 
Talking Language 

Playing Constructive 

Investigating Investigative 

Drawing Artistic 

Through the functioning of these activi- 
es the child enters upon the life of control 
f a world of description, or knowledge, and 
world of appreciation, or interpretation. 
tach activity reveals the essentially human 
•ature of the child, and indicates its need. 
)ach activity functions to the end of con- 
■ol of a progressive unitary experience that 
; essentially human. 

In making a program for the kindergar- 
pn that shall facilitate the life of conscious 
Dntrol of experience, two problems 
'merge; first, the selection of subject-mat- 
fcr; or the kind of experience that shall be 
elected for emphasis from the general con- 
fiuum of experience ; and second, the prob- 
•m of arrangement — the integration of 
lese selected experiences into a relatively 
ew experience. 

1 If the control of such a unitary experi- 

hce is essential to the development and 

rowth of the child, obviously then, one 

iay not wisely begin with the experience 

f leaving the home and coming to kinder- 

arten, since it is too immediate and be- 

ildering to admit of organization. This 

ork must be left to unconscious processes 

adjustment, while heart, head and 

mds are engaged in securing addi- 

onal control over the more familiar 

vperiences of pre-kindergarten days. 

nder the guidance of the humanitarian 

*See "Education of Man." 
**See "The School and Society." 

ideal it becomes necessary to search the past 
of child life for the vital experiences which 
form the nouns or points of depart- 
ure for kindergarten procedure. It 
is not safe to assume that the child knows 
practically nothing on entering the kinder- 
garten; nor is it wise to conceive the child 
as possessing an achieved self, or an organ- 
ized body of experience to which the ex- 
periences of the kindergarten can be at once 
related. There is, rather, a position midway 
between these two which assumes that ev- 
ery normal child of five years of age has be- 
gun all the processes of control of experi- 
ence before he enters kindergarten. The 
talking, playing, investigating, and expres- 
sive activities have begun their functioning; 
but consciousness of control is still very 
rudimental. The exceedingly varied char- 
acter of pre-kindergarten experience is such 
that the child can neither describe nor in- 
terpret it. His experience has been gath- 
ered in an environment which is arranged 
mainly with reference to adult welfare and 
appreciation. He has listened to sounds and 
conversations that are to him vague and 
meaningless. He has witnessed conduct 
that is inexplicable. Thus the child's mental 
life is a continuum wherein is registered an 
infinite number of impressions, which, from 
their very nature and the stage of the child's 
development, have been subject to little or- 
ganization or interpretation. 

It is this condition of child development 
that constitutes for the kindergarten its 
most peculiar problem. The position of the 
kindergarten is unique. It is the first stage 
in the system of purposeful education, and 
exists to mediate between the home and the 
school. Unlike each subsequent stage of 
education, the kindergarten has no organ- 
ized body of knowledge or experience to 
which assured reference can be made. 
Neither has the kindergarten the conven- 
tional studies of the school as a basis for its 
training and instruction. Hence the kinder- 
garten exists to foster the impulse to crea- 
tive activity in the organization of a body of 
conscious experience selected from the rela- 
tively unconscious experiences of pre-kind- 
ergarten days. Hence these experiences 
must be carefully differentiated to ascertain 
those that are timely, or worthy to become 
a permanent possession to the child. 

Admitting the exceedingly heterogene- 
ous character of the child's experience — 
continuum, and the fitting character of his 
response to environment, we must now 



seek to determine what have been the most 
constant sources of valid experience, and 
what are the permanent relationships al- 
ready rooted in the life of the child. With- 
out hesitancy we may answer that there 
have been two primary sources of experi- 
ence ; namely, Home and Nature. Home 
and the relationships of tbe family have af- 
forded the largest body of constantly re- 
curring experience, the validity of which is 
unquestioned. Over these the child has al- 
ready acquired some control.* Nature, in 
its rhythmical recurrence has been for each 
child, as it has been for the race, a "silent, 
absolutely reliable, outwardly intelligible, 
impersonal teacher."** Nature finds a 
place in the humanitarian program, not as 
something to be understood in terms of 
mathematics and geometry, but, rather, as 
something to be understood and appreci- 
ated in its deeper and richer relationships 
to human life — the nature that the poet- 
seers of the world have known and loved; 

"All are but parts ot one stupendous whole 
Whose body Nature is and God the soul." 

Here, then, in the home and family life, 
and in nature, we find the constant sources 
of formative experience for every human 
being. The child has been steadily growing 
into the likeness of humanity in this prim- 
ordial institution. The influences of nature 
have come into his life, not as something 
apart, but, rather, as interwoven with the 
human relationship. These are the influ- 
ences that, in combination, nurture the 
sympathy and affections that ultimately 
wakens the consciousness of the relation- 
ship to God. Not only are these the con- 
stant sources of experience, they are the 
very medium through which the individual 
life must pass in its pursuit of self-realiza- 
tion. Hence, the emphasis that is laid upon 
the retrospective reference of the kinder- 
garten, and the absolute necessity of pre- 
serving and nurturing those apperceptive 
centers of sympathy and affection that be- 
gin their functioning in infancy and early 

The significance of the retrospective ref- 
erence in child development constitutes one 
of Froebel's deepest insights. Under one 
form and another he emphasizes this idea. 
For him, the whole life of man and human- 

*See such writers as Dr. John Fiske, Dr. Butler 
and Henry Drummond on the significance and of- 
fice of home and family life in the development of 

**"Education of Man," p. 159. 

ity is a life of education. In writing of the 
educational demands of his time Froebel 
lays down a series of considerations, the 
first of which is of primary importance:! 
namely, that "the individual be pressed 
back into himself and led back to himself.' 
whether this individual be an individual! 
man, an individual people, or the whole hu-j 
man race ;"* and in the same connection hei 
reiterates with emphasis that the retrospect-j 
ive reference constitutes the "first demand"! 
of the educational efforts of the time. 

Again in that remarkable paragraph in! 
the Introduction to the "Commentaries ofj 
the Mother Play" Froebel says: 

"The beast lives only in the present; oi 
past and future he knows naught. But to 
man belong not only the present, but also| 
the future and the past. His thought piercesi 
the heaven of the future and hope is born.i 
He learns that all human life is one life ;i 
that all human joys and sorrows are his joys 
and sorrows, and through participation 
enters the present heaven — the heaven of 
love. He turns his mind towards the past,, 
and out of retrospection wrests a vigorousi 
faith. What soul could fail to conquer an 
invinciple trust, in the pure, the good, the 
holy, the ideally human, the truly divine, if 
it would look with single eye into its own 
past, into the past of history? Could there 
be a man in whose soul such a contempla- 
tion of the past would fail to blossom into 
devout insight, into self-conscious and self- 
comprehending faith? Must not such a 
retrospect unveil the truth? Must not the 
beauty of the unveiled truth allure him to 
divine doing, divine living? All that is high 
and holy in human life meets in that faith 
which is born of the unveilingf of a heaven 
that has always been ; in that hope born ofj 
a vision of the heaven that shall be ; in that) 
love which creates a heaven in the eternal 

The significance of the retrospective ref- 
erence as a foundation for faith, is not 
merely a beautiful theory. Froebel dis- 
cerned that which later day educational in- 
sight is just now discovering; namely, that 
what takes place previous to school days is 
of primary importance. Froebel studied the 
periods of infancy, childhood and boyhood 
to discover their characteristic activities.* 
He saw in the simplest experience in the 
home of even the common day laborer, op- 
portunities for participation in activities 
that expand the whole life of the child.** 

*"Education by Development," p. 165, 



He saw in each child a discoverer; and in 
he development of experience, the dis- 
;overy of a new world, the control of which 
s sought by the child through the uncon- 
scious functioning of the impulse to talk, to 
}lay, to investigate and to represent or ex- 
press by aid of plastic mediums. Life to 
:he child is a pageantry, unfolding so rap- 
dly that it is only these most constantly re-- 
nirring experiences of this natural educa- 
tion that take root; to these the purposeful 
education of the school must return for its 
substantial foundation. Maternal love and 
nsight have gradually introduced the child 
:o the outside world, proceeding from the 
lear to the more remote. Purposeful edu- 
ction should begin and proceed by the 
same plan, but with full exercise of its right 
:o select and arrange experience with ref- 
erence to its consciously conceived aims. 
* Remembering always that when Froebel 
wrote "The Education of Man" he had not 
:onceived the idea of the kindergarten, one 
nay, with great profit study "General Con- 
sideration" in Chapter VI on the "Connec- 
tion between the School and the Family and 
:he Subjects of Instruction it Implies." The 
positions assumed are, in the main, appli- 
:able to the kindergarten and are helpful to 
the kindergartner for inspiration, admoni- 
tion and instruction. The burden of the 
lrgument is that all genuine education in 
ts first stages must find in the "union of 
family and school life the indispensible 
requisite of the education of the period." 
Froebel deplores practice that garnishes the 
minds of children with "empty foreign 
knowledge," and asks "Shall we ever cease 
stamping our children like coins?" These 
things are, for Froebel, the "mind killing- 
practices" that minimize our best intentions 
and defraud children of their right to seek 
knowledge and insight in the "sunshine and 
conditions of their own life." Hence, train- 
ing and instruction should start from the 
pupil and his nearest surroundings and 
should again return to him. 

The nature and needs of the child determ- 
ine the courses of instruction and indicate 
the various exercises that will most com- 
pletely satisfy these requirements. Froebel 

"The various directions of this unified 
school and family life, of this active educa- 
tional life, are indicated by the degree of 
development man has attained at this stage, 

""Education of Man," chs. 2 and 3. 

**"Education of Man," pp. 84 and 85. 

by the inner and outer needs of the boy 
entering upon this stage of pupilage. They 
are of necessity, the following:" 

In substance these are the various "sub- 
jects of instruction" in the first stage of ed- 
ucation that are to unify the life of the home 
with the life of the school (all of which are 
to be found in varying degree in the modern 
kindergarten program) ; the quickening, or 
cultivation of the religious sense through 
the office of prayer and the "memorizing of 
religious utterances concerning nature, man, 
and their relation to God;" the care and de- 
velopment of the body as servant andbearer 
of the mind ; the observation of nature pro- 
ceeding from the near to the more remote ; 
the development of language power; the 
use of materials, solid andplastic, for system- 
atic representation, exercises in draw- 
ing and the study of color; play, repre- 
sentative and free ; literature — the enrich- 
ment of the incidents of daily life by means 
of stories, legends, fables, fairytales; and 
finally, "all this is interspersed in the ordin- 
ary school and family life, with the ordinary 
occupations of home and school." 

"If we compare the just enumerated sub- 
jects of the educational life of home and 
school, they appear grouped in accordance 
with the inner needs of boyhood into sub- 
jects (a) of the more quiet, calm, inner life; 
(b) of the receptive, intro-active life; (c) of 
the more expressive outwardly formative 
life. They completely meet the needs, 
therefore, of man in general 

Furthermore, it will be noticed that they 
develop, exercise, and cultivate all the 
senses, all the inner and outer powers of 
man, and thus meet the requirements of hu- 
man life in general. 

Lastly, it will be seen that a simple, or- 
derly home and school life can easily meet 
the requirements of human development at 
this stage.* 

Each of these general headings Froebel 
develops at length with many illustrations; 
but the method that is here indicated is the 
instruction method of the traditional school. 

Froebel recommends the following start- 
ing points of an orderly procedure, and 
gives reasons for his choices in these words : 

"The boy will, of course, see most clearly 
and appreciate most fully the conditions and 
relations of objects that are in closest and 
most constant connection with him, that 
owe their being to him, or at least have in 
their being some reference to him. These 
♦"Education of Man," pp. 235-237. 

4 6 


are the things of his nearest surroundings — 
the things Of the sitting-room, the house, 
the garden, the farm, the village (or city), 
the meadow, the field, the forest, the 

We must now consider the problem of 
the kindergarten program from another 
point of view. It is not enough to under- 
stand its retrospective reference alone. It 
will be seen at once that in the educative 
work thus begun this reference, important 
as it is, is only one factor in a process that 
requires for its progression the immediate 
reference of the present, and the reference 
to the future. The mediating office of the 
kindergarten is best seen in this three-fold 
reference to the development of child life. 
The retrospective view reveals the home 
with its ideal of nurture. The prospective 
view reveals the school with its ideal of in- 
struction. In the kindergarten these ideals 
meet in the ideal of training which partakes 
of the nature of both nurture and instruc- 
tion. The ends of nurture are achieved on 
the one hand, and the conditions of instruc- 
tion are made possible on the other, through 
the development of the essentially human 
qualities in the child and the gradual ex- 
tension of these qualities over a larger area 
of experience. From the vantage ground 
of the kindergarten the home is seen in per- 
spective. The child finds that the experi- 
ences of home and of nature are the familiar 
experiences of all the children in kinder- 
garten; and these experiences assume val- 
ues and proportions hitherto unknown. The 
child has entered into the companionship of 
children of his own age, experience, and in- 
terests; and in the environment of the kin- 
dergarten, selected and arranged with sole 
reference to child development, the "con- 
sciousness of kind" develops through the 
gradual recognition of a common bond, a 
common will, a common good. 

The selection of subject-matter for the 
humanitarian program is characterized byl 
exceeding simplicity and naturalness. The 
human experiences that enter into it are 
the experiences which are vital to child life. 
They are interesting; hence do not have to 
be made so through the devices of the kin- 
dergartner. It should not be understood! 
that there is mere repetition and dead imi-j 
tation of familiar experiences. Each situa- 
tion is selected with reference to its intrinsic! 
value in the developing life of the child and 
becomes a joyous center of thought and' 
action. It is lived in a very real sense be-; 
cause it is shared with many. It is thej 
center of increasingly conscious activitiesl 
directed to no other end than the control of! 
the experience in question. Specifically,, 
then, the experiences of the home, — the life 1 
of the child, his playthings and playmates;' 
the activities of each member of the family;: 
the human relationships upon which the| 
maintenance of the home depends ; the in-j 
timate home festivals, — these are not newi 
experiences for the child ; but they are livedj 
again in such a way that out of the pre-i 
viously familiar experience there emerges! 
the qualitatively new experience, enlarged,; 
enriched, and corrected. The child's nature; 
and needs do not demand that experience' 
be organized upon the basis of formal ideas;! 
but it is a matter of transcendent import- 
ance that the child's outlook on the world 
of persons and things shall, at this stage of 
his development, be truly humane. 

We have dwelt upon only one of the con- 
stant sources of experience in child life from 
which to select the subject-matter for the 
humanitarian program. Nature, as the sec- 
ond constant source of experience will be 
considered in the next paper. 

♦"Education of Man," p. 251. 





The difficulty in obtaining personal in- 
jstruction in black-board drawing and the 
i continued demand for such work has 
• prompted the renewal of these articles for 
the current year. While the illustrations 
may be copied with profit by the beginner 
in order to acquaint her with the several 
mediums, they should mainly serve as sug- 
gestions to work out individual ideas. In 
.order to save space and time, the author has 

■ taken the liberty of referring to previous 
.issues as to the various strokes and other 

i Illustration No. i shows the manipulation 
jof chalk and charcoal as applied to grapes, 
berries, etc. In number one, the grapes, be- 
gin by sketching lightly the general form of 
the leaves and bunches of the fruit, then 
with a half stick of chalk, boldly lay in the 
;leaves, using the C stroke; in representing 
ithe individual grapes, use a piece of chalk 
i about an inch long and holding it flat against 
:the board, give it a circular twist; after a 
•sufficient number have been put in accent, 
Ithe near ones with the pointed chalk, using 

■ considerable pressure as indicated in the 

■ illustration. This sketch may be used as a 
running border or a calendar with good ef- 

fect. Number two, in the same illustration, 
shows how charcoal may effectively be 
used; begin by rubbing in the gray ground, 

using a whole stick of chalk held flat against 
the board and moving it vertically and hori- 
zontally over the given space until it is 
evenly covered. The berries are then put m 
with a small stick f charcoal, using the 
same method as given for the grapes; the 
pointed chalk is then used to touch in the 
high-lights. In number three we have made 
use of charcoal exclusively, blending it with 
with the finger; here, too, the high-lights 
were touched in with a vigorous stroke of 
the pointed chalk. 

Illustration II shows the C stroke as ap- 
plied to a representation of the pumpkin, 
apple, etc., in fact, all fruits and vegetables 
may be rendered with this stroke. The 
preliminary steps indicated at the left show 
plainly the method of procedure. 

A word in closing about the materials. 
The writer in his experience has found that 
the enamelled chalk made by a Waltham 
firm serves his purpose best, though any 
other will do the srme service provided it be 
soft and smooth ; avoid using the so-called 
"dustless crayon." It is too hard and gritty. 
The charcoal referred to may be had from 
any art material and is known as OO, or 
very soft. 



In my first article upon Reading Circles 
for Mothers I called attention to certain 
topics in two of the books mentioned in the 
Mothers' library, namely: (2) "Love and 
Law in Child Training," and (1) "The 
Child." (See Kindergarten Magazine, Feb. 

Each individual kmdergartner must judge 
for herself what other books on the list are 

best adapted for the particular group of 
mothers in which she is interested. There 
should be no uniformity, for mothers must 
be studied as well as children. 

If the mothers of a group are well edu- 
cated women, I suggest running" through 
the tables of contents of five or six books 
at the first meeting this fall, for the purpose 
of arousino- the desire to read and discuss 


this or that chapter. It may be advisable to 
have the circle appoint a committee to re- 
port a list of topics for the year and after 
it is accepted to circulate it. The secretary 
of the club or circle should prepare copies 
as it may be hardly worth while to print the 
small number needed. 

In some cases it will doubtless be better 
for the kindergartner to divide the books to 
be considered. I suggest that a happy re- 
sult may be reached, especially by young 
kindergartners, by deciding upon the ex- 
amination of the song books used in the 

Pass them to the mothers and give a few 
minutes for observation. 

Miss Poulsson's wonderful finger-plays 
and the Neidlinger collection of "Small 
Songs for Small Singers" will attract atten- 
tion and induce comment. Their humorous 
element will help to break down any undue 
formality on the part of either mother or 
kindergartner. "A sense of humor is a 
means of grace," says Van Dyke, and a 
hearty laugh after the kindergartner has 
sung one or two of the songs will start a 
sympathetic current. 

The mothers may be led to tell some of 
the favorite home songs, and perhaps they 
can recall the age at which their children 
first carried a tune and what it was. 

The value of the lullaby in soothing a 
sick, tired, or irritable child may be men- 
tioned, and the kindergartner may tell how 
she uses lullabies during rest periods. 

A few remarks may be made, incidentally 
in regard to the difference between the 
funny songs of the kindergarten and the 
comic street song so readily picked up. The 
Buster Brown, the Happy Hooligan, and 
Foxy Grandpa stories are only too familiar 
to many of our city children. 

The popular newspaper and the comic 
actor have recognized a need of human na- 
ture, but have they not both catered to it 
instead of using it as a stepping stone to a 
more elevating humor? It is right to dis- 
cover an "active appetite," but not to pam- 
per it, but rather to lead it on to a higher 
stage of functioning. 

On the other hand, our kindergarten 
songs and stories have been over sentiment- 
al, and it is this that has led in part to such 
a parody on mothers' meetings as was of- 
fered to the public last year in a well-known 
weekly by a clever writer. 

The smile is not far from the tear, and in 
suggesting the value of humor and amuse- 

ment in the first meetings, we need not les- 
sen our hold upon the vital truths and more 
serious readings to follow. 

"Heaven is not gained by a single bound." 
The kindergartner will accomplish a great 
deal for the future life of the child if she 
leads the young mother to realize the value 
of song in the home and to exercise good 
judgment in selecting song books. 

An able author has recently compiled a 
book entitled, "Songs Every Child Should 
Know," which may be secured through the 
Traveling Library* previously mentioned. 

Songs of different nationalities may be 
called for in some of the gatherings of moth- 
ers. These will prove a means of arousing 
pleasant memories of homes in other lands. 
Kindergartners working in settlements tell 
us they have found mutual profit in thus 
adding to the common fund of knowledge 
and of sympathy. 

At the next meeting mothers should in 
like manner be led to admire children's pic- 
ture books. Such a meeting should be held 
long enough before Christmas to have its 
effect on Christmas presents and books. 

The value of animal picture books and of 
country scenes should be emphasized. Es- 
pecially does the city child need many such 
pictures to make up for the absence of ani- 
mal life in his environment. While pictures 
of the circus and the zoo need not be dis- 
carded, I should plead strongly for the ani- 
mal in its natural haunts. 

Bet pictures of pet animals with children 
feeding and tending them predominate over 
those of wild animals. 

While the personification of the animal in 
story and fable is not objectionable as in 
Old Mother Hubbard, Puss in Boots and 
the Lion and the Mouse, still the animals 
of the barnyard and the farm, the duck pond 
and the meadow — "Where all the long day, 
two little frolicsome lambs are at play" are 
preferable for the wee ones. 

Froebel's Mother Play pictures should be 
shown and the suggestiveness of one or two 
briefly explained. The history of the book 
may be given and a promise made to con- 
sider it more fully after the mothers have 
read it and tested their own children's in- 
terest in its quaint pictures. Present, also, 
if possible, the "Orbis Pictus" of John 
Amos Comenius, which was, indeed, the 
first children's picture book. 

The first edition of this book appeared in 
1658 and for a century it was the most pop- 

*Traveling Library, 190 Amsterdam Av., N. Y. C. 



ular text-book in Europe. It is said that ill 
those parts of Germany where the schools 
had been broken up by the "Thirty Years' 
War," mothers taught their children from 
its pages. 

The rules given by Comenius in the au- 
thor's preface are full of suggestion to 
mothers and teachers upon the right use of 
a picture book even to the present day. 
He says: 

i. Let it be given to children into their 
hands, to delight themselves withal as they 
please, with the sight of the pictures, and 
making them as familiar to themselves as 
may be, and that even at home before they 
put to school. 

2. Then let them be examined ever and 
anon (especially now in the school), what 
this thing or that thing is, and is called, so 
that they may see nothing which they know 
not how to name, and that they can name 
nothing which they cannot show. 

3. And let the things named be showed 
not only in the picture, but also in them- 
selves (that is. show the real object if pos- 

.4 Let them be suffered also to imitate 
the pictures by hand, to quicken the atten- 
tion and to practice the nimbleness of the 

Thus Comenius appears as Froebel's fore- 
runner in advancing finger plays. I am sure 
mothers will nse all picture books more in- 
telligently with their children because of 
this little touch of history. 

In a later article we will consider "The 
School of Infancy" as described by Com- 

Thoughts on Discipline from Rlchter's "Levana." 

The most delightful and inexhaustible plav is speak- 
ing; first of the child with itself, and still more of the 
parents with it. In play and for pleasure you cannot 
speak too much with the children; nor in punishing or 
teaching them, too little. —Jean Paul Richter. 


Jack Frost Comes 

One night in October Jack Frost came 
to the farm, and tip-toed around to see if 
everything was ready for him. 

The few plants that had not been carried 
into the house were covered over with a 
large cloth to keep them warm, and in the 
vegetable garden there was nothing left but 
great bundles of cornstalks standing like 
Indian tents. He knew the pumpkins and 
squashes must be in the barn, so he scamp- 
ered there as fast as he could to see if the 
doors and windows were shut fast. Indeed 
they were, for Tommy and his father had 
been expecting Jack Frost any night now, 
and had worked hard for ever so many days 
so that nothing should be left in his way. 

But it seems they had forgotten some- 
thing after all, for way down in the orchard 
behind the garden, under the very last apple 
tree of all, what did Jack Frost find but a 
great heap of red apples ! 

He knew the farmer must have forgotten 
them, so he flew to the house as fast as the 
wind, and tried to get in and tell someone 
about the apples; but the doors and win- 
dows were shut fast. He could look in and 
see the family sitting there as cozy and 
warm as toast ; not one of them had any idea 
how cold it was outside, nor who was peep- 
ing in the window at them, trying to tell 

them about that pile of red apples in the 

After a while Tommy put on his cap, and 
ran out into the yard, and the minute the 
door opened, in flew Jack Frost as fast as 
the wind, and jumped right on to the 
farmer's ear trying to tell him what he had 
forgotten. But it was of no use. for the 
farmer only clapped his hand on his ear, 
and said: "Whew! It is frosty tonight. I 
am glad everything is in out of the cold." 

So Jack Frost had to get out again the 
best way he could and find Tommy. It was 
not hard to find him, but it was hard to 
make him stand still and listen ; they had a 
regular race all over the lawn, and round 
and round the barn; then into the garden, 
and finally away out past the garden into 
the orchard. 

How they did scamper in and out among 
the apple trees, until they came to the last 
tree of all! Then Tommy stood still and 
listened to Jack Frost, for there, right in 
front of him was the heap of red apples. 

It did not take long for him to run to the 
house and tell his father, and you may be 
sure that in a very short time every red 
apple was in the barn and the door shut fast. 

Then Jack Frost laughed softly to him- 
self, and started in for a good night's fun. 





LAURA FISHER, Boston, Mass. 
Address Given at I. K. U., N. Y. 1907. 


To say that, to my mind, the study of the 
Mother-Play is the most important part of 
the kindergarten training is merely to 
make a statement that indicates the value I 
individually place upon one subject of study 
as over against many other subjects in the 
course of study planned for the student in 
the training school. It does not imply that 
I consider it the one and only subject to be 

The value placed upon the Mother-Play 
will depend upon one's recognition of it 
as a clue to Froebel's thought and method, 
and also upon the importance one is in- 
clined to place upon Froebel's unique con- 
tribution to the education of young children 
in what is known and meant by his sym- 
bolic method. If I believe that the Mother- 
Play is Froebel's statement of some of the 
most important aspects of his system, I will 
search it for clues to his thought. If I be- 
lieve that it is merely a collection of plays 
for use in the nursery, I will be interested 
in it as throwing side-lights on his general 
view of education but will not consider it 
an essential and integral part of the educa- 
tion of the child in the kindergarten and 
will therefore not give it the supreme place 
in the training of the kindergartner. Now 
I hold that what is most important and in- 
fluential in the education and development 
of the child must be of vast importance to 
the teacher of the child; and to me Froe- 
bel's philosophy of education and of life, 
and Froebel's interpretation of child-nature 
its needs and its unfolding find their su- 
preme statement in his Mother-Play. 

Let us consider for the purpose of get- 
ting our bearings, what the Mother-Play 
should mean to our observation of the child 
and therefore look at it from the standpoint 
of "Child Study." 

We should all agree that to study the 
child means first of all and from the most 
superficial aspect, to observe what the child 
does, how he gives expression to what goes 
on within him, how he reacts to the influ- 
ences and conditions that surround him. 

To make a record of these facts as observed 
by any individual is of course to inventory 
the things we see, or come across. Each 
individual's inventory will depend entirely 
upon the eyes with which he comes to look 
upon this particular world of child-life. 
Whether they are good normal eyes really 
meant for seeing, or whether there are 
motes and beams in them that cloud his 
vision. Now here, too, as in all other forms 
of mere sense-observation, it will be nee 
essary to make sure that the diseases known 
as astigmatism, near-sightedness and far- 
sightedness, are recognized and corrected 
and that cataracts be in due time removed 
— and, most important that no injury befall 
the optic nerve and create incurable blind- 

So that it would seem at the outset that 
merely to observe what children do neces- 
sitates correct vision on the part of the ob- 
server. And correct vision here as every- 
where is not born but educated. 

What to look for and how to look for it; 
what to see and what not to see ; how to 
judge what one does see and how to utilize 
it so that the child may be reinforced by 
this larger, truer vision of himself — these 
are questions that all child-students need 
to answer. 

We talk a great deal, in these days of 
scientific interest, about making people ob- 
servant. We sometimes forget that undis- 
criminating observation is tiresome and ig- 
norant and swamps the mind behind the 
senses. It makes for superficiality and ma- 
terialism and binds the soul in fetters of 
clay. What is true of the child is equally 
true of the child-student. I am reminded, 
as I write, of a friend's description of a 
company of bird-seekers, who started at 
dawn to take a long journey to see the birds 
and who spent their day not in interpreting 
what they saw, or in enjoying the beauty 
and significance of the birds in their haunts, 
or their relation to environment, but who 
worried over and quarreled over the num- 
ber of birds they had seen. Was it 41 or 



was it 45 ? That was the supreme question. 
Therefore let me say again, that merely to 
observe and tabulate the child and chil- 
dren's doings is vain, foolish and fruitless 
occupation for the student. She must learn 
how to see, and what to see that she may 
make to herself a true picture of child-life. 
She must know the universal characteristics 
of childhood, the universal child; and the 
universal phases of child-life. 

And how shall she be taught and by 
whom ? By the great students and inter- 
preters of childhood. By those who have 
learned of others and who, availing them- 
selves of the treasures of past knowledge, 
may open the eyes of future generations of 
students to the vision of the true, the abid- 
ing, the significant aspects of childhood. 

I can never forget the method by which 
I was taught Biology in one of our great 
Scientific Institutions. It was a great 
teacher and expert scientist who led the 

i. We were given definite specimens to 
observe and these specimens both of plant 
and animal life were typical specimens. 

2. They were studied for their typical 

3. In the course of our observation the 
facts common to all our specimens were 
noted and emphasized. 

4. The deviations from these facts were 
not essential except to show deviation from 
the type. 

5. The type facts were made the con- 
scious basis for further observation and 

That is the true method of scientific ob- 
servation whether of earth-worms or chil- 
dren. Therefor let us pursue that method 
with our students. Give them eyes that are 
understanding. Illuminate their vision. 
How? By learning from the Mother-Play 
what are the typical manifestations of child- 
nature and the typical experiences of child- 
hood and observing individual children in 
the light of these. Thus we will lift their 
partial unintelligent, hap-hazard and trivial 
observation of children, of each child, into 
a significant, sympathetic, comprehending 
observation of child-life and nature. In the 
Mother-Play I find as the residuum of 
countless observations, the typical aspects 

of child-nature and child-life. In it Froebel 
has deposited those varied universal phases 
of child-nature and children's experiences 
which in the study of the child correspond 
to the typical forms of life and life's pro- 
cesses that science bids us study if we would 
understand living organisms and their evo- 
lution and development. By which alone 
we shall be able to measure, see and under- 
stand each particular specimen of its kind, 
each individual member of a great class of 

Having arrived at some general basis for 
the observation of childhood, we need of 
course to learn how to interpret wdiat we 
observe. The student who merely names 
the fact is a very ignorant person. She 
must learn to understand it. What is its 
origin, what its goal ? These are the ques- 
tions she must learn to answer. To see the 
fact in its total setting; to know what it 
signifies in the development of the child; to 
recognize what gives rise to it, and whither 
it points — these are important things for the 
student and teacher of children — things she 
must begin to comprehend. She will natur- 
ally have her own interpretations, and she 
will interpret in the light of her own "apper- 
ceiving mass." She will do just what the 
child and what the race have done. By in- 
trospection she will explain the external 
world. By an unconscious imputing of her- 
self to that which she looks upon, will she 
explain this new realm of her experience? 
Well — what shall we say — shall she con- 
tinue to believe that the sun revolves 
around the earth, because it looks so to her? 
Shall she do this until she by her own unaid- 
ed seii stumbles upon the fact that she is 
mistaken? or shall she be taken by the hand 
and gently led to build up in herself a true 
standard of explanation ? Shall she find 
that she, as part of this great whole, can 
learn from it by accepting the vision and 
entering into the eyes of others, as the 
Blessed Boys entered into the eyes of the 
Pater Seraphicus? Naturally I believe that 
she should. Naturally, holding firmly to the 
faith that only through human solidarity 
can the human individual develop, I must 
hold equally firmly to the faith that enlight- 
enment through others is the way to knowl- 
edge freed from mere individual opinion. 



As a help therefore to the interpretation of 
tne manifestations of child-life; as a means 
of understanding the genesis and the goal 
of these manifestations, I consider the 
Mother-flay indispensable. 

You may ask wiiy do I consider it neces- 
sary for students to understand the genesis 
and the goal of childhood's expressions and 
experiences? Because one does not fully 
understand anything until one understands 
both genesis and goal. The whence and 
whither, the how and why, are not these 
the questions that even the child asks? By 
which the soul is forever tormented and 
delighted. Through the answers to which 
it at last finds peace ? How shall any teach- 
er learn rightly to deal with the child un- 
less she can explain to herself what it is 
that makes him do and say thus and so? 
How can she judge the significance of his 
acts unless she knows where they lead, and 
what they will ultimate in ? Is it not there- 
fore essential that the student shah learn 
both to understand and to rightly measure 
what she sees? Must she not get at the 
root of the matter, must she not, like the 
physician, make a correct mental diagnosis 
of the child's doings and sayings? Must she 
not learn to see what the final outcome of 
certain phases and experiences are and so 
learn to encourage or discourage them? 

To help the student to a clue whereby 
she can rightly interpret child-nature; to 
give her some measure of insight into the 
meaning and significance of childhood's ex- 
periences and manifestations ; to see the 
final outcome in her study of embryonic 
forms; to lift, as the poet says, each fact and 
phase of child life to its universal consecra- 
tion and so rightly to measure and judge the 
fact; to achieve all this, 1 look upon the 
Mother-Play as the most helpful and influ- 
ential guide. 

The effect of the Mother-Play Upon the 
Culture of the Student. 

My third reason for the value I place 
upon the study of the Mother-Play is the 
influence it has upon the mind and character 
of the student and the kindergartner . 

That contact with childhood keeps the 
heart young and the spirit hopeful, the kin- 
dergarten testifies in every one of its en- 

thusiastic disciples. I value the practical 
work with the cmldren not only because ot 
what the children get from the kindergarten 
but because the lostermg care of childhood 
makes lor a fine womannood; and the giv- 
ing of one's best to the young and weak and 
ignorant calls forth the hne qualities of ten- 
derness and sympathy, unselfishness and 
loving service, it makes the young woman 
pure in heart to come into daily touch with 
those who belong to the Kingdom of heav- 
en. What this contact with the children 
does for the young woman's heart, namely, 
to make it pure and strong and to keep her 
emotions wholesome, something should in 
some similar, analogous way do for her 
mind. The daily work with young children 
who are simple and ignorant easily degen- 
erates into intellectual weakness. To be 
always dealing with the simplest of facts in 
the simplest way is apt to induce people to 
lei tneir minds he idle and to content them- 
selves, with little intellectual activity. There- 
lore it becomes important to give to stu- 
dents in training schools an intellectual 
stimulus that will rouse their thinking ac- 
tivities and make them hunger and thirst, 
not lor information, but for thought. Fur- 
thermore, the quality of this intellectual 
training should ue of a kind that gives not 
more knowledge, but insight, a very differ- 
ent thing. The facts of the kindergarten 
are easily mastered — like all facts, as mere 
items of information. But insight into the 
meaning of facts necessitates a philosophy; 
and in the philosophy of Froebel, especially 
as it is embodied in the Mother-Play, the 
student gets a large view of education, of 
life and of the world in which both take 
their place. Searching into the great prin- 
ciples that underlie these simple experiences 
of childhood ; recognizing the nature and 
significance of the ideals imbedded in them; 
following them to their final goal, the stu- 
dent finds herself in the midst of a world- 
view which explains her to herself and be- 
gins to make life and humanity clear. She 
gets a "vision splendid" that sheds its glory 
upon all the great and small things of life 
and helps her to view them in the light of 

For the insight into truth then; for the 
splendid training thought; for the large 



view of life; for the habit of measuring all 
tilings by their enternal standard, 1 value 
the study of the Mother-Play. How it 
throws into relief the dignity of childhood 
and womanhood. How it lifts on to high 
ground the simple everyday experiences of 
life by showing their universal nature and 
significance. How it opens up the world of 
nature and man's relations to it. How it 
clears and explains the nature and power of 
human institutions and reveals the structure 
and activities of mind, and finally, what light 
it throws upon the processes of human de- 
velopment and the unfolding of the child. 

But this is not all. There are many who 
will testify with me to the power the study 
of the Mother-Play has exercised upon their 
lives and character. Its truths are so large 
and deep, its applications so wide that it 
brings not only light but food and strength 
to every aspiring soul. 

Touching as it does upon every supreme 
relationship of life, it makes clear to the stu- 
dent what her duties in these relationships 
are. Searching the meaning of facts it stim- 
ulates the student to a searching study of 
the facts that pertain to her individual ex- 
perience. Emphasizing constantly the need 

of right attitudes of mind and heart, it 
brings home to students the need of placing 
themselves in those attitudes for which the 
ideals of life call. 

Teaching upon every one of its pages that 
life is more than meat, it develops a passion 
for the life-giving influences that fill the 
world. Breathing on every line that "all 
things that are transitory as symbols are 
sent, it urges the student to look for the 
reality behind and beneath and above and 
around and within the passing fact. Reveal- 
ing in its unique way that all men are one, 
it imposes upon the student the spirit of a 
common humanity and a striving after uni- 
versal communion. And, finally, proclaim- 
ing at each step that the source of the uni- 
verse is a personal God — a father in whose 
image man is made — its call to a struggle 
towards holiness finds its echo in every lis- 
tening heart. 

To the study of the Mother-Play every 
student owes the debt that old ideals, un- 
recognized duties, unrealized possibilities, 
have become illuminated ; and through it 
life once and forever grows into a constrain- 
ing and an infinite opportunity. 


The seventh gift is the gift of surface. It 
consists of variously colored square, triang- 
ular, circular and oblong tablets, made eith- 
er of wood or pasteboard. 

Previous to this time knowledge of 
wholes, parts, and their combinations have 
been considered in the gifts. The child has 
seen the surface in connection with solids 
of the previous gifts. Now he sees the sur- 
face separated or abstracted from the solid, 
and in this abstraction must learn to regard 
the surface not only as a part but also as an 
individual whole. 

The solids dealt with three dimensions; 
the tablets represent two dimensions. They 
are therefore the connecting link between 
the solid and the line (one dimension), 
which is the next step in the study of ab- 
straction. This gift, therefore, sharpens 
the observation and prepares the way for 
drawing, line picturing. 

All mental development must begin with 
the concrete and progress toward the ab- 
stract. Froebel in his gifts has perfectly il- 

lustrated this fundamental principle of edu- 
cation. All young teachers would receive 
invaluable information in the unfolding of 
the child mind by a study of Froebel's play 

Authorities differ as to the proper time of 
introducing this gift. Mr. Hailmann is in- 
clined to think the square and triangular 
tablets should follow the use of the fourth 
and fifth gifts. 

Many beautiful lessons having for their 
aims form, place, color, and number may be 
illustrated in the use of this gift. 

In too many primary schools this gift is 
used with only the thought of imitation 
back of it. Children copy designs from the 
blackboard without any mental suggestive- 
ness whatsoever. 

The following is a suggestion for a color 
lesson with circular tablets: 

Place in an envelope two of each of the 
six primary colors. Let children on front 
seats pass one envelope to each child. The 
teacher may tell a story like the following: 



When I was a little girl, I went to visit 
my grandmother. She lived in an old-fash- 
ioned house that set away back in the yard. 
The whole front yard was one big garden 
with little walks or paths through it. 

In the long mornings I loved to walk in 
this garden, stopping now and then to look 
at some beautiful flower or to listen to the 
hum of a brightly-colored insect or the 
sweet notes of a gay bird. 

One day while out walking, I stopped in 
front of a tall flower that was this color 
(here the teacher holds up a cardboard on 
which has been mounted a large piece of 
red paper). Look in your envelopes, chil- 
dren, and see if you can find a tablet that is 
the same color as mine. 

Would you like to play that your desk is 
a garden and this is a red flower growing in 
it ? Then put it in your garden. 

Walking on a little further I found grow- 
ing close to my feet some dear little flowers 
this color (holding up purple). Put this in 
your garden. And while I was stooping 
over these flowers, I saw a gay little crea- 
ture folding his wings to fly away. He, 
too, had been enjoying the flowers, and he 
was this color (holding up yellow). Care 
should be taken not to prolong this lesson 
until the children are tired. 

Suggestion for Lesson in Place. 

The aim of this lesson is to make chil- 
dren familiar with the terms up, down, 
right, left, center, top and bottom. 

Story suggestion : 

Children, do you remember the old fash- 
ioned garden I told you about the other 
day? Well, it was this shape. 

Here pass out an oblong sheet of paper 
to each child and a crayon pencil. 

Would you like to play this paper is your 
garden today and draw some of the flowers 
in it ? Remember, the garden could not 
move around, so we must keep our papers 
very still. 

Continuing the story of the garden bring 
out the following picture of the flowers and 
the butterfly. 

From this simple first lesson develop oth- 
er terms of direction. 

The geometrical forms illustrated in the 
seventh gift are : 



right isosceles, obtuse 
isosceles, equilateral, 
right angled scalence. 

In combination 

Suggestion as to form lesson : 

The seventh gift is a useful preparation 
to all branches of art work, particularly de- 
signs for tiles or parquetry floors and weav- 

Pass out five two-inch squares to each 
child, also a sheet of squared drawing paper 
(inch squares) and crayon pencil. Put the 
squared paper on right hand side of desk — 
the tablets on left hand side. Dictate some 
simple design as: 

With crayon pencil draw on squared pa- 
per. At another time pass out the squared 
papers with the designs drawn upon them 
together with weaving mats. Have the 
children cut the weaving mats and strips 
and weave in their design. This is very 
strong work and leads directly to originality 
in parquetry work and weaving. Weaving 
of this kind is much more valuable than the 
imitative or dictative, although the latter 
have their places in the elementary stages. 

In the use of this gift create the desire to 
originate, giving time and opportunity for 
free play, guarding against the danger of j 
imitation and copy work. 




The Grand Rapids Kindergarten Training School 
will open October first in new and more commodious 
quarters, though in the same building it has form- 
erly occupied, at 23 Fountain street, Grand Rapids, 

The Young Women's Christian Association will 
also occupy rooms in the same building, the library 
and rest room of the Association being on the same 
floor with the Training School. 

Gymnasium work for the school will be conducted 
by the physical director of the Y. W. C. A. in a 
fine new gymnasium. The lunch room of the Y .W. 
C. A. will also be of advantage to students. 

The Training School closed a successful summer 
term August 24th. Sixty-five students were in at- 
tendance, representing the following states: Mon- 
tana, Arkansas, Pennsylvania. Indiana, Wisconsin, 
Ohio, Illinois, Iowa, and Michigan. Special courses 
in Art Spacing and Landscape work in paper cut- 
ting; Water Color studies for the kindergarten. 
Constructive folding and the use of clay and sand 
were given by Miss Julia Locke Frame of Boston, 
in addition to general normal classes held. 

Miss Anna H. Littell. supervisor of kindergartens 
of Dayton, Ohio, and secretary of the International 
Union, gave an address on "Mothers Meetings" and 
also directed classes in literature and other normal 

Dr. J. T. McManis of the Western State Normal 
School of Kalamazoo, Mich., conducted a course in 
psychology, and Miss H. Antoinette Lathron and 
Mrs. Constance Rourke, principals of Grand Rapids 
public schools, gave courses in primary methods and 
blackboard drawing. 

Miss Edith Fish of Sault Ste. Marie, Mich., con- 
ducted the practice kindergarten in connection with 
the Second Avenue Public Play-ground. The public 
school system of Grand Rapids directed five very 
successful play-grounds during the summer, thus 
giving to thousands of city children the advantage 
of out-door exercise with gymnasium apparatus, 
swings, gardening, etc.. also classes in sewing and 
knife work, and a well-conducted kindergarten in 
each play-ground. 

Those who attended the I. K. U. Convention "at 
Milwaukee will recall the inspiring paper given 
by Miss Lucy Gage, then of Oklahoma. Miss Gage 
has just been called to Kalamazoo, Mich., as head 
of the Kindergarten Training Department of the 
Western State Normal School. This opening has 
been accepted only after much deliberation. For 
five years Miss Gage has given of her best to the 
new-born western state. In 1901 she and her par- 
ents went with 50,000 other enterprising people to 
the new territory, led to make the step through an 
article in the "Outlook." whose statements were en- 
dorsed by the Western Trail and Government Re- 
ports. Although unsuccessful in drawing land the 
pioneers decided to stay and help make a new town. 
So interesting were their experiences, living in a 
tent and seeing day by day the marvelous growth 
|of a town that she did not care to return to her 
position as kindergarten director in Chicago. She 
remained, studied the educational situation and, 
'in the fall of 1902, an active campaign was begun 
in Oklahoma City for the organization of free kin- 
dergartens. The usual obstacles, due to ignorance 
or prejudice, were met, but the club women and 
intelligent business men were convinced of the 
need of kindergartens and gave opportunity for 
practical demonstration. Talks, lectures and the 
jactual results with the children soon convinced the 
,skeptical that the kindergarten was an essential in 
every child's education. In January, 1903, another 
'opportunity was seized and a bill introduced into 
the legislature legalizing kindergartens in the pub- 
lic schools of the territory. This became a law 

March 16, after two days of hard thought and work 
to rescue it from the waste basket. Public kinder- 
gartens were at once opened in connection with the 
public schools and Miss Gage made superintendent. 
It was while taking post-graduate work at Teach- 
ers' College last winter that this new opportunity 
came to go to Kalamazoo. To accept it Miss Gage 
must give up the position of supervisor of the Kin- 
dergarten Training Department at Enworth Univer- 
sity, which she had just been elected. The 
good work begun by Miss Gage in Oklahoma City 
made itself felt in other towns in the territory, Guth 
rie, Shawnee, Hobart, Kingfisher, Perry and Enid 
have public kindergartens, besides the three State 
Normal Schools, located at Alva, Weatherford and 

The Pestalozzi-Froebel Kindergarten Training 
School opens September 23 at the Commons, Chi- 
cago. Besides the usual kinderg-rten branches 
there are offered here advantages in art, music and 
physical training. The best courses offered by the 
Social Science Institute are opened to the advanced 
students and students of education. This gives the 
student a broad outlook upon the many problems 
which a kindergartner is sure to meet in time. 
Mrs. Bertha Hofer-Hegner is superintendent; Miss 
Annlia Hofer, Principal. 

The Baltimore Training School for Kindergart- 
ners, Miss Emma Grant Saulsbury and Miss Amanda 
Douglas Saulsbury, principals, began its second 
year of work on September 2 6 at its new location, 
516 Park avenue. 

This school can be traced back in direct line of 
descent to the great national kindergarten move- 
ment which emanated from St. Louis in 1S73, 
where was started the work of making the kinder- 
garten an essential part of the national school sys- 
tem, and which established, under the direction of 
Miss Susan E. Blow, the first thoroughly organized 
kindergarten training school in this country. From 
St. Louis, through the influence of Miss Blow and 
her students, the broader training of kindergartners 
passed to other cities. 

Among the cities particularly fortunate in se- 
curing such training work was Baltimore, where in 
1893. Miss Caroline M. C. Hart, a pupil of Miss 
Blow's and later a training teacher in St. Louis 
and an inspector of the kindergartens in Canada, 
was made director of The Training School of the 
Baltimore Kindergarten Association, — an associa- 
tion under the presidency of Dr. Edward H. Griffen. 
dean of the John Hopkins University. For ten 
years Miss Hart labored and was instrumental in 
the establishment of kindergartens in the public 
schools of Baltimore. The training work developed 
by her was organized upon the broadest and most 
advanced lines, and included the regular kinder- 
garten course of two years, a post-graduate course 
of one year, and a course for the training of normal 
training teachers. 

Miss Hart gave up the work in Baltimore June. 

In September, 1906, her pupils for four years, 
and later her assistant training teacher, Miss Emma 
Grant Saulsbury, opened the Baltimore Training 
School for Kindergartners, which immediately drew 
about it for special study the greater number of 
kindergartners in the city. Junior, Senior and Post- 
graduate classes were organized, and two students 
entered for normal training work. 

The Chicago Kindergarten Institute opens Sep- 
tember 25, 1907, with a good membership, espe- 
cially in the normal class. Miss Alice Temple has 
become one of the faculty. 

The standardizing of the whole course in har- 
mony with the work at the College of Education, 
University of Chicago, is an advance greatly to the 
advantage of the student and regular training. 




Last month we attempted to answer cer- 
tain questions that had been raised in re- 
gard to the biological problem of cellular 
structure in man and the relation of this to 
education. As a corollary of that theory 
I find a question in another letter. 

The writer asks, "What is meant by the 
'Call of the Wild?' and how does it affect 

The "Call of the Wild," in point of fact, 
is a story written by Jack London, in which 
the leading character is a wolf-dog who had 
been transplanted from his primitive habitat 
and humanized by misplaced affection in a 
family of devoted admirers. He is stolen 
and beaten down by a dog trainer and sent 
to Alaska, where he is used as a sled dog. 
When restored to his primitive, ancestral 
environment all his cellular tendency asserts 
itself and the majestic stimulus of Alaskan 
wild, of snow and ice and mighty forest, 
arouses all the primitive wolf instinct, and 
he lives over in himself the wolf race, all of 
which has been reawakened by the environ- 
ment which originally developed it. 

Applied to education, the "Call of the 
Wild" has a very close relation to the cellu- 
lar theory of life. The child has certain 
native instincts and tendencies to which he 
responds spontaneously. 

In the older education the aim of the 
teacher was frequently to find what these 
native instincts and tendencies were, and 
to spend the time in depriving the child of 
everything that would appeal to these and 
to compel him to do the things he hated to 
do or could not do. on the principle, that if 
he forced himself to accomplish that, for 
which he had no active ability, he would 
need no education for those things for 
which he had no inborn tendency. 

Our present day aim in education is to 
pick out of our modern and complex con- 
ditions the material, as stimulus, that will 
contain as much as possible of the primitive 
environment which originally created the 
ability and through that, lead over to true 

But not yet have we reached the true ap- 
plication of that great doctrine. How many 

a man and woman have felt the "call of the 
wild" and immediately recognized that for 
them how futile was the effort to attempt 
to answer it ! The wild might call but they 
could not hear. Their ears, which had been 
dulled by the dead routine of school life, had 
lost the keenness to detect the meaning 
sound of nature's voice. How often the wild 
hath beckoned and they could not see because 
their eyes had been turned from the things 
of nature and of life to the artificial things 
that weakened the keenness of discernment 
born and fostered by the actual contact 
with nature's great reality! The wild in- 
deed might call, but their feet were not able 
to trace the paths through forests and over 
mountain and along precipice and beetling 
ridge because their footsteps had grown 
weak and tottering and uncertain in the me- 
chanical and artificial direction of the things 
of an artificial life. The wild might call, 
but they could not touch the things of na- 
ture, because the hand had grown palsied 
at the unstimulating touch of the unreal and 
the unsuited. 

And how often, even when we hear and 
see and touch and long to respond to this 
call, we find it too late ! We have been 
separated so long from this primitive source 
of strength and inspiration; that if we do go 
back to the wild, to the real in life, to na- 
ture, to environment, instead of getting 
strength from the contact we are led even 
deeper into the valley of death. And for 
this dullness and this inability to respond to 
that which originally gave life and power 
and joy the teacher is responsible, if she 
turn the child's eyes away from nature and 
his footsteps away from the paths whence 
nature guides him, and the hands away from 
the things for which nature made them 
grow. Woe ! to her if she feed his fancy and 
foster artificial tastes and unnatural habits 
that will make it impossible ever for him 
to go back to true nature and derive from 
that inexhaustible storehouse the strength 
and energy and originality which nature 
alone can give. 

The "Call of the Wild," then, in educa- 
tion is the call of life, the call of nature, of 



humanity, the call of the real as opposed 
to the call of the artificial, as opposed to the 
study of fossil and stolid book. 

We advise every teacher to read Jack 
London's "Call of the Wild" and see in that 
wolf-dog the great illustration of cellular 
theory and the possibilities of native re- 
sponse that lie hidden in every human or- 
ganism and the source whence the proper 
material may be selected to arouse that 
power into activity and to lead it on from 
native selfish, egotistic tendencies into ac- 
quired, higher and altruistic duty. 

The "Call of the Wild" suggests in a 
large measure the place of nature work in 
the curriculum, the material to be chosen 
for educational development, the excursion 
to field and stream and mountain ; the ac- 
tual touch of the earth in the sowing of the 
seed and the cultivating of the shoot and 
the fostering of the plant ; in the application 
of the fruit to its fuller use. It suggests all 
the great activities that the kindergarten 
and the primary grades today stand for, the 
development of the native tendency through 
proper material into acquired, higher abil- 
ity ; the building on the cellular foundation 
that aeons upon aeons have laid ; the appre- 
ciation of the sanctity of every cell that took 
ages to build up and to transmit, and the re- 
sponsibility of the teacher to know the great 
task she has in leading the child on to the 
higher and the fuller life without leading it 
away from all that is best in the life that 
originally gave it its ability and that ulti- 
mately must reinforce it to do the highest 
work possible to the organism. 

Here is another letter received by the Ed- 
itorial Department, asking some very im- 
portant questions : 

"Editor of the Kindergarten Magazine, — 

"Dear Sir: — 

"I am just reading a doctor's thesis on the 'Theory 
of Knowledge." I am reading it because I liked the 
Jtitle and expected to find therein some effort to 
explain the gensis of human knowledge. I hoped 
to see some light on the Theory of Thought. In- 
stead, I am finding the historical discussion of the 
various systems of philosophy and only incidentally 
'do I find any reference at all to the Theory of 
'Knowledge as applied to teaching, which is the 
[important aspect for the teacher. Can you help 
me in this matter? What is the Theory of Knowl- 
edge and how does it affect teaching?" 

I have been trying to think who the man 
is who wrote the Doctor's Thesis. I know 
of only one case in the graduate department 
of the universities where any such thesis 
lias appeared* in the last several years, and I 

have not the pamphlet at hand to see how 
far the writer's criticism is justified. How- 
ever, let us see if we can throw some light 
on it from the standpoint of the teacher. 

The Theory of Knowledge is a theory of 
how we get to know. The reason for tak- 
ing it up is. that if we can show there is a 
natural way of getting to know, or a theory 
of knowing, there must be a natural way of 
teaching; and if we can trace, as the writer 
puts it, the genesis of the mental processes 
involved in learning, then we have at least 
general directions for teaching. 

The first one to take up the theory of 
knowledge in a methodic way was Plato. 
He started out with the assumption that 
there exist two extremes of matter and 
mind, so completely distinct from and op- 
posed to each other in nature that one in 
no way can be made to act directly upon the 
other. His problem, therefore, was to 
bridge over the gulf between matter and 
mind. Diagramatically he represented it 
as follows : 

.Matter Mind 

He said that there existed in the mind prior 
to birth certain innate general forms or no- 
tions to which corresponded certain general 
type aspects of truth or objects. For in- 
stance : When the child tasted food or 
heard music, or felt the heat, or touched a 
chair, immediately that general innate form 
interpreted his experience and he recog- 
nized the object from the general form 
which existed in the mind, (by what mys- 
terious process Plato never said) prior to 

Inasmuch as Plato began his solution 
from the mental side — from the side of the 
innate idea — he has been called an Idealist, 
in education down to the present time — 
and has bad his followers in philosophy and 
in education down to the present time — 
those who say that all the truth is in the 
mind and it is only necessary to present the 
proper objects and the mind will recognize 

Aristotle, a pupil of Plato, rejected the 
theory of his master and said, as a matter of 
fact, no two people saw things alike; no 
two people interpreted the same experi- 
ences alike ; no two people reported the re- 
sult of absolutely the same sound, or sight 
or touch in absolutely the same sense; con- 
sequently, he declared, there cannot be any 
such a thing as definite innate forms in the 



mind to which objects and truth correspond, 
but that our knowledge comes through the 
sense. He laid down the great principle 
that there is nothing in the intellect which 
has not been in some way in the sense. To 
bridge over the great gulf which Plato con- 
ceived to exist between matter and mind, he 
inserted between the two extremes a fac- 
ulty which he called Imagination, as follows: 

When the stimulas passed into the sense 
an image of the object causing the stimulus 
was reflected in this imagination — image 
reflecting faculty — and the mind looked out 
and saw it, and that is how we got to know, 
according to Aristotle. As Aristotle began 
with the senses and ended with the mind he 
is called a Realist, and we have the two 
schools of philosophy and of education, the 
Idealistic school represented by Plato and 
his followers, and the Realistic school rep- 
resented by Aristotle and his followers. 

These two master minds of ancient phil- 
osophy ruled the intellectual world as far as 
it was concerned with education, from the 
third century before Christ down to the 
twelfth century after Christ. At this period 
there arose in Europe two great religious 
teaching bodies, called the Dominicans and 
Franciscans. They both took up the study 
of philosophy which was then becoming so 
important in Scholasticism. The greatest 
of these Scholastic philosophers was Thom- 
as a Aquinas, called the Angel of the 

He was a follower of Aristotle but criti- 
cised his theory of knowledge with true 
scholastic acumen. In his quaint scholastic 
Latin he said to the greatest master of Pa- 
ism : 

Now, Aristotle, what is this imagination 
of yours? Is it material, or is it spiritual? 
If it is material, how can it acton mind; and 
if it is spiritual, how can mind act on it?" 
The question remained and the keen Scho- 
lastic was right. 

However, when a philosopher makes a 
difficulty apparently insurmountable, you 
may rest assured that he has the easiest 
possible solution at hand to comfort you. 
And so it was with Aquin. "I will tell you, 
Aristotle, how this can be done. This im- 
agination is like a two face lense. On one 
side is material and on the other side is 
spiritual. When the stimulas comes in 
through the sense it is represented materi- 
ally in the material part of the imagination 
and spiritually by some mystic process of 
Osmosis ( ?) in the spiritual side of the 

imagination." And thus the keen and yet 
self-deceiving Scholastic had bridged over 
matter and mind, as Huxley says about the 
solution, "Sublime, but false." 

It is just here that the philosopher differs 
from the scientist. A philosopher may lock 
himself up in his study and assume the atti- 
tude of deep meditation and profound ab- 
straction and consider the possible solution 
of a given question and select the one that 
is most pleasing to himself without having 
any real justification for it in the actual 
processes that occur. The scientist disre- 
gards his mental speculation in the matter, 
takes up the facts as he finds them in life 
and endeavors to reach scientific general- 
iation, based on true experience and true 

The first man to state a Theory of Know- 
ledge in these scientific terms is John Locke. 
He was the first to distinguish the physi- 
ological processes in learning found alike in 
man and in animal — the processes alike of 
excitation and cerebation and motion — 
processes on strict fact occurring in the 
cerebellum ; and the psychological processes 
of sensation, ideation and action, which 
occur in the higher centers of the cerebrum. 
Starting with the brain as an apparatus as 
just stated, and the afferent and efferent 
nerves and peripheral organs as means 
the theory of knowledge became a fact 
and we know how we know, and the seem- 
ingly infinite gulf between mind and matter 
is really bridged over. The stimulus ex- 
citing the periphery arouse the vibration of 
the afferent nerve, which in turn excites the 
cerebellum and if nothing intervenes to pre- 
vent, it issues forth in motion. As, for in- 
stance, if one steps on a dog's foot he snaps 
and barks and runs away. This process 
does not however always escape in motion 
along the efferent nerve but passes from 
the physiological organs into the higher 
centers — we have as a result not pure sen- 
sation but perception and the so-called 
higher mental process. To illustrate by a 
reference to the earlier example : If, as in 
the case of the dog, we step on a man's pet 
corn, he will probably have the tendency to 
do pretty much as the dog did, ky-i, bark or 
slap, or worse — it will depend altogether 
upon where he is. If he is home where he 
enjoys the privilege of natural expression, 
his processes will be largely physiological 
and find their form in motion. If, however, 
he is out where he cannot enjoy the privi- 
leges of natural expression, that tendency 



to motion will rise into the higher brain and 
the energy that would be used in the slap or 
the groan, or other physiological energy will 
be transmuted into psychic energy, and he 
may leave his foot there and smile even, and 
say it does not hurt and illustrate thereby 
the difference between the psychological 
processes involved in learning, or in doing, 
and the purely physiological processes. 
The educational corollary following from 
this theory of knowledge, illustrated by 
Locke in a general way, and since demon- 
strated by psychologists, are many and im- 

First: There is a natural way of learning 
and there must be a natural way of teaching. 

Second : Knowledge begins with the 
senses, passes through the motor activities 
and rises to the higher process of control. 
This indicates a natural order of method in 

Third: Sensation is the first step in the 
order of knowing and of teaching. 

Fourth : A true theory of knowledge is 
at the foundation of every correct philoso- 
phy of education and scientific method of 


From the earliest days man has, con- 
sciously or unconsciously, been taught of 
nature. The weaving bird, the spinning 
spider, the plants in their revolutions, the 
winds and rains and sunshine have little 
by little tutored his slowly apperceiving 
mind. ^ .> 

But a conscious aggressive study of the All 
Mother "to learn her ways and be wise" 
is of comparatively recent origin, despite 
the antiquity of Solomon's injunction. And 
among those who pointed out the way are 
the two great Englishmen who as it hap- 
pens answer to the same name. To the 
sleeping world of his time Roger Bacon, 
born 1214, issued the call to leave the un- 
productive philosophy of Aristotle for in- 
vestigations and experiments with nature. 
If there be truth in alchemy, he would say, 
let us experiment to find out how nature 
makes metals and then imitate them. But 
jthe drowsy world slept on for 450 years 
more, when Sir Francis Bacon sounded a 
similar call, which aroused his contempo- 
raries to laughter and scorn, and his succes- 
sors to slow action. He, too, urged the 
study of nature and life, that their secrets 
might be disclosed and placed at the service 
of man. 

He would have men observe, experiment 
and reason inductively from single facts to 
general truths and principles, and then make 
practical application. 

But it took many centuries to develop and 
perfect among men the accurately observ- 
ing mind, the clear deducing brain, that 
2volved in the nineteenth century in a Lyell, 
b Darwin, a Huxley, an Agassiz, a Wallace. 

Nature has now for more than half a cen- 
tury been the subject of faithful and loving 

research and observation on the part of 
scientists of our era. But it is only within 
the last few decades that the educator has 
perceived the great educational possibilities 
which make such study worthy a place in 

Looking back over the history of modern 
education we find that the great sweet-spir- 
ited Swiss reformer, Zwingli, 1 848-1 531, 
recommended that children be led to study 
nature as exemplifying the wisdom, skill 
and loving providence of God. 

And Basedow, founder, in 1774, of the 
"Philanthropin," had his pupils study birds 
and plants, teaching Latin in conjunction 
with them. For he discovered that the dead 
became a living language to the children, 
when centered around living things. 

Coming to Rousseau we find that he was 
not only the first of educators to suggest 
that those who professed to teach might 
well begin by making a study of the subject 
they had to act upon, viz.: the child. But 
this first advocate of child-study seems to 
have been the first to perceive the value of 
nature as a source-book of education, one 
of the wisest of his recommendations being 
that which urges "to foster curiosity in na- 
ture while being in no hurry to gratify it." 

Pestalozzi put into practice what Rous- 
seau so ably preached, and we find him not 
only giving object lessons on birds and 
fruits, but even anticipating our geographi- 
cal and geological trips in the walks he took 
with his pupils, who modeled in clay the val- 
leys and hills they studied. 

But though advanced beyond other edu- 
cators in his appeal to nature as a subject of 
study he did not breathe into it the breath 
of life. The qualities of objects were ob- 



served and learned as objects of sense-per- 
ception. Their causes, effects and relation 
to each other and to life were not taken so 
much into account. 


It remained for Froebel with his doctrines 
of inner connection ; of the unity that under- 
lies all life; of the development that comes 
through self-activity and through self-activ- 
ity alone to vivify the apparently dead bones 
of such study. A genuine lover and a close 
observer of nature himself, he would have 
connected with kindergarten and school the 
garden in which the little child could have 
direct contact with nature. He says : "If a 
boy cannot have the care of a little garden 
of his own, he should have at least a few 
plants in boxes or pots, filled not with rare 
and delicate or double plants, but with com- 
mon plants that have an abundance of 
leaves and blossoms and thrive easily." 

"The child, or boy, who has guarded and 
cared for another living thing, although of 
a lower order, will be led more easily to 
guard and foster his own life. At the same 
time the care of plants will gratify his de- 
sire to observe other living things, such as 
beetles, butterflies, and birds, for these seek 
the vicinity of gardens." 

How many educators have thought of the 
phrase we have italicized as an important 
reason for nature study? That should be an 
argument to appeal to any parent. 

As we study the works of man because 
they express the spirit of man, so Froebel 
would have us study nature because here we 
find clearly expressed the spirit of God. 

He would have us study nature because 
the laws governing the development of 
nature and tbe development of man "are 
mutually explanatory and mutually lead to 
deeper knowledge the one of the other." 

Again he says : 

"The boy seeks from adults the confirma- 
tion of his inner, spiritual anticipations, and 
justly so, from an intuitive sense of what 
the elder aught to be. If he fails to find it, 
a double effect follows — less of respect for 
the elder, and a recoil of the inner or orig- 
inal anticipation." 

"Therefore, it is so important that boys 
and adults should go into the fields and for- 
ests together striving to receive into their 
hearts and minds the life and spirit of na- 
ture which would soon put an end to the 
idle, useless and indolent loafing of so many 

In this country nature study was a nat- 
ural outgrowth of the Pestalozzian object 
lessons introduced by Sheldon into the Os- 
wego Normal School. 


In the N. E- A. reports we find that in 
1858 J. Young gave a paper on the "Laws of 
Nature." The next mention of nature is in 
1893, when W. B. Powell gave the report of 
the Congress of Natural History. From 
that year nature seems to have been given 
a place on most programs. 

Col. Francis W. Parker's new educational 
methods, long known as the Quincy system, 
included among other strange features 
study of plants, animals, and the child's en- 
vironment and nature-study formed an im- 
portant part of the curriculum at the fam- 
ous Cook County Normal School in Chi- 
cago. Wilbur S. Jackson, so long associated 
with Col. Parker, continued, amplified it, 
and was the first to give it a regular place 
on the school program as a part of the rec- 
ognized curriculum. He has written books 
upon the subject of great value to the 
would-be teacher of nature subjects. 

Mr. Arthur C. Boyden of the Bridgewater 
Normal School began about the same time 
to carry on in his own way a related line of 
work. He taught in the state institutes of 
Massachusetts and published a pamphlet: 
upon "Study of the Trees of Plymouth' 
County." At about the same time in the 1 
Summer School of Cottage City a depart-' 
ment of elementary science was organized, 
which was really of the nature-study order.; 

Many of the schools in several states nowi 
began to include elementary science in the! 
courses and then came Prof. Bailey of Cor-j 
nell with the Bureau far-reaching nature- 1 
study which he organized. 

Although few kindergartens in the United | 
States were at first able to give space to a 
real garden for the children, the teachers 
managed in some way to bring a touch of 
this beautiful world to the little people. It 
might be only a few flowers brought in from 
the week-end trip to the country, or a few 
seeds in the glass tumbler. It might be a 
potted plant or a window box; but in some 
way nature was brought into the child-gar- 
den. A canary or a kitten, would furnish 
the needed pet and the horses and 
dogs would afford other opportunities fori 
study of animal life. In the early days too 
much stress might be placed upon the num- 
ber of eyes and teeth a quadruped might 



possess and in some cases sentimentality- 
might run away with sentiment, but a be- 
ginning was made and one which slowly has 
made its way into the grades. 

To the Gradgrind parent or school board 
it means little or nothing that the child 
works more happily or spontaneously be- 
cause of the nature contact, nor will he re- 
spond to the statement that in caring for 
plant or bird the child unconsciously learns 
isomething of the unity of all life ; of the in- 
terdependence of flower, insect and man 
,and plant. What is that to the city father? 
iLet the teacher prove that the boy learns to 
iread, write and spell more readily; to em- 
ploy his arithmetic more intelligently and 
accurately because of the few moments a 
week spent with the goldfish or the snow- 
flakes and he is won over. The teacher 
must be able to secure efficiency in her pu- 
pils if she will make place for this work. 

Coincident with nature-study in the 
schools there have been other movements 
centering around an interest and love of 
nature and this would seem to argue that 
that study is by no means the passing fad 
.or luxurious frill which some sceptics have 
been thinking. 

Myra Kelly's clever story may be a need- 
ed criticism on some faulty teaching and 
may well lead the impulsive young teacher, 
susceptible to the latest innovation, to an 
(examination of her purposes, methods and 
results. But we cannot judge fairly of a 
system by examining the weakest exponent. 
A lifeless chain of cold metal may be no 
(Stronger than its weakest link, but a newly 
levolving form of life is to be gauged by its 
(Strongest; its fittest representative, 
i Unfortunately, however, the average mind 
judges by the one case it may happen to 
know and hence one poor teacher may put 
a perpetual ban upon a most important edu- 
cational movement in a given community. 

When Dame Nature was more or less of 
ja stranger to the teacher herself it is not 
surprising that the attempt to introduce the 
children to her should be awkwardly done 
and the mutual handclasps be cold and un- 
responsive. But with increased knowledge 
comes increased power and now if nature- 
study be not fruitful of results which satisfy 
,the parent while rejoicing the child it is not 
[the subject as such, but ourselves or our 
method, which is at fault. 

The thoughtful teacher-seer "with visions 
clear" looks into the future as well as the 
present and knowing the reaction upon the 

child of his intercourse with nature knows 
that he will thereby be a more efficient man. 
The parent, whose main idea is that his boy 
must as soon as possible add his quota to 
the family budget must be helped to realize 
what nature-study means as an aid to effici- 


What do some of the nature-study spe- 
cialists say upon this point. 

To the question, why do not the old-time 
methods and studies suffice, John Dewey 
would reply: "Radical conditions have 
changed and only an equally radical change 
in education suffices." "The importance," 
he says, "to education of a close study of 
and intimacy with nature lies in its being 
the real thing, giving actual processes, and 
a knowledge of their social necessities and 
uses." There is a sense of reality through 
first-hand contact with actualities. In the 
school-room this topic gives something to 
talk and write about, makes real to him the 
child's work. 

We are not oblivious of the fact that "our 
leading lights tell us that nature-study is an 
idea, an atmosphere, an attitude — in a word, 
it is spirit." What we wish to emphasize 
now is the side which will appeal to the 
parent and which while showing the practi- 
cal side, includes necessarily the side which 
makes for the higher and the larger life. 
And just here is one extremely practical 
point which is closely allied to the ideal. 
How many parents are worried when their 
children reach the adolescent age by the ig- 
norance of what their children are about in 
the hours of recreation. "Nature-study," 
says Mary Perle Anderson, research student 
at the N. Y. Botanical Garden, "should edu- 
cate for leisure." The young men and wo- 
men who have been led to love nature will 
not be tempted by the sensational attrac- 
tions of the big city. 

Of the other values of child-study Miss 
Anderson cites the development of the rea- 
soning power ; then "the power of expres- 
sion." He can talk about the thing he is 
interested in. But let the teacher remember 
that these are the product of nature-study 
and that nature-study can never be the pro- 
duct of talking, of writing or of drawing. 
The child's language should become more 
accurate and logical ; he should learn to tell 
the truth and not exaggerate. Laboratory 
methods should lead to greater skill and 
dexterity in the use of the hands." 

2. Knowledge and love of knowledge is 



another product of legitimate nature-study. 

3. The industrial side and the economic 
appeal is the great one to parents and school 

4. Finally the ethical value of nature 
which results in happiness to the individual 
is most important. 

Col. Parker said once: "Every great 
thinker and every educator from Socrates 
down to Froebel have urged the study of 
the great text-book of nature." And again : 
"No one can study nature without loving 
her; no one is ever alone, is ever where 
there is nothing to love and be loved by, 
who listens to the voice of the Eternal One 
sounding and singing through all that He 
has created and is creating." 

Parker speaks also of the greater under- 
standing of noble poetry which the child 
possesses who loves and knows nature. He 
also gives the significant thought that "his- 
tory tells what man has been ; science what 
he should be." 

And nature-study is surely a stepping 
stone to science as far as it goes. 

Preston Search, in his Ideal School, 
makes the point of the great inspiration 
that comes to the child in nature work when 
he realizes that he "may have a part in the 
evolution of a world of beauty, knowledge 
and happiness" by his investigations. 

Two normal schools in Washington, D. 
C, one in Philadelphia, and that of Hyannis, 
Mass., are among the normal schools of the 
country that have school gardens as valued 
adjuncts of the schools. 

Mr. Search describes at some length the 
nature work in the Upsala School, Wor- 
cester, Mass., under direction of Dr. Hodge. 
Here among the features which distinguish 
the school are the general feeling of happi- 
ness and inspiration that comes from the 
sense of adding to the sum total of the hap- 
piness of the world by growing a plant bet- 
ter than has yet been seen. The intelligent 
study of and protection of the birds is a 
marked feature of the school and we learn 
that grades 5, 6, 7 and 8 are organized and 
trained to take the annual bird census. 
Grade 4 has a space allotted in which are 
grown and studied all of the useful plants 
of Worcester County. The pests that visit 
and destroygiven plants are also a subject of 
interested study, especially after a lovingly- 
tended plant has succumbed to the ravages 
of some destructive insect. One grade has 
the care of the lawn, etc. A living spirit of 
co-operation and enthusiasm seems to per- 

vade this school. Flowers, vegetables, frui 
trees and forest trees are also studied. 

Nature work in the Philadelphia Norma 
School owes its inception to Dr.W.PWilson 
seconded by Simon Gratz, then president o 
the board of education. The normal schoo 
has an exceptional equipment and its work 
is seconded by that of the Observation anc 
Practice School. In the early days a specia 
effort was made "to teach how to interprel 
nature as it lies around him." Excursions 
into the city streets, even, were fruitful oi 
results in finding objects for nature-study 
This was as long ago as the seventies. 

The first school garden in connectior 
with a public school was that connected 
with the George Putnam School of Boston 
in 1891. This was indirectly the result of a 
paper read at the Horticultural Society oi 
Boston suggesting the educational value oi 
gardens to the child, H. L. Clapp was in 

One of the raose notable school experi- 
ments is that of Hyannis, Mass., under W. 
A. Baldwin. Superintendent Baldwin sug- 
gests that if you plan having such a garden 
before beginning your purpose must be 
clear and you must be sure of your results. 
He considers window-boxes as of compara- 
tively little educational value ; the most that 
you can so teach being the germination of a 
seed or the unfolding of a leaf and the un 
usual conditions often give wrong impres 
sions. This is certainly a serious considera- 
tion. He advocates gardens at a distance 
from the schools as better environment can 
then be secured for proper observation of 
natural conditions. He thinks it better also 
to not have this work continuous in all the 
grades lest the children lose their first spon- 
taneous interest. Hence it appears in the 
second, fourth and eighth grades only. The 
work is made to correlate beautifully with 
the other school work. In the lower classes 
the arithmetic is very practically related to 
the measuring of the garden beds and paths 
and in the higher grades the produce raised 
in the garden is sold ; the money deposited 
in the bank. Expenses are paid by check 
and the boys get practical experience in 
banking methods. They acquire further 
business training in the letters they write 
to seed firms for catalogs and seeds. All the 
other studies, reading, writing, spelling, 
geography and manual training naturally 
derive life by being correlated with the gar- 
den. The care of the tools, the systematic 
doing of things, the reporting of observa- 



.tions develops important business habits. Such deficiency is certainly inexcusable in 
The physical, mental and moral develop- any American school. The right kind of 
jinent of these children proves to be 30 per nature-study is certainly, however, not in- 

Courtesj- Boys unci Girls 

How "Boys and Girls," a Nature Study Magazine, 


cent more rapid than that of children who 
have not had this inestimable advantage. 
Business men have had much to say of 

Courtesy Boys and Girls 
Nature Study under Auspices of "Boys and Girls." 

late about the deficient spelling and "figur- 
ing" of the modern high-school graduate. 

edited by Martha Van Rennselear, Helps Children to 

imical to correct business habits if judged 
by the above standards. 

In his article published last year in the 
Kindergarten Magazine and Pedagogical Di- 
gest Charles H. Keves suggests that nature- 
study and gardening is of particular import- 
ance in city schools because through it the 
citizen-to-be learns better to appreciate the 
problems of his fellow citizens of the coun- 
try. It makes for a better understanding 
between distant sections of the country. 

The Boston State Normal School gives a 
course now in elementary horticulture and 
agriculture to those who wish it and the 
school yards of the city are used for experi- 
mental study. 

Thousands, on the other hand, in the rural 
districts have been reached by the nature- 
study leaflets published by the Nature-study 
Bureau at Cornell University. According 
to Mr. Bailey, its founder, it seeks to im- 
prove agricultural conditions and to make 
man content to be in the country by inter- 
esting him in his natural environment. 
These fascinating pamphlets open the eyes 
of the inexperienced teacher to subject-mat- 
ter right at hand and give her the desirable 
point of view. 

The Nature-study Bureau received its 
first constituency by sending teachers to the 



State Teachers' Institutes. It now has a 
large correspondence department in which 
the children write to "Uncle John" and tell 
how they have succeeded with the experi- 
ments he suggests and ask his counsel upon 
important matters. Mrs. Martha Van 
Rennselear publishes also in Ithaca a small 
but charming journal, "Boys and Girls," 
which encourages similar work with nature. 

The Stout Manual Training School of 
Menominee, Wis., is doing also a good work 
in the school garden line, and Supt. Powell 
of the Glenwood, Iowa, school for defectives 
finds the garden work invaluable. 

Closely allied to this nature-study work 
of the schools is the school farm of Mrs. 
Henry G. Parsons, which was described in 
detail in our May issue. Philadelphia has 
caught the contagion and is the first city 
whose Board of Education has recognized 
the educational value of such an undertak- 
ing and has given it a specific appropriation 
Mrs. Parsons joins with others in statement 
of the good results of this work. The out- 
door life with plants and insects makes for 
the health of the children the study of na- 
ture's invariable laws, makes them realize the 
beauty of the law. Delight in the products 
of their own labor makes them respect the 
property of others. The care of tools also 
induces respect for their property. 

The Home Gardening Association of 
Cleveland, Ohio, sold last year 247,348 bas- 
kets of seeds to school children to plant and 
care for in their own homes. This work has 
been thoroughly organized since 1894, with 
most beneficent influence upon the homes 
and the characters of the children. The 
children grow their own plants in pots, or 
window boxes, or bit of garden. 

The work of the Vacant Lot Association, 
though not originally initiated for educa- 
tional purposes, proves that indirectly they 
have marked educational worth. 

It is certainly not desirable that all of 
our citizens should be trained as bookkeep- 
ers, or to stand behind counters and meas- 
ure goods by the yard, tho the shut-in life 
of the salesman would be brightened by a 
love and understanding of nature to rejoice 
his recreation hours. We often think with 
regret of a wonderful sunset seen from the 
window of an elevated train while not one 
other passenger had eyes to see that glory 
in the sky. 

We want some at least, of our growing 
boys and girls to be ready to be inventors; 
to be discoverers, and have the initiative to 

be foremen in large establishments. We dc 
not want to have to send abroad for out 
competent workmen and investigators 
The study of nature, the observation of the 
inter-relationship of her many forms of life 
the experiments with water and soil wil' 
open the eyes and minds of the children tc 
a world of possibilities. 

We have studied recently with great in- 
terest that book of Dr. J. G. Wood's, "Na- 
ture's Teachings." Would that it might be 
in every school library. It shows picture; 
of weapons, tools, houses, and innumerable 
other things made by man, and each one is 
accompanied by a corresponding tool, as 
found in the animal or plant world. The 
writer does not claim that man has in all 01 
even in most cases gotten his first clue froir 
nature, but he does claim that if we were tc 
observe nature with such intent we mighl 
learn many more things that would make 
life even more comfortable and happy and 
better than it is at present. He cites as one 
instance the Crystal Palace, in which was 
housed the first international exposition 
All was to be in one building. It was a 
great problem that had to be met. And the 
great architect got his clue finally from ob- 
serving the structure of the recently im- 
ported giant water-lily, the Victoria Regia. 

When one thinks what that first exposi- 
tion meant in the way of uniting the nations 
and making them better acquainted with 
each other one can see that this invention 
was far from being merely utilitarian. 

The following schedule indicates what 
New York city is doing in its public schools 
in nature work : 

The regular Spring Flower Show was 
held at Public School No. 79, 42 First 
street (east of the Bowery), Mr. Joseph A. 
Fripp, principal, on Tuesday, Wednesday 
and Thursday, May 14th, 15th and 16th, 

The following list suggests what will be 
of most use in the school room, and includes 
the greater part of the nature material 
called for in the nature-study course, now a 
regular part of the New York public school 
curriculum : 

APRIL — Sprouting acorns, maple seed- 
lings; early wild flowers (arbutus, hepatica, 
spring beauty, dicentra, anemone, bluets, 
marsh marigold, bloodroot, early everlast- 
ing, elm, maple) ; early garden flowers 
(snowdrop, crocus, tulip, daffodil, hyacinth, 
etc.) ; seeds of hardy plants to start in class- 
room, morning-glory, nasturtium, ragged 



sailor, beans, peas, radish, sweet alyssum, 
larkspurs, sunflower, etc. ; also seedlings 
that have wintered over in the garden; 
aquarium material, frog-spawn, toad-spawn, 
snails, water-plants. 

MAY — Special material for Arbor Day 
(first Friday after the first Monday), 
jranches of fruit trees in flower — apple, 
:herry, peach, plum, pear; forest trees in 
lower, mulberry, dogwood, hickory, butter- 
lut, oak, maple in fruit (sugar-maple), etc.; 
rotted plants for class-rooms; garden 
dirubs in flower; pansies, narcissus, baby 
: erns, Jack-in-the-pulpit, columbine, azalea, 
Star of Bethlehem, violets. 

JUNE — Buttercups, daisies, clover, roses, 
ris; strawberry, blackberry, raspberry, huc- 
deberry, grape, showing blossoms and 
/oung fruit if possible; branches showing 
/oung fruit of apple, pear, cherry, peach, 
:tc. ; grains and grasses; garden flowers, 
;weet peas, honeysuckle. 

Fruits and flowers are much more inter- 
ring and instructive if they are not de- 
ached from the branch or stem on which 
hey grew, a few such branches being more 
lesirable than a great number of separate 
ruits or flowers. 

In gathering wild flowers a knife should 
)e used, and great care taken not to injure 
he main plant or to disturb roots. If any 
->f the plants suggested are rare in the lo- 
alities in which the collections are made, 
he flowers should not be collected at all, 
mt left to increase. 

In packing, arrange the flowers in layers 
>etween damp newspapers, and sprinkle 

I It is requested that the boxes sent in re- 
ponse to this appeal shall be, labeled 
Plants," with the name and address of the 
river, so that they may be acknowledged ; 
nd that the freight or express charges be 

i In behalf of the Natural Science Commit- 
tee of the Normal College, the Nature-Ma- 
terial Committee of the Public Education 
Association and the National Plant, Flower 
nd Fruit Guild. 

As regards nature work England is also 
srging fast forward. Last May we re- 
newed that most interesting and practical 
[ttle book by Miss Lucy Latter, in which 
he recounts the history of her efforts in 
lliis direction and which has an introduc- 
ion by Patrick Geddes strongly in favor of 
uch work. 

We have just received another English 
publication "Child-Life in Our Schools," by 
Mabel A. Brown. This gives illustrations, 
time-tables, etc., showing in detail the splen- 
did work of the school which centers around 
nature. We commend it to the attention of 
American teachers. They base their work 
upon nature study, because that is the most 
interesting to the child at this stage of de- 
velopment. This being the case, we can be 
of best service to the child following his 
lead, and providing him with the best condi- 
tions for nature study." 

'"There is one Cause of everything .... 
Thus the study of nature helps the child to 
adjust more clearly his relation to God, to 
mankind and to Nature herself . . 

During the first year of a child's life it is 
essential that his feeling and willing powers 
should receive due training, and there is no 
subject better calculated to produce right 
feeling in a child than Nature study." 

Miss Brown knows her Froebel and her 
Emerson. The book will prove both inspi- 
rational and practical. 

The Wisconsin State Board of Education 
has for several years issued a Wisconsin 
Arbor and Bird Day Annual which gives 
choice selections in prose and verse for use 
upon this important day. This marks an- 
other phase of education which indicates the 
continued interest in nature teaching and in 
fostering the love of plant, bird and tree. 

When a genuine love of nature is a part 
of the nature of every child, our Niagara's 
will be safe ; the bill-boards will no longer 
deface the landscape ; our forests will be 
preserved and papers and trash will no 
longer spoil the landscape gardening of our 

May the time soon come when it will be 

felt by all in the words of W. Hamilton 

Mabie : 

"Relationship with Nature is a source of inexhaustible 
delight and enrichment; to establish it ought to be as 
much a part of every educator as the teaching of the 
rudiments of formal knowledge; and it ought to be as 
great a reproach to a man not to be able to read the open 
pages of the world about him as not to be able to read 
the open pages of the book before him." 

A Few Books Helpful to Nature Study Teachers 
How to make School Gardens, by H. D. Hemenway; 
Simple Exercises for the School Room, by J, L. Wood- 
hull; Field Work in Nature Study and other books, by 
Wilbur S, Jackman; Nature Study and Life, by Clifton 
L. Hodge; The Outdoor World or the Young Collector's 
Hand-book, by W. Furneaux, F. R. G. S.; Nature Study 
in Elementary Schools, Teachers Manual, by Mrs. 
L. T. Wilson, Ph. D.; Familiar Flowers of the Roadside, 
by L. Schuyler Matthews; Lessons with Plants, by L. H. 
Bailey; Plants and their Children, by Mrs. W. S. Dana; 
Agriculture Through Laboratory and School Garden, 
by Mrs. W. S. Dana. 






Somewhat late, still in time for our Oc- 
tober has come into our hands the official 
"Bolletin de Instruccion Publica," which 
alone by its increased volume, but still more 
by the character of its interesting contents 
conclusively proves the gigantic strides 
which our sister republic is making in the 
promotion of national education. 

The "Bolletin" publishes in the first in- 
stance the discussions and resolutions of the 
Mexican Congress so far as they relate to 
public instruction, and then proceeds to give 
the various orders of the President of the 
republic, as well as the reports of the direc- 
tor and the commissioners of public instruc- 

We are deeply impressed both by the 
comprehensiveness and thoroughness of the 
multitudinous measures initiated in the vari- 
ous departments of national Mexican edu- 
cation, especially, however, with those re- 
lating to primary schools and the prepara- 
tion of teachers for these institutions. 
Among many points which in this connec- 
tion attract our attention and even excite 
our surprise is the establishment of four dif- 
ferent kinds of normal schools for kinder- 
gartners, designated according to the sys- 
tem which each follows especially as : No. 
i, Kindergarten Froebel ; No. 2, Kindergar- 
ten Pestalozzi; No. 3, Kindergarten Reb- 
samen ; No. 4, Kindergarten Herbert Spen- 
cer. It seems to be the plan practically to 
test each method and then to decide which 
one may best be chosen for general intro- 
duction. As to the name of the third meth- 
od, "Rebsamen" — a name unknown to us in 
the history of kindergartens, — it seems that 
the founder of the method is a German ped- 
agogue, resident of Mexico. 

Another feature of the "Bolletin" is the 
organization of industrial and technical 
schools which the government is anxious to 
push ahead and to bring to perfection. So 
also a school of engineering and mining has 
been established, which cannot help being 
of the greatest importance to a country so 
immensely rich in all kinds of precious met- 
als and so much in need of artificial irriga- 
tion. Hand in hand with the progressive 
enterprises of the national government it 
appears that the foremost cities of the re- 
public have heartily espoused the cause of 
education, and, as may well be surmised, it 
is the capital of the republic which is deter- 

mined to set a novel example to her si; 
cities. At a cost of $100,000 to $200,000 
each, five magnificent school buildings h 
been completed, while two others are i 
under way of erection. The plans and 
vations which the "Bolletin" exhibits ; 
still more the admirable report about tr. 
as given by M. Ulrice Y Trancoso convi 
us that Mexico has fully caught up with 
spirit animating the people of the Uni 
States, and of our American continent wc 
ily represents the position which Frana 
present occupies in Europe, both dem 
strating the fact that democratic instituti 
and republican form of government 
most conducive to popular enlightenm 
and national progress in humanity's gn 
est cause — Education. 


In summer in France, as with 
the schools are closed and the educators 
either abroad or at summer resorts 01 
some summer school, all gathering stren 
for their fall work and materials for edi 
tional essays in coming pedagogical publ 
tions. Nevertheless we meet in the Jul} 
sues of French magazines quite a num 
of interesting articles which we take pl< 
ure, briefly, to point out to our readers. 
In the "Revue de l'Enseignement des L 
guages Vivantes," (Dr. A. Wobframm, 1 
tor), it is especially two articles that dese 
particular attention, one entitled : "The I 
tionary in the Foreign Language," by P 
Schmitt, and the other superscribed "A 
futation of the So-called Direct Methc 
by G. Roy. The former is a vigorous j 
test against the addition of insufficient ; 
partial vocabularies to reading books ; 
against the employment altogether of 
dictionary during the reading course, w 
advocating its use at the end of the read 
lesson ; and the latter deprecates the tyr 
ny exerted by the direct method upon b 
teachers and learners. 

The "Revue Pedagogique" presents ir 
July edition a veritable anthology of in 
esting essays. The first, by M. P. M. Br 
etiere, and the educational question i 
timely and well-considered contribution 
a possible solution of the educational pr 
lems that now agitate France ; the seco 
"The Lie," by Felix Thomas, treats 1 
subject from a pathological standpoi 



"Primary Education in France" is another 
noteworthy article, which forcibly exhibits 
the progress achieved during the two years 
past in French schools; one of the most 
meritorious essays, to our mind at least, is 
one contributed by Alfred Morselet and en- 
titled, "Lay Action in Germany," describ- 
ing the aims and labors of the "League of 
Moral Instruction," a society of late date 
but great growth, to which Dr. Felix Ad- 
ler's Society of Ethical Culture bears some- 
what a resemblance. 

In the "Revue Internationale de l'En- 
seignement," (Francois Picavet, editor), we 
find as leading article a discussion of the 
often-mooted question: "Does the educa- 
tion of women prepare them to exercise so- 
cial functions?" bv Miss Helene Moutier. 
Though viewed from an intensely French 
standpoint the article is nevertheless of in- 
terest to American ladies and highly sugges- 
tive in more than one regard. 

The well-known magazine, "Lehrproben 
und Lehrgaenge," contains a number of ex- 
cellent contributions, among which we spe- 
cially mention an article by Prof Breimeier, 
entitled, " The Reading of English Authors 
in Connection with Instruction in History." 
It suggests a practical connection of litera- 
ture of one country with the history of an- 
other nation, and maps out a course of Eng- 
lish reading that vividly brings forth strik- 
ing points in the existence of one people in 
comparison with other historical facts. Lit- 
erature and History ! these have always ap- 
peared to us as two sciences so closely re- 
lated that they should never be separated. 
1 We sincerely trust that the writer of that 
excellent essay will still further illustrate 
' and finally generalize into a system his 
' views on that interesting topic. 

A subject of kindred nature to the preced- 

ing one, however different otherwise, is elo- 
quently treated in the July issue of the mag- 
azine "Fortbildungeschule" in an article en- 
titled, "Discussion of Political and Social 
Questions of the Day," by which the author 
points out the usefulness of such discussions 
to advanced scholars. 

In the educational journal bearing the 
title of "Paedagische Studien," (Dr. M. 
Schilling, editor), we meet an article from 
the editor's own pen, entitled, "Instruction 
and Interest," which it would be well for ev- 
ery teacher to read and to appreciate. We 
have rarely seen an article which so forcibly 
as this one exhibits the educational law that 
the responsiveness of the learner is in direct 
proportion to the instructor's faculty and 

A pertinent subject, so it seems to us, is 
discussed by Prof. R. Schulze of Leipsic 
under the heading :• "Children's Privilege to 
Questioning," in the July issue of "Neue 
Bahnen." The relegation to passiveness to 
which children are too often condemned 
during the course of instruction must more 
or less conduce to indifference, which, as 
Prof. Schulze clearly shows, may be obviat- 
ed by conceding to them the right to ques- 
tion at stated intervals. 

The "Zeitschrift fuer Schul Geographic" 
has two articles of special interest to Ameri- 
cans, one discussing in a lucid manner 
Peary's Polar Expedition and its results in 
comparison to former Arctic discoveries; 
another, by Dr. Wm. Gross, characterizes 
The Englishman from an ethnological and 
historical standpoint. 

The "Zeitschrift fuer Schulgeseinudheits- 
Pflege" abounds in valuable treatises, 
among which we can only briefly mention 
two, viz.: "A Modern School Knap-sack," 
by Dr. Koenigsbeck, and "The LTse of 
School Recess for Gymnastic Exercises." 


At last an attack has been made upon the "bad 
spelling" problem which may lead to victory. In 
the "Elementary School Teacher" for September B. 
C. Gregory, Superintendent of Schools, Chelsea, 
Mass., writes upon the "Rationale of Spelling." He 
makes the very sensible suggestion that "our criti- 
cism of spelling should be analytical." That before 
trying to simplify or modify our spelling or rashly 
judge the children who are apparently bad spellers 
we should study the child and the words he mis- 
spells to discover why this occurs. He tried an ex- 
periment upon several classes in a New Jersey 
school giving two short stories in dictation. The 
children were mostly American. As a result of his 
experiments here he finds that many mistakes were 
due to mistakes in hearing correctly; wrong aural 

images. If the child had heard correctly he might 
have written correctly. The word "journey" was 
spelt in eighteen different ways and Mr. Gregory an- 
alyzesthese to discover the reasons for the different 
renderings. He thinks others interested should make 
similar studies, but putting those of native-born 
Americans and those of foreigners in separate 
groups that we may, for one reason learn what are 
the special difficulties in the way of foreigners. 
Many errors require peculiar treatment. Since so 
many mistakes are ear mistakes, he recommends 
that we go back to oral spelling in addition to writ- 
ing, claiming that "rapid oral spelling bears the 
same relation to written spelling that rapid oral 
arithmetic does to written arithmetic," and there 
seem excellent grounds for this contention. He 



also would have spelling lessons largely limited to 
the very common words; those that are used fre- 
quently may seem simple. The more difficult words 
less-used are often readily learned because of the 
unusual visual image made. The common, every- 
day words need to be gone over again and again, 
especially if a wrong impression has once been made 
as the association is hard to destroy. All grade 
teachers will find this article of great value to them. 
In the same journal Caroline M. Hill discusses 
book-binding as a school craft. 

The "School Bulletin" contains a timely article 
by John C. Shaw, "Notes on the History and Present 
Method of Examinations," England and Germany 
being specially considered. 

"Education" for September has an article by 
Prof. H. A. Hollister on "Education as an Instru- 
mentality of the State," and Prof. George H. Du- 
rand discusses "English in Secondary Schools." 
There is an article by Arthur Macdonald on the 
"Decay of Family Life and Increase of Child Crime," 
which makes one feel far from optimistic. But one 
article which is worth a year's subscription to the 
Magazine is that in which Supt. J. Stanley Brown 
of Joliet, 111., explains his ideal of "The School and 
College Counselor." The writer reminds us that 
in the old days the college president was able to 
come into a helpful, personal touch with his stu- 
dents, impossible in our larger colleges today; nor 
can the overworked dean of a department be to the 
adolescent youth the strong, personal influence so 
much needed in the life of every young person away 
from home. He recommends that with all the other 
college departments continually being created there 
should be installed a department of Student Life in 
charge of a "Life Director," or Counselor. Supt. 
Brown recalls his own college experience, which is 
that of most young men. The college yells and 
songs have been forgotten, many fraternal friends 
and most of the college widows, but the friendly, 
helpful, suggestive words of one or two professors, 
the personal touch, are indelibly fixed. The few (?) 
needed qualifications of this counselor are: "The 
most telling characteristics of the model parent, so- 
ciologist, theologian, philosopher, psychologist, di- 
plomatist. Behind all this must be the man whose 
heart beats for humanity." 

The "Craftsman" for September is full of inter- 
esting matter for teachers. Under the engaging 
title "The School Children of Fairyland" Henry C. 
Meyers, Ph. D., describes the schools of Hawaii. In 
addition to its public schools there are 5 9 private 
schools on the island. Ten different races are found 
in the teaching forces. The Japanese children go 
to the public schools and late in the afternoon at- 
tend their own schools, in which their own lan- 
guage is also used. The writer seems to believe 
that owing to the action of the actinic rays upon 
white skins the white-skinned peoples are destined 
to be supplanted in large part by those of other 
races. The Japanese are a large proportion of the 
population. The American children are the worst 
behaved in the schools. The Chinese are the best. 
The latter form the true aristocrats; are quiet, fond 
of their families and make good citizens. Those 
born of Chinese and Hawaiian parentage made the 
most intelligent, capable people, therefore the 
writer thinks it a mistake that the Chinese are ex- 
cluded under our later laws. 

Clarence Osgood has an excellent article, "Rais- 
ing the Standard of Efficiency in Work," telling 
what the Manhattan Manual Training School for 
Girls is accomplishing in raising the standard. 

A lesson in the Association of Work and Play 
by Peter W. Dykema, tells "What Children Learn 
from School Festivals," as shown by the Ethical 
Culture School, N. Y. 

"The Regeneration of Ikey," by John Spargo, 

shows what the right kind of school may do tc 
turn the self-willed, contrary, dull, embittered child 
into one who is happy in his work and glad to gc 
to school. The school which works the transforma- 
tion in this case is No. 110, N. Y. The agencies 
which worked the miracle included the wholesome 
optimistic atmosphere of the school as expressed 
by principal and teachers; the manual training 
handwork, which appealed to the boy who did nol 
care for books, and the removal of adenoid growths 
which restored the child to something like norma! 

An article by Stanley Johnson tells of the Hart- 
ford method for school gardens. The children ol 
the vacation schools help care for the gardens thai 
are planted during the regular spring session, thus 
while deriving benefit themselves, preserving anc 
continuing the work started by others which woulc 
otherwise run wild. Slowly school boards anc 
cities are awaking to the importance of this work 
As one supervisor is quoted, saying, "It would b( 
a flourishing industry in the manufacturing work 
that could afford to let a plant be idle one-fourtl 
of the year. Can education afford this waste? W< 
learn that last winter the Massachusetts Associa 
tion of School Superintendents discussed the ques 
tion of school gardens during their entire program 

The "Craftsman" is a truly handsome journal 
but we do wish that in printing dates and number: 
the publishers would be willing to forego possibli 
elegance for convenience. We find it is much more 
difficult to read a date or number when extendei 
out into written words than when written in fig 
ures. Are there others who feel this way? 

The Educational Review" for September has i 
paper by Curtis Hidden Page on the "Simplificatioi 
of French Spelling," and one by Rudolf Tombo, Sr. 
on "Reform of German Spelling." Both indicati 
that other countries besides the United States an 
finding it necessary in the interests of progress tc 
modify their present mode of representing sound 
by letters. 

In the same journal John Bascom discusses Amer 
ican Higher Education; T. E. Page speaks concern 
ing "Classical Studies." The question about thi 
Ph. D. which this journal has been considering ii 
a previous number comes up here also. Jeffersoi 
B. Fletcher has some pertinent words and sugges 
tions as to the "Teacher of Literature and the Ph 
D." Norman Wild has a paper on the "Psycholog; 
of Religion and Education," and John Dewey dis 
cusses "Santayana's Life of Russia." "Religion ii 
Education in the Sunday School from the Stand 
point of the Public School Teacher" is considerei 
by Harriet F. Tuell, from a broad and helpful poin 
of view. 

"Unity" for September 5 is the annual educa 
tional number. There is a fine editorial "Concern 
ing Endowment." J. H. T. Main, president low: 
College, Grinnell, has a paper on "The Christiai 
College," and Chester Lloyd Jones of the Universit; 
of Pennsylvania has an address on "Student Lif 
in Spain." After a paragraph explaining Spain' 
diversity of character, both as to geography an( 
historical development, the writer analyzes the ef 
fects of these upon education; describes the settinj 
of the University of Madrid and the student; tell 
of the students in class and out of class; and some 
thing of what they are taught, and also describe 
a student strike about a comparatively small mat 
ter which involved the whole university and threat 
ened to involve the state. On the whole the out 
look in Spain seems hopeful, although it will tab 
years to overthrow the weight of illiteracy, re 
ligious prejudice and narrow outlook which hav< 
handicapped her for so long. College teachers wil 
be interested. The foreign notes this number an 
nounce the meeting of the International Congres 
for the Observance of Sunday on September 27-9 



at Frankfort on the Main. The first of these con- 
gresses which met in Germany was held in 1892. 
since then Austria. Denmark, Spain and Switzer- 
land. Belgium and France, have passed laws re- 
specting Sunday rest, and Italy is now considering 
similar legislation. 

The "World's Work" has an article by Luther H. 
Gulick on "The Effects of Mental Fatigue." which 
is full of wise and helpful suggestion, and Booker 
Washington in "A Negro College Town" tells of 
fifty years' growth of the town of Wilberforce, 
Ohio. A timely article, just now, when racial feel- 
ing is so strong, as manifested in tne Jewish. Japan- 
ese and Chinese problems, which are continually 
cropping up in different parts of the world. 

The "Atlantic Monthly" has a delightful article 
on Fenimore Cooper by Brander Matthews. After 
some recent attempts to belittle Cooper, it is re- 
freshing to read this discriminating paper, and to 
learn among other things of the many world-known 

writers who have caught their first inspiration from 
our early American novelist. In the same magazine 
Edward Dewden writes on "Elizabethan Psychol- 
ogy." A truly fascinating paper, whose first para- 
giaph tells us that much of the literature of that 
period may be explained when one understands the 
peculiar psychological thought of the times. Psy- 
chologists and teachers of literature will find much 
food for thought in the article. 

The "Century" contains some more delightful 
conversations with Walt Whitman, by Horace Trau- 
bel, "Walt Whitman in Old Age." Also some in- 
teresting Lincoln articles, by Homer David Bates, 
"Lincoln in the Telegraph Office." There is also an 
article by Arthur E. P. Weigall, which tells of a 
"New Discovery in Egypt," the tomb of Queen 
Thiy, consort of Amenhotop III, who reigned about 
1500 B. C. and was as great in peace as in war, 
builder of many temples which stand today. Sun- 
day school teachers should find this helpful in mak- 
ing the ancient Pharaohs seem alive. 


"Child Life in Our Schools." by Mabel A. Brown. 
Apropos of the Nature Study movement, we have 
here an inspirational "Manual of Method for Teach- 
ers of Iniants' Schools," which centers around na- 
ture as the heart of the work. It presents a most 
delightful picture of life in a modern up-to-date 
English school. The introduction is by E. P. 
Hughes, late principal of the Cambridge Training 
College for Secondary Teachers. It acquaints us 
with one who is a follower of the spirit and not the 
mere letter of the law. Two serious dangers are 
recognized "which beset the elaboration of any sys- 
tem. . . . "First there is danger of over-system- 
atizing, i. e. the tendency to over-estimate details, 
and thus not to give the teacher sufficient freedom 
to utilize her own individuality. Secondly, an elab- 
orate system has usually a very strong coloring of 
race, or time, or place; and unless the teacher who 
uses the system can erase that local coloring, and 
insert another suitable to her own conditions, then 
part of the system must become conventional, un- 
real and non-living. Froebel has not completely 
escaped either danger. In some directions he has, I 
think, over-systematized, and some of his plans, 
quite suitable for little German children of the 
nineteenth century, are not altogether suitable for 
little British children of the twentieth century. 
But there remains a great mass of principles and 
much method that are most excellent and stimu- 
lating, and that no teacher can afford not to know, 
whatever may be her grade of teaching. The spirit 
of Petalozzi and the principals of Froebel are as 
necessary in the university as in the nursery." 

The above extract expresses the spirit which per- 
meates the school described in the book. 

In her own introduction, the author opens with 
the statement that "Teachers, above all people, need 
to cultivate thi receptivity of the mind." She in- 
sists throughout on the importance of the right 
principles, feeling that as conditions are at present, 
it is impossible with a class of forty or fifty child- 
ren in an infants' school to follow the exact meth- 
ods as might be done with a group of ten or twelve. 
After giving the main Frobelian principles, she 
proceeds "I only give the details of working to 
show that it can be done. Your application of them 
must be verv different from mine, for an idea cannot 
pass through the brains of two people with any pre- 
tensions to education and emerge in the same form." 
"The school building is described as lofty and light, 
class rooms built to accomodate fifty, open from the 
three sides of the hall, while the fourth side has 
six large windows. Engravings from master-pieces, 
lithographs of the seasons, etc., decorate the walls, 
and plants and animal models are on the window 
ledges. A fixed swing which will hold four child- 

ren occupies a recess. The curriculis are given in 
detail, hour for hour, but as said above, these are 
varied to suit special needs. Hymns and Bibles or 
scripture story form a part of the first half-hour's 
program in classes of children over five years old. 
Attention is called to the following points: Every 
class, except Standard I, gets a nature lesson every- 
day but Monday, this being the first secular subject 
of the day, thus giving the keynote of the work to 
be taken. (2. All the children under five are 
allowed half an hour for games every day. ( 3. ) 
Reading and arithmetic are always taken when the 
children are freshest. In no case do two lessons 
which demand close attention and strain follow one 
another. (4.) No needlework is taken with girls 
under six. (5.) Picture talks and conversational 
lessons are taken frequently with the younger 
children for the language teaching it gives. ( 7. ) 
Di awing forms a very important part right through 
the school." For Americans who do not under- 
stand the English method of grading, the syllabi 
are not very easily followed. At least one regrets 
that the ages of the children are not given for the 
different "standards." There seem to be afternoon 
classes for the babies from 2 to 3:55, but the plan 
of work for the afternoon is one of great freedom 
involving the use of chalk and sand, talks about 
pictures, color lessons, bead-stringing for color and 
number, clay-modeling, etc. The reasons for choos- 
ing Nature Study as a basis of work are given and 
through a meeting with the teachers, once in three 
months, in which there is an interchange of ideas 
the season's scheme is worked out on general lines. 
Every week the teacher sends up her plans for the 
following days and the principal co-operates in 
every way possible; furnishing additional inform- 
ation where needed, and giving pictures, poems, 
etc., which bear upon the subject. Miss Brown 
finds it important that the scheme should be in 
harmony with the child's environment; if he lives 
in a seaport town, the details of sea-faring life sug- 
gest a line of work connecting with the larger 
life of foreign lands, as well as the life of the sea- 
shore. For the city child material is found in the 
trades and manufactures of the place. The news- 
paper boy with his bag will form a center round 
which we can weave a week's work which deals 
with the manufacture of paper, printing, books and 
papers of olden times. She tells also the arrange- 
ments by which nature-materials are brought into 
the city schools if the teacher is really in earnest. 
A garden is attached to the school wherein the 
children work at classes. A nature calendar is 
kept in which is recorded what the children may 
have observed, as when Fred contributes the in- 
formation that: "There was mist in the streets and 



fields this morning. It looked like steam from the 
kettle," or Vincent found a horse-chestnut with a 
long root, "Our onion in water has a long sprout," 
or, Eustace noticed that the cowslips were just be- 
ginning to come out." 

The teachers are required to make their own 
illustrations for their work, and several re-produc- 
tions of such schemes are given. Miss Brown be- 
lieving that the ability to make their own illustra- 
tions can be cultivated in all teachers, and that it 
is of immense advantage in their own work. One 
chapter shows how the nature work is correlated 
with geography, including map-making and nature 
stories from the myths. Apparently, in writing, 
the wee children print before they write which we 
Americans now consider unnecessary. They begin 
to write when about four and a h.ylf years old, but. 
have previously had drawing on various surfaces 
"in sand with pointers, on brown paper and black- 
boards with chalk, and on plain paper with ciay- 
ons." It seems to be recognized that there is dang- 
er to the nerves and eyesight in employing too 
early the undeveloped muscles of the child, but in 
America we consider six as quite old enough for first 
efforts in that direction. The teaching of arithme- 
tic is described in detail as well as the use of brush- 
work; the kg. occupations, clay modeling, etc. 
The impoitance of free drawing from Nature as an 
educational value is emphasized again and ajain. 
In many cases the actual workmanship will be poor, 
but one should not primarily aim at strict accuiacy 
and fineness of work. If the child has tried (as he 
will) with his whole heart, soul and strength to 
show on his piece of paper, with his own hands, 
what his own eyes have seen, and his own biain un- 
derstood, that is as much as we can expect of him 
in the in'ants' school. One great aid to improving 
the accuracy of brushwork is not to correct the 
child's mistakes yourself but to get him to say 
where his work is wrong and what is wrong by 
comparing his specimen with his reproduction of it. 
Children over six are given drill in the Ling exer- 
cise, but with due regard to the strain which such 
gymnastic exercises make on mind and body. 
There is a sensible closing chapter in which disci- 
pline is discussed. While to kindergartners many 
of the ideas in the book will not be new it will be 

found inspirational in many ways especially in thi 
spirit which moderates it. Last year, hundreds o 
ambitious English school teachers visited ou 
schools. By means of this book we may learn some 
thing of what progressive England is doing witl 
her schools. Examples from this school were showi 
in the English exhibit of the I. K. U. last sprin; 
and attracted much enthusiastic interest. Pub 
lished by George Philip & Son, London. Man; 
full page illustrations are given. Also a list o 
books used. 

"Burt-Markham Primer, "by Mary E. Burt ani 
Edwin Markham. As Mr. Markham says in the pre 
face: "If the words in a reader are choice and i 
the child gets them at the psychic moment whei 
they are at white heat with meaning to him, the; 
are then the proper words." The stories found ii 
this primer will interest most children from th 
beginning. The plan is such that the teacher tell 
a story and then when the children are alive witl 
interest, uses the words of the story, singly or ii 
sentences. The first one is from Uncle Remus an< 
with the lively pictures will hold the attention o 
any child. The big ears and the big eyes of Bill 
Malone, will make an impression that will cause th 
words to be easily remembered. There are at in 
vals, chapters called "The School Garden," but thi 
school garden is very tiny. One page tells of th 
little apple-tree one week old. "Can Johnny Bea 
climb the tree? No. Can a bee climb this tree 
No; the tree is too small." 

Later, we read of a tiny pine-tree two weeks olc 
The text, with the pictures showing the seedlings 
will please the children very much. It is a sug 
gestive little primer. Ginn & Co. 

Playtime, by Clara Murray. This is a primer c 
reader for first year pupils, which is based, as it 
name suggests, upon the plays of children. Ther 
are colored illustrations, by Herman Heyer, show 
ing children playing at traveling; children makin 
mud pies; children at play with dolls, with block; 
with trumpet, and hobby-horse, etc., and aroun 
these pictures the reading centers. The new wore 
are repeated in a variety of combinations so the 
there should be little difficulty in making thoroug 
what is learned. Little, Brown & Co., Boston. 

Courtesy, Little, Brown d- Co. 

Prom "Playtime" Primer. 



Near the piano stands Miss Fannibelle Curtis, President of the I. K. U. and Supervisor of Kin- 
dergartens, Boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, New York City Public Schools, 

Ol)e lKiu6ergarten- primary H£a%azin<i 

Vol XX— 'NOVEMBER, 1907- No. 3 


the subject of this 
sketch, is familiar to 
the kindergarten world 
through her work in 
music rhythms and 

She began her prep- 
aration for this work at 
Mt. Carroll Seminary, 
Illinois, where in an 
excellent music department she received 
her first training for the art for which na- 
ture had intended her. 

Having been graduated from this insti- 
tution in Music and Literature, her first work 
was the supervision of public school music 
in La Crosse, Wisconsin. From there she 
went to Chicago, pursuing her teaching in 
the public schools of that city, and finally 
becoming interested in and specializing in 
the kindergarten work. Here she gave nor- 
mal training in music in the Chicago Kind- 
ergarten College, the Chicago Free Kind- 
ergarten Association, the training school 
of the Chicago Commons, besides lecturing 
in the leading training schools of the coun- 
try. Her last public school work was the 
successful organizing of Music and Games 
in Rochester, New York. 

From Rochester, she came to Teachers' 
College, in this City, where she is now es- 
tablished, both as Extension Lecturer for 
the College and in the New York Public 
School Lecture Course. She is also In- 
structor of Music in the New York Froebel 
Normal and a regular member of the faculty 
of the Summer School of the South, at 
Knoxville, Tennesee. 

Miss Hofer's special interest at present 
is the Playground Movement and she is de- 
voting all her leisure to the arranging of 
plays and games for festivals and play- 
ground work. She has published valuable 
compilations of music for use in the kinder- 
garten, Sunday School and the playground. 
Her latest publication is a collection of 
"Popular Folk Games and Dances," of un- 
usual value and variety. 

Steadily the resources of other times and 
lands have been drawn upon for the enrich- 
ment of life in our own land ; and now we 

are trying to possess ourselves of the joy 
and spirit in the folk games and dances of 
many nations. 

Miss Hofer, in selecting these games and 
dances for the use of American lads and 
lasses, has discerned with the clear vision 
that comes from years of devotion to the 
service of song and play, their ministry in 
the developing life of childhood and the 
need of extending their influence to those 
of mature years. In these days of strenu- 
ous living, there is a distinct need for recre- 
ation and relaxation ; and it is by such ser- 
vice as this of Miss Hofer's. that we may 
hope to see the spirit of play of childhood 
functioning to meet the developing needs 
of youths and maidens, and finally ripening, 
in mature years, into a festival spirit that 
retains all the spontaneity and elemental 
joyousness that is characteristic of earlier 
days. The prominence of the problems of 
relaxation and recreation at this time, make 
this collection most interesting and timely. 
The selections have been made with a clear 
knowledge of peculiar needs to be met, and 
with a judgment that comes with long fa- 
miliarity with the subject. 

Of German extraction. Miss Hofer is in- 
terested in nationality. She reads and trans- 
lates German readily and credits her inter- 
est and large acquaintance with folklore 
and traditions to this source. She never 
takes up a subject without adding to its 
interest and authority by research and care- 
ful study. 

Being not only a student of education but 
of life, she has had large and varied ex- 
perience in teaching all "sorts and condi- 
tions of men." This enables her to bring 
to her audience both the inspiration of the 
ideal and thoughts of genuine practical 

Her recent contribution to the Play- 
ground number of Charities and the Com- 
mons shows a keen insight into the present 
American situation. 

Personally, Miss Hofer is of fine presence 
and genial spirit, an interesting mingling 
of Teutonic ideality with American practi- 
cality. She has the temperament of the 
musician and artist, in which however senti- 
ment is tempered by a fine sense of humor. 



She is the embodiment of vigor, spontaneity 
and enthusiasm, which is of especial value 
in her work of breaking ground for new 
ideas. It has been well said of her work, 

while free and radical in method, it is cot 
servative in principle. Best of all she ca 
do what she talks about. 

Courtesj- Home Gardening Association, Cleveland, Ohio 






The Place of Nature as Subject Matter in the Humanitarian Program. 

N the preceeding discussion of 
the subject matter of the 
kindergarten program, we 
found that the child begins 
the processes of organization 
and control of experience in 
a most rudimentary fashion, 
during pre-kindergarten days. 

Si Furthermore, in scanning the 

vague experience — continu- 
um of early childhood in or- 
er to ascertain its most constant factors, 
ie found that these processes of organiza- 
ion and control are rooted in the essent- 
dly social nature of the child. "The sense 
•f community — the germ of so much glori- 
ous development" — has responded to the 
ocial situations of environment, of which 
ome and the relationships of the family 
re of primary importance. The peculiar 
haracteristic of this first stage in the edu- 
ation of the child, Dr. Harris sums up in 
he single word, "Nurture." In the history 
if human development, the more enlight- 
ned the consciousness of the purpose of 
mrture becomes, the more determinate be- 
omes the functioning of parental love and 
elf-sacrifice, the influences of which may 
>e likened to the transforming power of 
olar radiance in the realms of lower life. 
3y means of these influences the life of 
he child is drawn up, as it were, from the 
lepths of Being — a life whose earliest 
ictivities begin etching the lines of an in- 
lividual human soul. Some of these lines 
ire, of necessity, obliterated and some are 
leepened as the child seeks and finds par- 
ial fulfillment of his owninternal meaning 
n the human fellowship of the home. Be- 
:ause of the very nature of the child and 
he constant appeal of a wealth of impres- 
sions, it is vain to assume that the varied 
:xperiences of home and family life can be 
)rganized, interpreted, and made the sub- 
ect of conscious control as the child lives 
hrough them for the first time. Hence, the 
;mphasis that is laid upon this body of ex- 
perience as the fundamental source of sub- 
ect-matter for the kindergarten program. 
But human experience cannot be sun- 

dered from the medium in which it devel- 
ops; nor can control, organization, and in- 
terpretation of human experience proceed 
without a corresponding degree of control 
of the relationship upon which depends the 
maintenance of human life. Nature, then, 
as the correlative of human experience, con- 
stitutes a second source of subject-matter 
for the program. 

There are two ways of dealing with the 
place and significance of nature in the de- 
veloping human life. One may gather, 
classify, and arrange a mass of data, and in 
the end formulate a generalization as basis 
for the practical efforts to control and in- 
terpret nature experience. Or, one may 
proceed from a working hypothesis, and in 
its practical application to the affairs of 
life, find its substantial verification. In this 
case we are constrained to pursue the latter 
course, since in these discussions we are 
committed to the principle of unity as the 
generating force that not only produces 
each realm or province of experience, but 
also organizes it through the agency of hu- 
man thought and action, as humanity seeks 
and finds the fulfillment of the meanings of 
human life and of nature in a knowledge of 
the Eternal and the Infinite. 

Primarily, then, we affirm that the realm 
of human experience and the realm of na- 
ture are factors in one unitary spiritual pro- 
cess, and that one factor apart from the 
other — its correlative — is meaningless 
Whatever may be the necessity of separat- 
ing these realms of experience in later 
stages of development, here, on the plane 
of early childhood we are dealing with an 
implicit unity which is the very condition 
of developing conscious life, the movement 
of which passes gradually into the explicit 
unity of a consciously controlled and evalu- 
ated experience — the "education of unifica- 
tion" of the Froebel system. To the child 
"all life is one life, and nature is seen from 
the beginning through the lens of a human 
medium." "Inasmuch as every separating 
tendency hinders pure human develop- 
ment," it becomes the business of the kin- 
dergarten to preserve unbroken the bond 



of unity between these two great factors in 
individual human development; namely, 
Humanity, as represented in the home and 
life of the family, and Nature, as seen 
through humanity and as constantly re- 
ferred back to humanity. But the affirma- 
tion that the relationships of humanity and 
nature are mutually interpretive, and that 
both are factors in a process that is spiritu- 
ally determined, implies that their meaning 
cannot be grasped until they are viewed in 
the light of a third factor that gives to the 
process its characteristic of spirituality — 
the relationship to God. 

For Froebel, the development of the re- 
ligious consciousness is of transcendent 
importance. During the nascent stages 
it is to be developed by the methods 
of indirection. Froebel explicitly states 
that the comprehension of the rela- 
tionship to God comes through the relation 
of man to his fellowmen. He indicates that 
the religious consciousness forms the back- 
ground against which all the experiences 
of unconscious or subconscious childhood 
are thrown in dim perspective lines, and 
that it is the pure human relationships that 
illumine these dim outlines and reveal their 
meaning; while nature, in its social values, 
further unlocks the religious consciousness. 
From every side the child is nourished by 
an infinitude of subtle influences which 
elude our discrimination and classification. 
Under the combined influences of the hu- 
man and nature relationships, the individual 
comes to know himself as related to God. 
The universality of the influence of nature 
appeals to Froebel. He writes : 

"Human works that express the pure spirit 
of man, which is also the spirit of God, are not 
easily nor always readily accessible for everyone, 
and under all circumstances; while, on the other 
hand, man finds himself everywhere surrounded 
by pure works of God, by works of nature that 
clearly express the spirit of God."* 

♦Education of Man, p. 158. 

At times Froebel deems the relationship 
to nature a more efficient means of develop- 
ing the religious life than the relationship 
to man. He says : 

"The pure spirit of God not only is seen more 
clearly and distinctly in nature than it is in human 
life, but in the clear disclosure of God's spirit 
in nature, are seen the nature, dignity and holiness 
of man reflected in all their pristine clearness 
and purity."* 

•Education of Man, p. 159. 

Froebel did not have the gift of song, but 
he possessed the intuitions of a poet. His 
intimacy with the inner spirit of nature must 

needs express itself in prose; but even so 
his discernment of the deep meanings o: 
nature reveal his kinship with Wordswortl 
■ — the world's greatest nature poet — whc 
testifies to the internal meanings of nature 
in loftiest flights of song. 

Froebel writes : 

"As I wandered on in the sunlit, far-stretch- 
ing hills, or along the still shore of the lake, clea; 
as crystal, smooth as a mirror, or in the shadi 
groves, under the tall forest trees, my spirit grem 
lull with ideas of the truly God-like nature an( 
priceless value of a man's soul, and I gladdenee 
myself with the consideration of mankind as tht 
beloved children of God." 

But it was given to Wordsworth to sing 

"And I have felt 
A presence that disturbs me with the joy 
Of elevated thoughts; a sense sublime 
Of something far more deeply interfused, 
Whose dwelling is the light of setting suns, 
And the round ocean and the living air, 
And the blue sky, and in the mind of man; 
A motion and a spirit that impels 
All thinking things, all objects of all thoughts, 
And rolls through all things."* 

Froebel verifies in his own experience tht 
enduring influence of nature. In boyhood 
while gazing deep into the heart of th< 
flower that grew unheeded under his fath- 
er's hedge, there stirs within him a dim pre- 
sentiment of its meaning which satisfies 
some of his inarticulate longings. In youth 
he again discovers the flower and near il 
the hazel buds ; now they speak to him o: 
the "secret of existence and the mysterious 
laws of life." Again, in manhood, on seeing 
the flower and the hazel buds he says : "Tht 
presentiment which the frail, perishing blos- 
som had awakened in my soul, has ripenec 
into insight." In another passage he joy- 
ously testifies: "I can still see my haze' 
buds, like angels, opening for me the greal 
God's temple of Nature." 

Froebel makes the spiritual interpreta- 
tion and appreciation of the internal mean- 
ing of nature preceed the description anc 
classification of her outward manifestations 
nor is it necessary to create an environment 
or induce artificial "budding points" of ex- 
perience in order to find the law of unity — 
the inner connection that is within all ex- 
perience. Froebel says: 

"From every point, from every object of nature 
and life, there is a way to God. Only hold fast tht 
point, and keep steady on the way, gather strengtt 
from the conviction that nature must necessarilj 
have not only an external, general cause, efficient 
in the most trivial detail; that it proceeds fron 
one Being, one Creator, one God."* 

•Education of Man, p. 202. 

Froebel would by every agency keep the 
*Lines composed on revisiting the banks of tht 
Wye near Tintern Abbey. 



ling of the unity of life unbroken. The 

anmgs of home and of nature which 

ae in childhood, must indeed pass into 

jer forms; but whatever form the sense 

mity may assume, 

"Break it not 
ntil its hidden thought 
lto more lasting meaning has been taught." 

Vith the increasing power and interest 
ioyhood, it is still the inner meaning of 
ure that constitutes its primary value. 

Man — particularly in boyhood — should become 
mate with nature, not so much with reference 
che details and the outer forms of her phe- 
lena, as with reference to the spirit of God 
; lives in and rules over her." .... 
Therefore, it is important that boys and adults 
lid go into the fields and forests, together 
nng to receive into their hearts and minds 
life and spirit of nature."* 
Education of Man, p. 162, 163, 164. 

\>r Froebel the education of humanity 
1 the education of the child is primarily a 
ritual process — the growth and develop- 
nt of the idea of the relationship to God. 
t the foundation for belief in God is laid 
:he nascent soul in the appreciation and 
iwledge of its own relationship to human- 
and its relationship to nature. The ex- 
:nce and belief in a world of humanity 
1 a world of nature is inseparably 
ced with the belief in the existence of 
d. Far removed as may seem the law of 
ty, and difficult and abstract as may seem 
this theorizing about man's threefold re- 
onship, nevertheless, these are the fac- 
s with which each follower of Froebel 
st grapple if his ideal of nurture of child 
is to be realized. It is because the prob- 
l is exceedingly difficult that many have 
:n content to accept Frobel's efforts to 
body this law in an educational system, 
all-sufficient and final. Thus they feed 
in the husks of his thought and miss the 
ths they enfold. 

rhe law of unity is, at once, the most ab- 
act and the most concrete. No simplest 
of daily life but manifests this law, either 
observance or by breach. Through the 
ivities of human thought, man has traced 
: working of this law backward into re- 
ins where the problems of organic evolu- 
n were being wrought out — regions in 
ich the plummet of time makes no sound- 
;s. It is through the activity of human 
mght in philosopher, poet, and true scien- 
:, that the law of unity is projected into 
uture that transcends the limit of time, 
is inevitable that time seems of only rela- 
e importance when the mind once con- 
ves the significance of the psychic prob- 

lems that are being wrought out by the 
methods of evolution. 

For educator, as for philosopher, poet, 
and scientist, inspiration, aspiration, and 
courage are born of a unitary world view 
that interprets each detail of experience in 
terms of its highest implication. This is 
the world view that dominates the third, or 
humanitarian conception of the kindergar- 
ten program, where the home with its hu- 
man relationships and dependencies, and 
nature in its relationship to human life are 
conceived as nurturing the consciousness of 
relationship to God. The attitude of this 
conception of the program towards the 
child is determined by the law of unity that 
blends in each individual the life and mind 
of humanity, and at the same time reveals 
the individual as such, as a unique and nec- 
essary expression of the Divine will and 
purpose — a being whose destiny it is to be- 
come aware of his kinship with the Divine 
life, and through the exercise of his endow- 
ment of self-activity, win his birthright of 
freedom. The humanitarian conception of 
the program, in the presentative aspects of 
its experience content, or subject-matter, se- 
lects as the arena in which self-activity is to 
function to such high purpose, the distinctly 
human and nature experiences that most 
clearly reveal the indwelling spirit of God. 
Its attitude towards the education materi- 
als of the system is two-fold; first, through 
presentative and representative exercises, 
they mediate to the child a fund of human- 
izing experience; second, they are the in- 
strumentalities by means of which the 
child gains a unique, personal control over 
experience ; i. e., as more or less plastic me- 
diums, these instrumentalities afford oppor- 
tunities for the functioning of those "pro- 
pensities to variation," which reveal, not a 
child universal, but an individual soul main- 
taining and expressing its uniqueness in an 
environment of conserving and conforming 
influences — a self-active being, using mater- 
ials for extending the processes of self-con- 
trol and the organization of experience ; and 
all to what end? That he may become in 
reality what he is potentially, a center of 
freedom, self-controlled under conditions 
that he can only partially control. 

This conception of the program main- 
tains that the subject-matter and educative 
materials are mutually interpretive. It 
maintains that their unification is not only 
essential, but absolutely necessary to the 
life of control of experience. In this atti- 



tude the humanitarian conception of the 
program is in direct contrast with the 
first and second conceptions wherein 
the separation, or dualism between the 
experience content and the educative 
materials is consciously advocated and 
maintained. Accepting the law of unity as 
the productive principle of program mak- 
ing, consistent action will not admit of one 
basis for the organization and interpreta- 
tion of human experience, and another for 
the organization and interpretation of na- 
ture experience. Neither will it admit of 
one distinct line of activity which has its 
ultimate purpose the organization of the 
world of nature under the categories of 
casuality, time, and space, or in the familiar 
phraseology of the kindergarten, the organ- 
ization of the world of external objects on 
the basis of number, form, position, and 
direction. These are the categories, which, 
taken in isolation, belong to that world of 
description which begins and ends with it- 
self. Under the concept of unification, these 
elements are factors of nature experience ; 
but they lie within nature which waits upon 
appreciation before it will unlock its deep- 
est secrets, or reveal the true significance of 
the formal categories just enumerated. 

This position is taken with full recogni- 
tion that, at times, in the domain of prac- 
tice, Froebel maintains a dualism between 
the world of nature and the world of man. 
It is also true that certain implications of 
his gifts and occupations were only partial- 
ly harmonized in his theories of them. 
Froebel's mathematical tendencies at times 
obscured his vision ; but the truth remains 
that his dominant tendencies were essen- 
tially spiritual. He sees in the relationship 
to humanity and to nature the regenera- 
tion of the Divine life in the individual soul. 
Thus, first of all, what religion says, nature 
repeats and represents ; what the contempla- 
tion of God teaches, nature confirms; what 
religion demands nature fulfills. Each 
newly discovered unity in these sources of 
experience but points the way to the high- 
est unity. Our approach to nature, then, 
is from the side of humanity, since it re- 
quires the insight of the human soul to 
penetrate its meaning. 

Even though Froebel sometimes places 
the child over against nature, it is never in 
the relationship of real opposites, but, 
rather, as terminal aspects of one unitary 
process which requires an intermediary to 
reveal the significance of each terminal fac- 
tor. "Nature is at once too near and too 

remote from the child," says Froebel ; henc< 
the need of an intermediary element to es 
tablish effective unity. In the system o 
educative materials, the ball is the first in 
termediary between the child and the ex 
ternal world. Mediation is the germina 
idea of Froebel's educative materials ; anc 
he yields his logical and mathematical na 
ture to its fascination, and proceeds to es 
tablish dualisms between realms of though 
and action which are in distinct contradic 
tion to his general monistic position. With 
in the series of gifts provision is made fo 
the organization of thought and action upoi 
three distinct planes, viz.: life, beauty an< 
knowledge ; and further, the gifts providi 
for a long series of differentiations of form 
at the end of which an integrating move 
ment begins, reconstructing that which ha 
been arbitrarily separated for the exploita 
tion of form and its correlatives. Thes 
primary contradictions are still regulativ 
of much kindergarten theory and practice 

But Froebel's thought is not honored b] 
perpetuating the detail of practices that con 
tradict the fundamental principle of his sys 
tern, but, rather, by abandoning them to fol 
low his larger light. Accepting Froebel 
position that all development processes ii 
the triune life of the child function througl 
the essentially human attributes and capac 
ities of the individual, the approach to ex 
perience of every nature is from the poin 
of view of humanity. Interpreting th 
gifts by this larger light, the humanitariai 
ideal finds in them the instrumentalities fo 
mediating to the child the essential form 
of social experience. They become th 
"studies" of the kindergarten, since the; 
further the life of conscious control of ex 
perience with reference to social and spiri 
tual ends. 

Returning to the nature aspect of th 
kindergarten program after this seeming di 
gression, it should be noted that long be 
fore nature study found a place in genera 
school curricula, it was acknowledged ii 
kindergarten as a valuable factor, evei 
though it now occupies a large place in ou 
schools, no definitive statement of the de 
velopment of the nature concept has ye 
been made. The development of Froebel' 
concept of nature, when sifted from al 
other interests that find a place in his writ 
ings is, perhaps, the most suggestive treat 
ment of nature study that educational liter 
ature affords. Practically, he advocate 
that the child be under a process of satura 
tion in the world of nature. The appeal o ; 



life to life with its almost endless incentives 
to activity — which is the very condition of 
developing life — is one of its most valuable 
influences, calling forth, as it does, myriad 
responses of touching, seeing, hearing, 
smelling and tasting — those great avenues 
that lead to the confines of the soul, there 

"A door that swing two ways; 
Inward at first it turns, while Nature speaks 
To greet her guest and bid him to her feast; 
. . . Then outward to set free an unanswering 
*Mottos to Sense Songs. Frobel's Mother Play. 

To accomplish this process of saturation 
one must go to nature, submitting the spirit 
to influences that develop, strengthen, and 
ennoble. The value of walks and excur- 
sions as educational means was clearly re- 
vealed to Froebel.* The aim of these ex- 
cursions is always the cultivation of the 
sense of unity, the feeling of oneness with 
all life. In this first step little escapes no- 
tice. The child is not only to find the homes 
of birds, insects, animals and plants, but 
earth, air, water, sunshine — all are objects 
of interest, and means of nurture. Out of 
the processes of saturation in the life of na- 
ture develops the stage of participation in 
the life of nature. Nurtured by the endless 
influences of nature, the child must become 
a nurturer of life; and through the care and 
companionship of animals, in the care and 

*See Education of Man, p. 3oq. 

companionship of plants and flowers, sym- 
pathies and sentiments waken and remain 
a permanent constituent of conscious life. 
Poems and stories enter into this life of 
participation, and song especially, is a 
means of interpreting these varied relation- 
ships to the child. 

Thus, spring, summer, autumn, and win- 
ter, with their varied influences, furnish dif- 
fering mediums for saturation and partici- 
pation in the life of nature. Later, we may 
enter into nature's hidden places in pursuit 
of the formal knowledge which nature has 
to give; but here, on the plane of childhood, 
it is the thrill of the life of the world of na- 
ture and of humanity that makes one har- 
monious chord of music in the soul of the 
child. In approaching nature in the kinder- 
garten program we will do well to follow 
the leadership of the little child. Imbued 
with the idea of the deep significance of the 
relationships of the child to nature, we may 
further the processes of saturation and par- 
ticipation, believing, with Froebel, that 
"the things of nature form a more beautiful 
ladder between heaven and earth than that 
seen by Jacob; not a one-sided ladder lead- 
ing in one direction, but an all-sided one 
leading in all directions. Not in dreams is 
it seen; it is permanent: it surrounds us on 
all sides. It is decked with flowers, and 
angels with children's eyes beckon us 
toward it." 

Courtesy Little, Brown & Co- 







Plans for First, Second and Third Grades. 

A modern interpretation of the meaning 
of nature study. In the nature study les- 
sons planned for the first three grades meth- 
ods should not be radically different from 
those used in the kindergarten. Nature- 
study does not mean science lessons. The 
teaching of facts, as facts, or the use of any 
particular text-book. As Professor Hodge 
says: "Nature study is for the purpose of 
learning things in nature that are best 
worth knowing to the end of doing those 
tilings which made life most worth living." 
Dr. Bigelow of Teachers' College, Columbia 
University, read a paper in December, 1906, 
before the section of biology of the New 
York Science Teachers' Association, which 
has done much to clear up the question of 
what nature-study means. (See Nature- 
study Review, vol. Ill, Jan., 1907.) He has 
gathered together all direct statements and 
suggestions made by writers prominently 
identified with nature-study as an. educa- 
tional movement, reducing these to a work- 
ing definition, which reads as follows : "Na- 
ture-study is primarily the simple observa- 
tional study of common natural objects and 
processes, for the sake of personal acquaint- 
ance with the things which appeal to human 
interest directly." All authorities agree as 
to the three following essentials: (1) direct 
observational study. (2) common things of 
nature. (3) from the standpoint of our hu- 
man interests in nature as it touches our 
daily lives directly. 

The second established principle is that 
nature-study differentiated from science. It 
is not pure science reduced to words of one 
syllable. Science deals primarily with prin- 
ciples, and is concerned with the classifying 
of facts into an organized body of knowl- 
edge. Nature-study, on the contrary, is in- 
dependent of any such organized relation- 

Putting these principles into practice the 
first aim of the teacher of little children will 
be to acquaint them with the plants and ani- 
mals of home, farm and garden by giving 
them opportunity of living among these 
things and of caring for them; to familiarize 
them with the objects of their environment 
by using these materials in their relation to 

life. Thus subjects become wisely corre 
lated with domestic-science and manu; 
training. In developing subject matter iti 
also important to appeal to the constructiv 
instincts of the child. This provides th 
motive for investigation and develops fad 
which lead to spontaneous expression i 
oral, written and artistic form. Accordin 
to this plan nature-study becomes an impo: 
tant factor in unifying the life in and out ( 
the school. 

With this as an ideal any of the kinde: 
garten plans in this series can be easily ac 
justed to suit either of the first three grade 
though for these children it seems best t 
give a more complete cycle of experienc 
For this reason the subject of the corn, t< 
gether with several other programs to fo 
low began with an introductory spring plai 

An introduction to the work of the farm( 
probably would be impossible. In this cas 
pictures can be used and models of harro' 
and plow made. Construct the harrow ( 
strong twigs fastened together with sma 
nails. To make the plow use two pieces < 
wood (about as long and as thick as an ord 
nary pencil) for the handles. Fasten the; 
together by rounds, (see Standard Dictioi 
ary for terms.) Bring the two lower enc 
together and between them insert a piec 
of tin, cut in right proportion, and ber 
into the correct shape. 

To fasten the tin into place bore hob 
into all three parts at the point of junctur 
and wire the same tightly together. The; 
models will be strong enough to demoi 
strate their use in a sand tray. For d< 
scription of "Tools," (see Cyclopedia f( 
American Horticulture, New York, 1900.] 
Facts in Regard to Cornplanting. 

Corn is grown in many different kinds < 
soil, a well-drained, rich, sandy loam is bes 
The seed bed should be well pulverizei 
Planting must be done late enough to e 
cape late spring frosts. It is either sown i 
drills by means of a corn-planter, is som< 
times sown broadcast, but more often plan 
ed in hills about three and one-half fe< 
apart each way. When done in this wa 
three or four stalks are produced per hi! 
From the time of planting till the youn 
plants appear, the soil should be kept in 



pulverized condition to prevent the growth 
of weeds. The plants can be cultivated 
with a hoe. Corn shows a remarkable tend- 
ency to mix as the blending of varieties is 
called, the pollen of one variety showing its 
effect upon the grain of another, as shown 
by variegated grains and in the deteriora- 
tion of sweet corn and prosperous when 
planted near field varieties. The corn pro- 
ducing states are Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, 
Nebraska, Missouri and Indiana. 

When the children begin their planting, 
have them stretch a cord to keep the row 
straight and use sticks of the right length 
to mark the spaces. In each hill plant four 
or five kernels. 

Kernels for Indoor-Study. 

Let tumblers be lined with dark gray 
blotting paper and fill the interior with 
damp saw-dust. Between the blotter and 
glass place kernels. If the saw-dust is kept 
very damp, this experiment will afford an 
excellent opportunity for the children to 
discover the use of the kernel as food to the 
plant, in germination. It will be interesting 
to study the roots and is a better method 
with little children than pulling up the 
young plant. Nature-study observations 
begin as soon as the first green shows itself. 
The children can tell the story of each new 
phases of growth by keeping their own rec- 
ords in little books; this can be done as the 
child likes by use of freehand cutting or by 
painting. If the grade can write let the ex- 
pression be spontaneous, not a language 
lesson with any of its limiting technicalities. 
In June before the children go home for the 
vacation, one of the plants from the garden 
can be pulled up and saved for comparison 
in the fall. 

Visit the children's garden to see the 
change wrought during the summer. How 
much fuller the stately stalk stands than the 
children. Stop to listen to the song of the 
corn. Bringing the June stalk for compari- 
son, how many inches has the plant grown? 
What prevents such a tall stalk from being 
blown over by the wind? The children will 
discover roots attached to the plant above 
the ground and note that they have nob 
ends. Each one braces the stalk, hence their 
name, brace-roots. Of what use are the soil 
roots? Pull one up sufficiently to have the 
children discern that these are quite hair 
like and get their name from their capacity 
to hold fast, being called hold fast roots. 
They are lighter in color, too. (Recall in- 

door study). Show some plants that have 
spent some time in the cellar. This subject 
should be developed further after harvest 

In the mean while the children can work 
with such other material as the season 


The time of harvesting depends upon the 
use to be made of the crop. When grown 
for fodder it should be cut when the kernels 
begin to glaze, and the lower leaves to dry. 
Corn grown for grain must fully ripen and 
dry first. Some of the actual cutting and 
shocking can be done by primary children. 
The Thanksgiving festival can end in an 
old pastime husking-bee. This activity 
with its repeated unwrapping of husk would 
certainly enable the children to answer 
spontaneously any question as to its ar- 
rangement on the cob, as to the texture, etc. 

A Corn Husk Violin. 

Attention is called to this following occu- 
pation not as an invention of the teachers, 
but as the product of the construction in- 
stincts of children living in certain corn 
growing districts. While the author is not 
advocating the importance of structural 
facts, this illustration serves to demonstrate 
how experience may be made so rich, that, 
without the aid of the teacher, it will de- 
velope scientific detail. 

Cut a large stalk from ring to ring. Raise 
the strings or fibres of the stalk on one side 
with a pen-knife and insert a small piece of 
wood at one end large enough to hold the 
fibres taut. Make the bow for the in- 
strument in the same way, only use a suit- 
ably slender stalk. Insert a small piece of 
wood at either end and rub the strings with 
resin. By what more impressive methods 
could pupils become familiar with the 
fibrous texture of the stalk? 

By what natural and simple activity could 
they be brought to the knowledge of the 
use of the stalk to the plant as the conduc- 
tor of water? 

Some Uses of the Stalk. 

The outer portion of the stalk is used in 
paper manufacture and the pith is used for 
making pyroylin varnishes, gun-cotton and 
other high explosives. Owing to its poro- 
sity and absorbtive form, the pith is also 
employed in the construction of war vessels, 
compressed blocks of it are packed behind 



the outer armor plate, to absorb water and 
close any hole that might pierce this plate 
by a projectile. 

Repeat and recall some of the previous 
kindergarten experience. Make corn meal 
by crushing and grinding the corn. Make 
some of the primitive implements illustrat- 
ing the various methods of grinding and 
crushing, etc. Through the shelling, the 
child's attention is directed to this arrange- 
ment of the kernels and to the firm struct- 
ure in a much more vital way than by pass- 
ive observation although these facts are 
only incidental to the all important consid- 
eration of what corn is good for. 

The following introduction bv the au- 
thor, and also the remarks by Dr. A. E. 
Winship pertaining to this series of ar- 
ticles by Miss Proudfoot, may prove in- 


[This little book is presented to kinder- 
gartners and primary school teachers with 
the desire that it may help to unify their 
work, and to make a logical connection be- 
tween the studies of these earliest school 
years. The relation of the kindergarten to 
the grades ought to be a living one, and the 
transition from one to the other, natural 
and unconscious. The work makes its ap- 
peal in the Introduction, which will be found 
to be addressed quite as directly to the 
teachers of the early grades, although it 
enters upon the discussion with a consider- 
ation of kindergarten work. 

It would be ungracious were I not to ac- 
knowledge my indebtedness to my col- 
league, Dr. Ella I. Harris, for the words of 
the beautiful Corn Song and for her sus- 
taining sympathy; also to Frederic James 
Long for the music of the songs. 

To Dr. -Frederick M. Padelford, of the 
University of Washington, I express my 
sincerest appreciation for the interest which 
he has taken in my work and for the valu- 
able detailed criticism he has given it 


Miss Proudfoot's kindergarten work 
and the articles that have grown out of it 
have a touch of real life that is ideal, and 
so far as I know, it has not been approxi- 

mated in this line elsewhere in American 
theory or practice. 

The child is not transplanted into a the- 
ory, nor is a theory engrafted upon the 
child, both of which are common evils in at- 
tempts at reform. 

The admirable results attained ur.der the 
author's direct leadership with her class of 
little people may be secured by any capable 
and well-intentioned woman who will fol- 
low the articles closely, and work in the 
spirit suggested. By its aid, any kindergart- 
ner or primary teacher, with patience and 
tact, can take a small class, as Miss Proud-i 
foot does, into a real home, kitchen, dining- 
room and chamber in turn, and have the 
children do the domestic work which each 
should do in her own home, had that home 
equal privileges and responsibilities. 

In the same way, the children go into a 
real garden and cornfield and do under ac- 
tual conditions what is often approximated 
in school gardens. In a word, all life tends 
to become real life under every-day condi- 
tions, but it is not left on the plane of the 
prose of life because it is exalted and en- 
nobled through imagination and transform- 
ation into approximately artistic conditions 
through games, songs and literature. 

In another way, the author attains the 
supposedly unattainable. We have long 
been saying that the only test of the kinder- 
garten is the higher work done in the grades 
that could not have been done but for the 
kindergarten, and yet we have not dared to 
make the test on any large scale. Miss 
Proudfoot reaches this safe result in that 
she never thinks of the kindergarten as 
other than the prelude to the grades. Ev- 
ery hour the little people as a class spend in 
a home, in a garden, in a field or in school 
with games, with literature or with songs, 
she is attuning them in knowledge, in ac- 
tivity, in spirit for better work in all the 

The making of a book is of slight moment 
in these times, but the transformation of a 
system in any essential regard, breathing 
the breath of life into a faint hope that the 
desirable is attainable, is a noble mission, 
and I can but hope that such possibilities 
are in this message of Miss Proudfoot. 

Boston, Mass. 





MONG the notable books 
mentioned in a former arti- 
cle on "Mothers' Reading- 
Circles"* is "The School of 
Infancy," or "The Mother 
School," written by John 
Amos Comenius -about the 
year 1628 in the Bohemian 
language. This book was later translated 
into several other European languages and 
"the governments of England, France, Hun- 
gary, Holland and Sweden all invited Co- 
menius to come and live among them and 
reconstruct their educational systems." 
(See introduction to Prof. Mill : S. Mon- 
roe's edition of the "School of Infancy.") 

This interesting and unique book is "an 
essay on the education of youth during the 
first six years." 

Notwithstanding its age and the fact that 
its admonitions are now trite to many par- 
ents, this book still has a living mission to 
mothers and kindergartners. Its quaint 
phrasing makes it peculiarly attractive. 
Through its simplicity it will help in arrest- 
ing the thought of many of the parents of 
our foreign born children, while its historic 
value will aid in holding any intelligent 

I suggest that in presenting this book in 
a Mother's Meeting that the kindergarten 
(1) Give a short historic account of it or 
appoint a mother to do so. (2) Have a se- 
lected paragraph read as a basis for discus- 
sion and illustration. (3) Have the para- 
graph mimeographed or copied by the sec- 
retary and ready for distribution at the 
close of the meeting. (This will give work 
to a secretary.) 

The following paragraphs are the best 
for the purpose : 

Chapter IV, Sections 7 and 9. 

In Section 7 Comenius enumerates thir- 
teen virtues upon which any parent may do 
well to ponder. 

Mothers should be encouraged to- tell 
very briefly how they have succeeded in 
(1) developing, or (2) enforcing any one of 
these desirable traits in their own children. 
These virtues need not be taken in the 
given order. 

The kindergartner should be ready with 
*See Kindergarten Magazine, February, 1907. 

further illustrations from ideal homes and 
from the kindergarten. 

Comenius. like all wise educators, puts 
morals and manners before intellectual at- 
tainments. Then follows section 9, in 
which he enumerates in simple fashion the 
"Beginnings of knowledge." This to me is 
one of the most fascinating outlines of what 
a little child ma}' come to know in all edu- 
cational literature. I suggest this ninth sec- 
tion as the basis for a second discussion fol- 
lowing the same method as with section 7, 

Parents will be surprised and interested 
to discover that the child is gaining knowl- 
edge in simple home life that will later be 
used by his teachers as a basis for every 
possible subject in the school curriculum. 

Strange to say. this helps to dignify the 
mother's work in her own eyes. 

It may be necessary for the kindergartner 
to enter a word of caution here lest an un- 
wise and over-zealous mother fails to see 
that all this is learned in play and in simple 
every day living, not mainly by instruction. 
Comenius' motto was, "We learn to do by 

Kindergartners must use their judgment 
in reference to using the remaining sections 
of Chapter IV. It would be useless, for ex- 
ample, to explain to mothers who have 
never heard of geometry that children lay 
a foundation for geometry in measuring, 

There should be no uniform outlines for 
Mothers' Meetings. The kindergartner 
must study conditions. 

Let me call attention to the fact that the 
topics outlined in Chapter LV are expand- 
ed and illustrated in Chapter VI-VIII, 
hence the kindergartner should study these 
chapters thoroughly, or during the discus- 

The activities of the kindergarten are 
foreshadowed in Chapter VII, Sections 4 
to 12, and in Chapter VIII, Sections 4 to 
8. The "intent of home training" is con- 
sidered in Chapter XI, but in reading it 
should be remembered that it was written 
before the days of the kindergarten when 
"to go to school" meant great restriction 
and attention only to books. The kinder- 
garten has since developed and the school 
itself essentially modified. 



As most training schools and classes for 
kindergartners now give a course in "the 
history of education," I take pleasure in 
recommending the study of this little gem 
of a book to any who have not already 
adopted it. This study will pave the way 
for its future in Mothers' Circles while at 
the same time kindergartners will be aided 
in realizing the relation of Froebel's work 
to that of his predecessors. 

The little book may be secured at any 
branch of the New York Public Library, or 
"The Traveling Library," 190 Amsterdam 
Avenue, will loan it for use in Mothers' 
Reading Circles, to kindergartners in the 
boroughs of Manhattan, the Bronx and 
Richmond. It may also be secured for more 
general use, then, "The New York State 
Traveling Library, Albany, N. Y., or from 
D. C. Heath & Co., Publishers. 

Character of Early Instruction. 

Children ought to be instructed in morals 
and virtues especiallv in the following: 

1. In temperance, that they may learn to eat 
and drink according to the wants of nature; not 
too greedily, or cram themselves with food and 
drink beyond which is sufficient. 

2. In cleanliness and decorum so that, as con- 
cerns food, dress and care of body, they may be 
accustomed to observe decency. 

3. In respect toward superiors, whose actions, 
conversations and instructions they should learn 
to revere. 

4. In complaisance, so that they may be prompt 
to execute all things immediately at the nod and 
will of their superiors. 

5. It is especially necessary that they should 
be accustomed to speak the truth. They should 
on no account be accustomed to utter falsehood, 
or to speak of anything otherwise than it really 
is, either seriously or in mirth. 

6. They must likewise be trained to justice, 
so as not to touch, move stealthily, withdraw or 

hide anything belonging to another, or to wrong 
another in any respect. 

7. Benignity ought also to be instilled into 
them and a love of pleasing others, so that they 
may be generous, and neither niggardly nor en- 

8. It is especially profitable for them to be 
accustomed to labor, as to acquire an aversion for 

9. They should be taught not only to speak 
but also to be silent when needful, for instance, 
during prayers or while others are speaking. 

10. They ought to be exercised in patience, 
so that they may not expect that all things should 
be done at their nod; from their earliest age they 
should gradually be taught to restrain their desires. 

11. They should serve their elders with civility 
and readiness. This being an essential ornament 
of youth, they should be trained to it from their 

12. From what has been said, courteousness 
will arise, by which they may learn to show good 
behavior to everyone, to salute, to join hands, 
to bend the knee, to give thanks for little gifts, 

13. To avoid the appearance of rudeness or 
levity, let them at the same time learn gravity of 
deportment, so as to do all things modestly and 
gracefully. A child initiated in such virtues will 
easily obtain for itself the favor of God and man. 

"Blessed is the home where voices resound with 

"Too much sitting still or slowly walking about 
on the part of a child is not a good sign; to be 
always running or doing something is a sure sign 
of a sound body and vigorous intellect. 

"We read that Themisbocles, supreme ruler 
of the Athenians, was once seen riding with his 
son on a long reed as a horse by a young unmarried 
citizen; and observing that he wondered that so 
great a man could act so childishly, he begged 
of him not to relate the incident to anyone until 
he himself had a son." 

"No one will doubt that one boy sharpens the 
genius of another boy more than anyone else can; 
consequently, boys should meet daily together, 
and play together or run about in open places." 

"As long as children are learning to speak, so 
long they should be free to talk as they like, to 
prattle freely." 

"Parents should endeavor to excite in their 
children confidence and love towards their future 

Courtesy, the Southern Workman 






The County Fairs. 

One of the most interesting' experiences 
of child life — if adult memory serve aright — 
is a visit to the old-time County Fair, still 
held in many parts of the country. Who 
■can forget the excitement of preparation, 
the exhilerating ride through the early 
morning air, crisp with the first frosts of 
autumn, the rustling of the wheels through 
the new-made beds of leaves, the vivid dash- 
es of red and yellow in the foliage overhead. 
Then the entrance among numberless other 
vehicles, the visiting of stalls, the bewilder- 
ing arrays of jellies, cake, bread, fruits, 
hed-quilts, and household things which 
interested mothers and sisters ; the giant 
pumpkins, melons and squashes which 
made infant eyes pop with wonder; the 
high bred fowls with curious wattles and 
feathered legs, the sleek cattle and mon- 
strous Percherons, the mettlesome racers 
which pleased father and older brothers ; 
the lemonade and peanut stands, the blar- 
ing of rival bands, the merry-go-round, the 
target shooting, the races and the tumult- 
uous joy of the grandstand. 

Such pleasures of the past simple life 
may seem tame and colorless to the small 
frequenter — even of kindergarten age — of 
Coney Island and Luna Park which has 
become the attachment of even the 
small cities. If the County Fair is pos- 
sible, give the children the benefit of it. 
Sometimes in the larger cities a foreign 
autumn festival like the "Schwaben Fest" 
is to be found which is worth visiting. 
Even if the County Fair be not at all pos- 
sible, tell a story of "once upon a time when 
I was a little girl I went to a party in the 
country where all the vegetables that you 
usually see in the grocery stores were 
brought straight from the fields," etc. Have 
a naming oarty, enumerating, as you will 
find, most of the things that the children 
are already familiar with: The fact that 
they were not brought to sell, but to show 
how large and beautiful things could grow, 
would be a change to the usual grocery 
store conception of the city child's nature 
world. Preparatory gymnastic lessons on 
fall subjects will be found in October and 
November numbers of Kindergarten Maga- 
zine of 1906. The younger children will en- 
joy telling their experiences at the Fair 
or in the country. 

Various gymnastic stunts can be pro- 
vided in the imitation of their feathered 
friends do, 

Let them show show how, for instance, 

Mr. Leghorn : 

1. Folds his wings this way — arms. 

2. Holds his head high — stretch. 

3. Flaps his wings — arm movements. 

4. Stands on one foot — steady, for poise. 

5. Stands on the other, etc. 

Mr. Turkey: 

1. Stands proud and tall. 

2. Slow 1 ' lifts his foot. 

3. Slowly drops it down again — (Lift 
from hip). 

4. Give Turkev walk. 



Head bobs as foot lifts, give gabble, 

This is excellent co-ordinating 
exercise. Let children show with hand 
how turkey spreads his toes as he raises 
and lowers foot. 

Mrs. Guinea Hen : 


Puts her head forward. 

2. Folds her wings. 

3. Runs swiftly on her toes. 

4. Imitate sound. 

Mrs. Cow : 

1. Shakes her head. 

2. Tosses her horns. 

3. Walks heavily from side to side. 

4. Calls for breakfast — Moo. 

Wooly Sheep : 

1. Stiffen legs like drumsticks. 
Trip daintily along — tap tap. 
All follow leader and jump the hedge. 
Open pasture bars and jump in. 
Bleat and eat from hand. 

The races will give good review of all 
the horse movements than which none are 
better or more enjoyed by the children. 

For Kindergarten: 

1. Free running like colts, frisking and 

2. Trotting, short steps on toes, holding 
reins high. 

3. Galloping, leaping, single foot. 

4. Driving in a sulky, holding reins. 

5. Racing in twos or fours, etc. Hold 
children in check bv keeping to running, 
trotting, galloping step. It is not necessary 
to run wild entirely. 



Schoolroom Application. 

For the grades let the children play hold- 
ing "Fair" in connection with their nature 
study, arithmetic, reading, etc. Various 
fruits, vegetables, grains, pets, the product 
of girls' cooking classes and sewing, things 
they have made and gathered during the 
summer, can be entered, valued, appraised 
and judged and given prizes for. Where 
there are school gardens the products can 
be entered. In connection with this, har- 
vest songs and games can be learned and a 
thanksgiving party as a result should be 
a spontaneous and happy necessity full of 
the spirit of the Harvest, rather than a fam- 
ily gormandizing occasion, with only sang- 
uinary visions of their fatherland friends 

In the schoolroom the materials of the 
"Fair" may add to schoolroom decoration 
or become part of a processional, bearing 
the fruits and grains of the field as a thank- 
offering, all finally being given to those 
needier than ourselves. 

If as a teacher you take the time to give 
a Harvest festival, do not fail to enrich the 
subject with some of its historic and time 
honored detail. Read Chambers, Book of 
Days; Strults' Sports and Pastimes of Eng- 
lish People for this. A Harvest Home festi- 
val will give opportunity for all the old time 
games of innocent fun and amusement. 
Some of the old games, Jolly Miller, Oats, 
Pease, Beans, Swedish Harvest Game are 
familiarly enumerated and are to be found 
in "Singing Games, Old and New," "Pop- 
ular Folk Games and Dances," Hofer. Do 
not omit "Virginia Reel" and "Old Dan 
Tucker" from the final festivities, with the 
older children. 

Sugar Cane Industry. 

The following series, outlines the activi- 
ties incident to the Sugar Cane culture of 
the Southern States and may be suggestive 
to Southern teachers. This and other in- 
dustrial action stories were gathered from 
students of the Summer School of the 
South, at Knoxville, Tenn., and will appear 
in this series during the year. 


i. Lift stalks from "bed" — stoop to 
right and left. 

2. Place on wagon — forward pitch, 
arms raised, heels up. 

3. Lay in furrows — to right and left, 
walk in line. 

4. Cover — arms outstretched*, bend 
from right to left. 

Cultivating : 

1. Plowing — push plough forward ir 
straight line. 

2. Growing — stoop low, raise hands tc 

3. Wind blowing through stalks anc 
leaves — trunk strong, arms swaying. 

Harvesting : 

1. Stripping — raise both arms, quiet 
outward movement. 

2. Cutting — grasp knife, forward stooj 
to stalk, upward pull. 

3. Hauling — stoop, pitch, throw on wag- 
on. (Chant negro melody while working.} 

4. Pitch — with lively movement tc 
right and left. 

5. Ride in carry-all on the cane, four ir 
a circle or through aisles or on seats, teet- 
erine and swinehip". 

6. Rest and eat cane — peel off fron 
right to left. 

Grinding : 

1. Carry to rollers, two lines walking 

2. Crushing — rotary movement of arms 
to center. 

3. Grinding — two children standing anc 
turning toward each other, one feeding 

4. Dramatize entire play, letting al 
children take part, hauling, feeding, mill 
etc. Add to No. 3, a child standing in from 
of rollers pointing hands for spout. Alsc 
one child on either side tossing arms out- 
ward as does the "bagass," as refuse intc 



1. Carry to vats — lift buckets and pom 

2. Bubbling — show with arms in circles 

3. Skimming — Side to side arm move- 

4. Pouring into jugs steadily — one hanc 
funnel and one dipper. 

5. Carry off jug — child catch hand: 
under knees, for jug. Two others take 
arms for handles and carry to store room 


1. Turn juice into centrifugals — Arm; 
up, out and down. 

2. Rapid turning — quick rotary move- 
ment of body. 

3. Sugar falls gently to floor — fing'ei 

4. Testing — tasting sugar. 



5. Shovelling into barrels — stoop, scoop, 

6. Rolling barrels away — stoop, push, 
. set up. 

7. Make a saddle of hands and carry 
i one child as barrel. 

Candy Pulling: Close with happy game. 

1. Stirring, boiling, pulling movements. 

2. Two children pull together. 

Hallowe'en Games. 
Hallowe'en, perhaps more than any of 
the other seasonal festivals, reverts to the 

. dim mysteries and superstitions of the past. 
At first it was undoubtedly part of the gen- 

, eral Harvest ceremonials but later received 
a spiritual interpretation when it was sup- 

; posed the spirits were freed and souls 
walked abroad working their spells for 
good and ill. It was also believed to be 
the proper time to consult with these con- 
cerning future events, hence the practice 
of magic and divination. The later hum- 
orous interpretation of these practices ac- 

1 count for the mysterious disappearances 
and appearances of gates and other mova- 
bles in a neighborhood, strange apparitions, 
disturbances, etc. 

The better of these pranks and tricks 
still give wholesome fun and diversion to 
social occasions and parties of young people, 

1 in which even kindergarten and grades may 

' share. If the children have been holding a 
"Fair," the apples, nuts, and other fruits may 
find a happy ending in such a party. A few 
of the Hallowe'en stunts are here listed: 
Bobbing apples in a tub of water or from 
a string hung from ceiling, throwing peel- 
ing over shoulder to find letter, jumping 
over candles, blowing out lighted candles, 

magic mirror, ring cake, snap dragon, 
ghost five, jack-o'-lanterns, should furnish 
ample fun. 

Such games as Blind man's Buff , Puss 
Wants a Corner, Hot Cockles, Going to Jer- 
usalem, Clap-in, Clap-out, Queen Dido's 
Dead, Simon Says, Thumbs Up, etc., should 
be revived and played. Many of these old 
games are in danger of being dropped out of 
child play and can here be happily revived. 

Some of the tricks of devination are, 
dropping melted lead through handle of 
key into water, the different forms of ships, 
swords, brooms, etc., indicating future fate. 
Nut shell boats and lighted candle ends, 
riding water in safety, means long life, two 
meeting, friendship, crossing, separation, 
etc. Guessing games and paying forfeits, 
"Heavy, heavy hangs over your head" etc., 
can be revived at this time. These tricks 
can be used by the older children or at 
young people's parties. 

An out-of-door bonfire with a potato, 
apple, corn or chestnut roast is the indis- 
pensable sacrificial fire of modern times. 

A game of "Ghost Charades" can be 
played, in which the shades of favorite his- 
toric characters can appear. Characters 
from favorite books can be substituted, or 
humorous representation of well known 
public and political characters can be given. 
Much merriment as well as instruction can 
be gained from guessing the names of these. 
This can be done by means of shadow pict- 
ures, or ghostlv reflections brought about 
by a clever manipulation of lamps and look- 
ing glasses. Various funny scenes can be 
enacted, forecasting the future of friends, 
teachers, or individurls of prominence. 


Language — For language work have the children 
gather whatever dry seed pods they can. Ask the 
children if they know how some ot these little 

, seeds will sleep in the ground all winter and be 
ready to wake up in the spring. Direct the chil- 
dren's thoughts, but let them express their own 

, ideas in their own way. 

Use the seed pods for a drawing lesson, also for 

1 a cutting lesson. Cut out five or six poppy seed 
pods and mount in a row, making a conventional 

Hop-Scotch — Draw the outline of a hop-scotch 
game on the blackboard. If you do not know how, 
any of the children can show you. Write one or 
several words in each division. Who can go 
through the entire game without missing? 

Have the children ask their mothers to save the 
seeds from the melons and pumpkins or cucumbers 
and squashes, anything that has flat seeds. Dry 
these and use them to outline leaves and apples 
and flowers, anything that the children can find to 
illustrate in this way. 





The Winter Fires. 

Something had to be clone to keep Jack 
Frost from getting into the house ; outside 
he might do as he pleased, but the farmer 
must have a warm place for the baby to 
play in, and for the mother to work in ; so 
he and Tommy had to jump out of bed early 
one frosty morning and go down to the 
wood lot, which was away beyond the or- 
chard. Here the trees grew so close to- 
gether that it seemed to Tommy almost as 
dark as at bedtime when he and his father 
were walking in and out among them try- 
ing to choose the best ones to cut down for 
the winter fires. 

Then how his father did swing his axe, 
and how the chips did fly! It kept Tommy 
pretty busy picking them up; — but still lie 
had time to watch the gray squirrels with 
their bushy tails, and to fill his pockets with 
pine cones and acorns; then, too, he had to 
look at all the Christmas trees that Santa 
Claus had planted in the wood lot, and play 
that they were covered with toys for Susie 
and the baby and himself. 

After a few mornings of work like this. 
Tommy's pile of chips and his father's pile 
of wood had grown so large that they drove 
the old horse clown to the lot and filled the 
cart heaping full of wood; and still they 
left some behind. 

Who do you suppose drove the horse up 
through the orchard and past the garden 
to the woodshed? Tommy himself! — with 
his father for passenger, and the wood piled 
high behind them. 

Then came the unloading, and the laying 
of the sticks in even piles, and I can tell you 
that Tommy was hungry when it was done, 
and so warm, too, from his work that lie 
began to think they had been foolish to get 
wood for a fire in. such weather. 

But if he had slopped working he might 
have known tint Jack Frost was playing 
around the woodshed all the time, waiting 
for a chance to get into the kitchen door; 
and that is just what lie did, for Tommy 
forgot to close the door behind him when 
he went in to dinner, and before he knew it 
Jack Frost was at his heels quite ready to 
stay and visit the family. 

Now it happened that the wood-box by 

the stove was empty, and Tommy had to 
scamper back to the shed for an armful of 
wood before his mother could make the fire 
so hot that Jack Frost was glad to get out 
again. After that Tommy made it his busi- 
ness to close the door behind him when he 
went in and out, and to keep the wood-box 
full every clay ; for although he thought Jack 
Frost the joiiiest of company it was best to 
do their playing together out of doors. 


The Snow Storm. 

After this Jack Frost found it too hot for 
him in the house. He would sometimes 
stand by the window and look in at Susie 
playing with her dolls, or at the baby fast 
asleep in the cradle; but if he stayed too 
long someone was sure to see his breath on 
the window pane, and as quick as a wink 
out would come a stick of wood from the 
wood-box and into the stove it would go, 
and Jack Frost would have to move on. 

He saw that Tommy was beating him in 
the battle, but he wouldn't give up, for he 
said to himself: "I am stronger than Tom- 
my, or even than the farmer; when I first 
came they had to take in the flowers and 
fruit and vegetables out of my way; — after- 
wards they began to keep Susie and the 
baby by the warm fire, and would not let 
them step out of doors without being so 
bundled up that I could not even get a peep 
at them. Now I will make it colder still, 
and Tommy and the farmer must look out 
for themselves." 

And he did make it colder, but there was 
so much work to be clone that Tommy and 
the farmer came oat just the same; to be 
sure, the collar on the new overcoat was 
turned, up around Tommy's ears now, and 
he scampered in from the woodshed just as 
soon as lie could get an armful of wood. 
Even the farmer hurried in from the barn 
as soon as the horses and the cows and the 
chickens had had their supper; then they 
both sat and toasted themselves by the hot 
stove and laughed at Jack Frost, who 
thought he could keep them in. 

But while they were abed and asleep, Jack 
Frost was busy. In the morning, when 
they opened their eyes they saw snow piled 
high on the window sill, and Jack Frost's 
breath so thick on the window pane that 



they could see nothing but whiteness. In- 
deed, they found, when they had dressed 
and opened the door, that there was noth- 
ing but whiteness (o see. 

It was as if the deep broad sky had been 
filled with snow, and it were all tumbling 

1 down into Tommy's back yard ; but it 
would not do to stand and look at it long, 
for the paths must be dug to the woodshed 

■ and to the barn — else how could the wood- 
box be filled or the cows be milked and fed? 
It was hard work, for the snow was deep 

: and heavy, but Jack Frost was mistaken if 
he thought they were cold ; mother had 
bundled up her workers in extra mittens 
and mufflers, and there was a hot fire for 
them to run to at any moment ; but if you 
will believe me. their hard work sent the 
warm blood running so fast in their arms 
and legs that the mufflers had to come off 
before the paths were half dug, and still 
they kept at it until the wood-box was filled 
and all the work in the barn was done. 

It went on in this way all day, no sooner 
would Jack Frost fill up the paths than out 
would come the snow shovels, — until lie 
grew tired of the game, and by night time 
was very willing to say that Tommy and the 
farmer had fairly beaten him. 
Thanksgiving Day. 
What a place for a Thanksgiving dinner 
Tommy's house was ! Why. everything for 
the table was right in the barn, or down 
cellar, and the "thanksgiving" was right 
there, too, for anyone who had watched 
the squashes and pumpkins and potatoes 
through the summer knew very well that 
these did not grow of themselves, and that 
even the farmer and his boy could not make 
a fat pumpkin out of one little seed, nor 
big potatoes from one little sprout. To 
Tommy it was sure that Someone had given 
them these things, while he and his father 
had only watched them come, and taken 
them in out of Jack Frost's way. 

Now that this was done, the)' would have 
a feast, and see all of these wonderful pres- 
ents together : of course grandma must be 
there, too, and the farmer drove away early 
on Thanksgiving morning to bring her. 
There was plenty of work to be done while 

he was gone; the vegetables must be 
washed and cooked, and the turkey roasted 
in the big oven; Susie took care of the baby 
so that mother could do this, and what do 
you suppose Tommy did? Something that 
he and his mother had planned the night 
before. I must tell you how they came to 
think of it : When he came home from car- 
rying the milk lie asked his mother how 
there could be a Thanksgiving in a little 
house that had no garden and no barn; he 
was afraid that his two friends — the old 
lady and the cat — would have no feast like 
the one they were to have at the farm. 
You will soon see what they decided to do 
about it. On Thanksgiving morning just 
after breakfast Tommy heaped into his ex- 
press cart all sorts of things that are good 
for a Thanksgiving feast, and started for 
the little house. 

The old lady was watching for her little 
milk man. and thinking that he was later 
than usual ; but he was nowhere to be seen. 
She was looking for a little boy with a tin 
pail on his arm. and there was no such bov 
in sight, though she peeped out again and 
again ; then she rubbed her glasses so that 
she could see better; there was a boy com- 
ing down the road, but he was tugging at 
an express cart that seemed full of things — 
that could not be Tommy. 

And before she knew that it surely was, 
he was right at the door telling her that 
here was her Thanksgiving dinner. 

He could hardly wait to hear "thank 
you," but as soon as his cart was empty 
he ran for home with it rattling at his heels, 
for he was afraid Grandma might be there 
before him : of course he was mistaken, 
for it was still early in the morning, and 
what a long morning it was! He helped 
his mother a little, and kept watch at the 
window a great deal, and smelled the good 
dinner most of all, until he could hardly wait 
for it any longer. 

But at last he saw the old horse coming 
up the hill, and he ran out and brought 
Grandma in by the warm fire. Then he 
forgot all about dinner, and just wanted to 
sit down close beside her and hear her tell 
about when the farmer was her own little 




NOTE.— This series of articles which began in the Sep- 
tember number of The American Primary-Kindergarten 
Teacher, -will be continued throughout the year. The pre- 
ceding articles will be mailed, if desired, on receipt of post- 
age stamps amounting to six cents. 

This is the month that is full of historic connec- 
tions for the grades and local interests for the 
younger children; a month when we stop to think 
of the gift and the Giver; a time when we realize 
to whom our gratitude is due. Any formal ex- 
pression of thankfulness will not bring about the 
desired feelings. It is by bringing before the minds 
of the children their possessions and helpers that 
thankfulness springs up. This is a time when not 
only the farmer may be made an object of interest 
but the city children have helpers in the police- 
men, etc. Any such helper may be appropriately 

bovc, cvrroux 


""*?£ G 


introduced into the November program. The post- 
man, however, is so naturally connected with val- 
entines that he may easily be kept till February. 

There is a great temptation to crowd the his- 
toric interests down into the kindergarten and 
lower grades because of the historic associations of 
this month. This, however, must be avoided. The 
month presents sufficient topics to the beginners 
without infringing on the work of later years and 
the oft-repeated complaint that the children are 
tired of Hiawatha and the May flower long before 
they reach the age of understanding, much of that 
work will not continue to be heard from the teach- 
ers of more advanced work. The little children 
are quite content to talk about the turkey and the 

pumpkin pies and leave the Pilgrim Fathers to 
their own devices and the grown ups. 

The animal life around which our interest cen- 
ters this month is the turkey primarily — incident- 
ally, the duck and goose. Some suggestions for the 
work in different lines follow: 


Pilgrim huts. 
Pilgrim church. 
Pilgrim furniture. 
May flower. 
Indian wigwam. 
Bows and arrows. 
Indian pottery. 






Small boafc 

9. Duck. 

10. Goose. 

11. Book Cover — Basket of vegetables 

Free Drawing. 



Farm animals in their houses. 

Barnyard scenes. 

Bins full of vegetables. 

Barrels of apples. 

Policemen at daily duties, such as helping 
folks across the street, taking lost child home, 
stopping a fast horse. 

6. Mayflower leaving England. 

7. Mayflower landing at Plymouth rock. 

8. Building of village. 

9. Indian life. 


8 9 

10. Illustrated stories. 

Practice Drawing. 

Cornfield with pumpkins in it. 



May flower. 

2. Small boats. 

3. Wigwams. 

4. Canoes. 

5. Policeman's hat, gloves, stick. 

6. Vegetables — onion. 


7. Illustrate stories. 

S. Cutting to the line as in previous month. 
Magazine pictures should be greatly improved by 
this time. The children should be able to cut 
straight-edge pictures true. 

9. Some simple combination of objects on one 
base might be attempted toward the end of this 



Poultru house 



Drawing and Cutting. 
Pumpkin pie. 
Ear of corn. 


Bins to store things for the winter. 

and Cutting. 

2. Barn based on form given in previous ar- 

3. Poultry house; same foundation as de- 
scribed in previous article. Draw large windows. 

4. Folding and cutting for flower patterns of 
unique design might be introduced in November to 
prepare for snow flake work of the winter months. 
The work could be done by simply folding the book 
form and then folding the bottom of the closed 
book to the top of book and cutting off the open 

5. Cutting strips for chains should have 
reached a pretty good standard. Some of the best 
might be saved for Christmas tree decorations. 

Mats and fringe. 

Simple vegetables — potato, onion. 

For tearing a mat a good size sheet of manilla 
paper should be selected; fold through one diame- 
ter; tear through the middle beginning at the fold. 
This leaves two portions held together only by a 
border, which is proportionate to the size of the 
mat. Tear each halt' as before. Tear each quarter. 
This will probably give the desired width. Care 
should be taken in tearing the strips to be woven 
into this mat that they are the same width as the 
strips in the mat. Colored strips are more desirable 
than manilla. 

Paper Cutting Story. 


One night in September, Little Jack Frost, after 
sleeping all summer, woke up and said to his 

"Mother, it is time for me to see about painting 
the leaves, here it is the middle of September and 
not a single leaf is painted yet." 

So Little Jack Frost put on his pointed cap and 
ran out into the woods and worked ever so hard all 
of the night. 

In the morning, when the sun came up over the 
hill, she blinked her eyes and stared quite hard to 
see the trees all turned to red and yellow, and all 
of the leaves looked up at the sun, and bowed and 
smiled and cried: 

"Oh, Mother Sun, ain't we fine this morning?" 

One little leaf was so pleased with her new red 
dress that she just danced for joy and danced so 
hard that she pulled herself right off from the 
branch, so that she fell down into the vegetable 
garden. And that was so far away from home that 
the little red leaf commenced to cry and she cried 
so hard and so loudly that the pumpkin heard her 
and looked around and said: 

"Well, who are you and what are you crying 

"Oh," said the poor homesick little leaf, "I am 
the little maple leaf and I had such a pretty red 
dress on this morning, and I was so happy and 
proud and I danced so hard that I pulled myself off 
from the branch." 

"Well," said the old pumpkin, "that is too bad. 
All of the leaves have pretty dresses, I see, but I 
am afraid that you forgot to look at any but your 



To recognize words — 

The kite — Draw the outline of a large kite on 
the board. Write the words you are studying in 
this outline. Have each child pronounce the words 
until he fails. See who can pronounce the entire 
list or who can fly the kite the highest. 

Problems in the place of words can be used for 
any of these devices. 

Draw an ear of corn on the board with the words 
written in it. Who can raise the best sweet corn? 





Blackboard Illustrating. 

In response to the many inquiries rela- 
tive to the various strokes referred to in the 
previous article on this subject, it was de- 

cided to reprint the illustrations of the first 
two numbers of 1906, containing directions 


as to the manipulations of the seve: 
strokes, and apply them to our press 

Illustration No. 1 it will be seen is st 
divided into A, B and C. A is produced 
breaking a piece of chalk about in the m 
die and drawing it horizontally across t 
board with an even pressure. The vertii 
lines are drawn with the same chalk, in t 
first one the chalk was held flat and ho 
zontally against the board, in the n€ 





slightly oblique and with each succeeding 
one more obliquely until as shown in the 
final one, a straight steady line is the re- 
sult. This stroke is used where straight 
lines are desired. The B stroke needs no 
explanation since it is the same as in A. 
Stroke C is the most important and is used 
in all cylindrical objects, as will be seen in 
the tumbler, flower-pot, and candlestick. It 

is made by breaking a piece of chalk about 
half way and putting the pressure at one 
end only; try this stroke both in the hori- 
zontal and vertical. With a little practice 
the beginner should get fair results when 
she may take up illustrations 2 and 3. It is 
well in drawing objects like these to sketch 
in legibly the general proportions as a guide. 
Illustration 4 again shows the application 


of the C stroke and needs no further com- 
ment. To draw the group in illustration 5, 
begin by faintly sketching in the general 
proportion, then with the chalk held flat 
against the board lay in a delicate gray tone 
and with the C stroke shade the various 
objects; lastly, emphasize with the point of 
the chalk the various parts, such as the 
stems of the apples, the rim of the plate, 

The writer would recommend that the 
beginner cover the board over and over 
again with practice strokes to gain profic- 
iency and technic ; the beauty of blackboard 
drawing lies in its simplicity of treatment. 

Have your drawing tell its story with as 
few strokes and as little effort as possible; 
avoid laborious treatment of this work; 
lastly, do not merely copy the illustrations, 
but use them as suggestions in creating new 
and original groups, thus the candlestick 
and the apples would make an interesting 
group, so, too, a sprinkling can and one or 
two flower pots, while a bottle added to the 
tumbler and the apples would prove a good 
composition. The field is practically limit- 
less, but enough has been shown to point 
the way and it is for the reader to plod on 
and enjoy the fruits of her own discoveries. 


The farmer — Draw a large tree on the board 
with apples hanging from the branches. Write the 
words in the apples. Who is the best farmer and 
can harvest the most apples? 

Draw several pumpkins on the board. Write the 
words in them and see who can pronounce the 
most, or who can raise the largest pumpkin to take 
to the fair. 

The chain — Write the words inside of ovals join- 
ing each other. This is a chain, who has the 
strongest chain? The one who pronounces all of 
the words has a chain that is strong and good. 

From red and green paper, cut out apples. Place 
these with the words written on them in a small 
basket. The children are to take them out one at 
a time until they fail to recognize the word. Who 
can pick the most apples? 

Hide-and-seek — Write the words you have been 
studying in short columns side by side. See who 
can point out the word as you pronounce it. 

Have the children bring in the autumn leaves. 
Study their colors. Lay the leaves on drawing pa- 
per, draw around their edges and paint in the out- 


TALKS TO TEACHERS. (Continued.) 

N looking over the third section 
of letters I find that they 
group themselves rather na- 
turally around the idea of con- 
sciousness, personality and 
interest. At first sight there 
does not seem to be much 
connection among these 
terms, but as far as teaching 
is affected they are very close- 
ly related. 
One letter asks, "What is meant by per- 
sonality and consciousness?" Another 
asks, "What is the fundamental reason for 
inattention in children?" The same letter 
asks for a graphic representation of the 
"span of consciousness" and the remedies 
for this "native inattention" especially 
found in children of the kindergarten age. 
The third letter quotes from Dr. .Dewey on 
"Interest," and inquires how the psychol- 
ogy of interest is related to the problem of 
inattention and consciousness. 

I would recommend to the writers of 
these letters a careful reading of James' 
"Briefer Course in Psychology," the chap- 
ter on Consciousness; although I just re- 
call that I promised not to assign any home 
reading in these talks, inasmuch as the 
naive complaint of so many was, that they 
had a large bibliography of inaccessible or 
non-understandable books. 

Tichenor defines "Consciousness" as the 
sum total of our mental states or processes 
at any time. It follows necessarily on 
either of the psychological processes dis- 
cussed in our last talk on "Sensation and 

Sensation and perception give the first 
physiological and psychological processes. 
Either or both of these prolonged to any 
extent give the first psychological state, 
called consciousness. The characteristics 
of consciousness are what interests the 

The first one of importance is, personality; 
the necessary tendency of the individual to 
interpret experience from the standpoint of 
his native ability and acquired experience. 
The educational value ot this principle of per- 

sonality is that the individuality of the 
child should be respected by the teacher; 
that the individuality of the child is holy 
and should even be reverenced. The ques- 
tion naturally arises here, What are we do- 
ing in the kindergarten and the primary 
grades, or even in higher education to pre- 
serve and develop individuality to its high- 
est efficiency. 

After all, one of the greatest things that 
count in life is personality, individuality. 
Johnson had said of Burke, that if you stood 
under a shed with him in a rainstorm you 
would look at the great Irish orator twice 
for every once you would look at anybody 
else. There was that about him which 
made him stand out from others — his indi- 
viduality, personality. 

Many of our schools pay little or no at- 
tention to the individuality of the child. 
Back of room, necessities of a system, the 
clock-work method of the daily routine, all 
make it difficult for even a conscientious 
teacher to be concerned with finding out 
and building up individuality. Many class- 
rooms are not unlike so-called sausage fac- 
tories, where children are ground out in 
certain lengths and thicknesses to walk and 
talk and do as teacher does, or as the school 
does. It is only when they get away from 
the artificial restraint of mere transmission 
of knowledge that there is any scope for the 
manifestation or development of personal- 
ity. I saw a teacher cry because a boy 
would not add fractions in exactly the same 
way as she did, although the boy had her 
beaten by his own method. 

Every subject of the curriculum from the 
kindergarten to the universitycanand should 
be made to develop and fortify individuality 
when such individuality may serve the 
higher efficiency of the individual both for 
himself and for society. Many a boy or 
girl, many a man and woman never really 
discover their personality or real individual- 
ity till they get away from the crush and 
grind method of much of our daily school 

The greatest native factor for success, 
the greatest source of power in mastering 
and organizing environment, — the individ- 



uality of the child, — is even less emphasized 
in our school methods. The first character- 
istic of consciousness, therefore, personal- 
ity, has a large pedagogical value when ap- 
plied properly to the discovering and foster- 
ing of efficient individuality. 

The second characteristic of conscious- 
ness is changeability. The younger the 
child the shorter the span of consciousness, 
the greater the tendency to be attracted by 
varying situations, the greater the actual 
amount of inattention that the teacher has 
to contend with. 

Attention has been called "vocalized con- 
sciousness," the point itself on which the 
attention is fixed being the focal point of 
consciousness, and all that is necessarily 
grouped around that point being called the 
"margin." Applying this characteristic of 
conscious, changeability, to education, 
one of the first great truths we learn is that 
inattention is a natural fault and that the 
first great cause of inattention in children 
is the native changeability of consciousness. 
If we remembered this fact oftener in our 
school work we would be less worried about 
the amount of artificial attention that we 
are capable of getting from our classes. 

One of the sad things that always impress 
me when I enter a class-room of a large 
school is the sight of a number of children 
sitting with their hands locked behind their 
back, their little necks strained and their 
eyes glued artificially on some uninterest- 
ing, indifferent teacher, or some dull, dead 
illustration or problem being worked out on 
a blackboard. Then the bell rings, with a 
fire alarm clamor, and immediately the 
prison lock-step is taken up and the boys 
and girls are marching around the room or 
the building frequently as convicts are 
marched in a prison yard to and from their 
cells and workshops. 

But if you follow these repressed auto- 
mata till they reach the street door and 
watch them as they breathe the free air and 
respond to the sun and light and the real 
things around them, you will see what is 
meant by artificial attention and the sup- 
pression of nersonality and the absence of 
proper method and material in class-room 
work. This is particularly sad when we are 
visiting the kindergarten or the primary 
grades where the native changeability of 
consciousness is so much greater and where 
the children have not yet learned enough of 
trickery to take on an attitude of artificial 
attention and begin their first lesson in so- 
cial hypocricy. 

Inattention is a natural fault and the 
teacher that does not make allowance for 
this inattention and look for the remedy in 
its proper place is the most useless of any 
teacher that we can think of. The remedy, 
however, is within the reach of all. 

This is to be found in another character- 
istic of consciousness which we might call 
"interest." Out of the thousand and one 
mental processes and conscious states that 
flit through mind in every few minutes of 
life there are alwavs some things that ap- 
peal to native tendency and native interest 
and hold the attention. As Mark Twain 
said, "If a Chicago pork-packer, a preacher 
and an actor were to go through Europe 
together and tell their experiences, the 
preacher would tell everything in terms of 
the church, the actor in terms of the stage, 
and the pork-packer in terms of Chicago 
hog." Each would indicate his native or 
acquired interest, which would be showing 
his tendency to respond to certain situa- 
tions in preference to others. 

We have in this characteristic of con- 
sciousness, namely, in native or acquired 
ability, the remedy for native changeability 
or inattention. If we go back to our dis- 
cussion in the Cellular Theory we will find 
that we discovered therein a physical basis 
for interest, and if we go forward and apply 
this discovery to methods of teaching we 
will find that we have herein a remedy for 
much of the inattention found in the class- 
room. As we said before, inattention is a 
natural fault and interest is a natural atti- 
tude or response to a situation. If the 
teacher therefore finds out the native tend- 
encies, or the acquired attitudes and pre- 
sents the subject-matter along these lines, 
she will have a beginning based on physical 
tendency that can be developed into a per- 
iod of application in the performance of a 
given piece of work. Interest, therefore, is 
the remedy for inattention and native atti- 
tude for native changeability. 

This opens up the whole question of the 
place of interest in education. It has its 
fundamental position in personality. Na- 
tive interests are the truest indications of 
personality, and the directing of these na- 
tive interests into processes of service and 
efficiency is a purpose of education. Con- 
sciousness, therefore, with its characteris- 
tics of personality, changeability and inter- 
est, is very closely related to the cellular 
theory of life, to the theory of knowledge 
and to the application of both of these to 



There is a postscript in one of these let- 
ters bearing on the question of "conscious- 
ness and personality" that is quite interest- 
ing. It reads, "What does James mean 
when he says in his 'Psychology' that our 
conscious states are sensibly continuous, 
and what application can this have to teach- 


The sensible continuity of consciousness 
is a remarkable fact in the psychic life of 
the individual. If there are any gaps we 
are not conscious of them and the persist- 
ence of the preceding stimulus seems to 
bridge over the period between it and the 
subsequent one. There have been a great 
many cases reported in the Psychological 
Research Society bearing on the "Sensible 
continuity of consciousness." 

I recall one of a boy being struck on the 
head while at play by the pole of a large 
delivery wagon. He was carried uncon- 
scious into the house and came to only 
after an hour's work over him by the phy- 
sician. As he opened his eyes he shouted 
the word "son" in such a loud tone that 
everybody was startled. His mother 
thought his mind was injured and on ask- 
ing the good, old, fat, easy-going physician 
why he did it. received the answer, "Oh, 
they do all kinds of things when they wake 
up." We were more curious in discovering 
the cause and as we left the house the 
mother came to thank us for our selfish so- 
licitude for the boy. As we were going 
clown the stairs she called over the balus- 
trade to the hall boy: "Jackson, please get 
this prescription filled at the drug store at 
once." We walked with Jackson to the 
drug store and asked him how it happened. 
Jackson was an overgrown colored boy and 
he said, "I didn't do it, sir. It wasn't my 
fault. AYe were just playing tag and he ran 
into one of the wagons and just when the 
pole hit him he shouted to me to catch him 
and I couldn't do it, sir." The solution was 
at hand. The pole struck the head of the 
child in the middle of the expression "Jack." 
cut off the conscious state and as the stimu- 
lus or the intention of calling the name in 
the brain as soon as the normal condition 
was restored, the explosion of the word 
"son" followed as a physical necessity. The 
case is rather an extreme one and goes to 
show that the preceding stimulus may be 
so intense as to carry over to a subsequent 
one very far removed. 

We all recall when we meet some one 
whom we think we know and puzzle our 

brains for a few minutes at the time trying 
to discover where we met the person, that 
after an hour or so, or sometimes it is hours, 
it will suddenly flash on our minds, "Oh, 
yes, it is Brown. I met him at Smith's." 
Meantime, there has been no conscious ef- 
fort on our part to recall the experience, but 
the effort placed at the beginning was so 
intense that the stimulus persisted even 
when the mind was engaged in other things 
and sought along the various lines of mental 
association until it found the verv spot 
where we had met Brown at Smith's. 

The same phenomena is noticed in the 
solving of problems. We may be thinking 
out a sum in arithmetic, or a problem in 
geometry, for two or three hours with very 
intense effort ; then drop the matter to en- 
gage ourselves with other affairs. It may 
be that at meal or bed time, or when en- 
gaged at other affairs the solution will come, 
and like a flash, we have the answer. It is 
a case of the "Eureka" of the Greek phil- 
osopher who disregarded the proprieties of 
the bath to shout to a startled populace that 
he had found the solution. There was a 
sensible continuitv in his conscious state 
that carried over for hours and hours. 

Tine application of this to education may 
be found in the varied subjects of the curri- 
culum, mav be found in the varied subjects 
within a day's work in the school. It makes 
it possible for us to have history or any 
other subject every other day, and at the be- 
ginning of the subsequent lesson to call 
back into consciousness and make focal 
knowledge and experiences that for the 
present have become sub-conscious. By 
thus doing we have an apperception basis 
for the new knowledge, and our conscious 
state of historical unity or mathematical or- 
der or logical sequence of topic mav be in- 
sured. It is a basis for the correlation of 
studies, for apperception on the presenta- 
tion of new knowledge and a suggestion for 
the making and carrying out of an orderly 

The nsvchologv of consciousness, there- 
fore, is full of educational values, values that 
regard the individuality of the child, the 
problems of inattention, the great motor 
power of interest and the sensible continu-j 
itv of true education, which after all, is an 
organic growth, a process *V* is essentially 
unified despite all the artificial methods ?»i\ 
material of many a well intentioned peda- 





STREPSIADES. — Never mind; teach him. He 
is clever by nature. Indeed from his earliest 
years, when he was a little fellow only so big, he 
was wont to form houses and carve ships within- 
doors, and make little wagons of leather and make 
frogs out of pomegranate-rinds, you can't think 
how cleverly. — Aristophanes, 421 B. C. 

Practically, in nearly all countries, and 
throughout all time up to the present era, 
the curriculi of the schools have been lim- 
ited in subject-matter to book learning. The 
only training the hand has received in the 
school has been that required by the use of 
pen or brush in making letters incident to 
the formation of words. 

The training of the hand and eye, as a 
preparation for life has been given in the 
family, in primitive society. In the middle 
ages of European history it was acquired 
through apprenticeship. 

As education became more formal, the 
educationists, from Plato down, realized 
that book knowledge did not make the all- 
round man. 

Luther and Zwingli urged the value of 
hand as well as head work. 

Locke advocated the teaching of garden- 
ing, carpentry and other work, while Rous- 
seau also would give exercise in carpentry 
and similar trades calling for the use of the 

Francke (16th century) taught at Halle 
woodwork, cardboard, glass-cutting, etc. 
Basedow, Salzmann, Campe also, were ad- 
vocates of hand training, as were Fichte, 
Pestalozzi, Herbert, Froebel. 

Among names possibly less familiar are 
those of Planta, (1727-72), and Kinder- 
man, (1760-1801). The latter, a Bohemian, 
was the first to bring the subject of hand- 
work in the elementary schools into public 
discussion. He seems in one respect to 
have anticipated Rousseau. "I set myself," 
he says, '"'the task of studying the nature of 
the child." The outcome of this study was 
2co manual training departments organized 
(1781), in connection with the primary 
schools of Bohemia. Spinning, knitting, 
wood-working were here taught. A school 
established by him in 1773 became in 1784 
the State Normal College, whence gradu- 
ates naturally went forth inspired with the 
manual training idea. 

In 1794 Dr. I. G. Kruntz wrote an article 
on "Country Schools Viewed as Instructive, 
and Manual or Industrial Schools," and J. 

(See B. B. Hoffman's "Sloyd System of Wood- 
work" for fine historical survey of movement.) 

H. G. Hensinger (1766-1837), considered 
the question "How to Make Use of the 
Child's Impulse to be Occupied," in general 
ways that will be of use to him in any vo- 
cation as well as in his future apprenticeship 
to a trade. In his school, work was done in 
paste-board, bone, wax, metal, wood. etc. 

The question was further agitated in 1854 
owing to a prize question propounded in 
1856 by the Swiss educator. "How to free 
instruction in elementary schools from ab- 
stract methods and conduce to true mental 
development?" Dr. C. Michelson and Karl 
Friedrich replied in illuminating papers. 

In France the idea of having manual 
training in the elementary school is traced 
by Flippeau to a resolution to that effect 
offered in the convention of 1793 by Robes- 
pierre. Michael C. Peletier is supposed to 
have drawn up the resolution. But it came 
to nothing in that unsettled period. As be- 
fore stated, Rousseau, in his education of 
Emile regards work with the hands as es- 
sential to his complete development. Hor- 
ace Mann in our own country early advo- 
cated manual training. 

Altho these great pedagogic thinkers 
thus saw the close inter-relation between 
the training of hand, eye, mind and char- 
acter, the people of both Europe and Amer- 
ica were slow to perceive this close connec- 
tion and the need of such training until 
faced with the problem of the survival of 
the Jittest in the world of industrial competi- 

The first World's Fair inaugurated 
through the far-sighted wisdom of the 
Prince Consort in 1851, presented the first 
of a succession of invaluable object lessons. 
Here England herself recognized some of 
her deficiencies. 


In 1S67, the Exposition at Paris, awak- 
ened both Germany and America to a sense 
of the short-comings of their artisans as 
compared with the French, in point of taste, 
skill and artistic feeling. Inquiries as to 
the cause of European superiority were set 
on foot, and next we learn that manufact- 
urers of Massachusetts had petitioned their 
Legislature, 1869, asking that industrial 
drawing be put into the public schools of 
all towns of more than 5,000, as every 
branch of manufacturing requires some 
knowledge of drawing and the art of design 
on the part of skilled workers. They were 
obliged, they stated, to compete with for- 
eign rivals under great disadvantages. 



The ensuing year, 1870, the law to that 
effect was passed and in addition evening 
schools in teaching such drawing to adults 
were established in towns of 10,000. Prof. 
Walter Smith, of London, long connected 
with the Kensington School of Art, was 
called over to be art director and head of 
the first normal art school in the country. 
Hon. J. D. Philbrick and Hon. C. C. Perkins 
were leaders in this movement. The pur- 
pose of these pioneers in this great effort 
was not that drawing should be taught from 
a vocational standpoint, but as useful in 
industrial life generally. 

Under the inspirational leadership of 
Walter Smith the children of Massachu- 
setts accomplished much that was admir- 
able and suggestive in their industrial draw- 
ing. According to Mr. Isaac Edwards Clark 
in his monograph on 'Art and Industrial 
Education" it was the work of these child- 
ren exhibited at the Philadelphia Centen- 
nial which showed acute-minded observers 
what could be done educationally, and how, 
by means of the then new study. The discus- 
sions upon the subject (1870-6) had pre- 
pared the teachers to observe and study 
and judge with discrimination. Hence they 
were alive and ready to adopt and modify 
and adapt the fruitful ideas suggested by 
the Russian exhibit — the Russian exhibit 
of handiwork to which is generally traced 
the beginning of the manual training move- 
ment in the United States. "Here could be 
seen the results secured by giving to art- 
isans definite instruction in a systematic 

This Russian exhibit seems to have set 
in motion forces which had been slowly 
gathering strength while apparently lying 


Shopwork, solely for the purpose of in- 
struction had been a feature of the Poly- 
technic School of Washington University, 
St. Louis, since 1872. In 1877 new shops 
were organized by President Runkle of the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and 
Dr. Calvin M. Woodward, but in 1876 was 
established the St. Louis Manual Training 
School of the grade of the High School and 
the first school of secondary grade in which 
the "whole boy" was to be educated. Its 
ideal was general, not special education. 
Dr. Woodward's success inspired other 
cities and soon Chicago followed with its 
Jewish Manual Training School ably super- 
intended for 12 years by Gabriel Bamber- 

ger and the Chicago Manual Training 
School (now affiliated with the University 
of Chicago) founded and sustained by the 
Commercial Club in 1884. In the same year 
Baltimore established a school as part of 
its public school system. Then came To- 
ledo with provision for girls as well as boys. 
Next Philadelphia and Cincinnati. Drexel 
Institute, Girard College, Pratt Institute 
and the Armour Institute have flourishing 
Manual Training Departments, in their 
several cities. 

Even earlier than these manual training 
schools, however, we find Col. Armstrong 
at Hampton proving to be feasible what 
had before been thought impossible,because 
attempted unsuccessfully; i. e., the training 
of both hand and mind in school. Col. Arm- 
strong, born in Hawaii, remembered what 
had been accomplished in the school for the 
native Hawaiians at Hilo and also what he 
had been able to do with the negroes during 
and after the war. In 1868, at Hampton 
Institute, he successfully correlated hand 
and head work. From Hampton Institute 
went forth Booker T. Washington to carry 
similar methods into his great school at 
Tuskegee where his remarkable success 
has proved that education and work may 
go along together, or rather that work may 
be made an instrument of education. He 

"Mere hand-training without thorough 
moral, religious and mental education 
counts for very little. ... At the train- 
ing school we find constantly that we can 
make our industrial work assist in academic 
training and vice versa." 

Meanwhile along with what might be 
called the manual training movement proper 
have been flowing other currents which in 
time will doubtless be lost, or rather saved, 
in one general stream. 

From the beginning handwork was an 
integral part of the kindergarten system 
and the seeds sown in the child-garden have 
gradually grown up into the grades where 
they blossom and bear fruit of various kinds. 

The Ethical Culture School of New York 
was the first to introduce manual training 
into the elementary school. Felix Adler 
called Gabriel Bamberger from Germany 
to be head of the school, and the manual 
training courses were built directly upon 
the foundations laid in the kindergarten. 
The good work done here led to the call 
of Dr. Bamberger to Chicago by the con- 



greeation of Rabbi Hirscb, to found the 
Jewish Manual Training School there. 
Meanwhile the impulse of a similar move- 

ment was being felt in the various Scanda- 
navian countries where it developed along 

By some Uno Cvgnaeus 

the line of sloyd 

is considered its originator in Finland. It 

was taught in Sweden in the primary 

Courtesj- Home Gardening: Association, Cleveland, Ohio 

SCHOOL GARDENS— Studying the Plans— How Drawing and Nature Work Correlate with Hand Work 

Courtesy The Southern Workman 

schools at first as the foundation of various 
trades but in 1882 assumed the more strictly 
educational character. Otto Salomon, in 
his flourishing Normal School, has been one 
of the foremost organizers of the system. 

A Mrs. Hemingway, of Boston, having 
seen in Helsingford, Finland, sloyd as con- 
ducted by Vera Hjelt, who had modified it 
so that it was brought within the compass 
of children just past the kindergarten age, 




Courtesy Tusltegee Institute 




induced one of the students, Miss Meri 
Toppelius, to come to America and intro- 
duce the system in Boston which she did 
in a private school, in 1890. The following 
year she went to Chicago at the instance 
of the Chicago Women's Club : that vital- 
izing organization which is always at the 
front of any progressive movement. 

Mrs. Shaw, who did so much to intro- 
duce the kindergarten into Boston, estab- 
lished three normal institutions for teaching 
sloyd in the three different systems of Fin- 
land, Sweden and Russia. 

In 1889 Col. Parker sent Mr. Kenyon to 
Naas to study the system and then gave it 
place in the Cook County Normal School. 

Altho it was Russia that thus first awak- 
ened in America a sense of the educational 
possibilities in handwork, the Russian sys- 
tem as exhibited at Philadelphia was soon 
modified to suit American ideals of educa- 
tion. As Gustav Larson states so well in 
the Kindergarten Magazine, Vol. VI, the 
essential characteristics of the Russian sys- 
tem we quote : 

"A radical difference between the Rus- 
sian and the Swedish system is, that the Russian 
methods are based upon the idea of teaching the 
use of certain tools by making incomplete articles, 
with the belief that out of such teaching will come 
educational results, even without much attention 
to the special needs and capacity of the growing 
child, either by the choice or the sequence of tools 
or exercises. 

The Swedish system on the other hand, is based 
upon the Frobelian idea of the harmonious de- 
velopment of all powers of the child, tools and 
exercises being chosen with reference to this end, 
and all merely mechanical methods being care- 
fully avoided. The sloyd teacher does not say: 
"Now, I will teach this boy to saw, and he shall 
continue to saw until he can saw well, regard- 
less of monotony or the too-prolonged use of the 
same muscles." 

Other differences in which sloyd was 
superior to the Russian method were the 
greater prominence given to form study ; 
the small models could be finished in a 
reasonably short time, thus maintaining in- 
terest and training to a sense of complete- 
ness and especially as said above, it insists 
upon the use of the completed model in 
place of mere exercise with tools. 

In our review department for this month 
will be found a digest of a valuable article 
in a recent number of the Manual Training 
Magazine which shows some respects in 
which later teachers find that even sloyd 
falls short of being a perfect or complete 
method of training. This is perhaps as 
good a place as any, however, in which to 
state that Prof. Otto Salomon, founder of 
the famous Normal School of Sloyd at Naas, 

Sweden, maintains that it is the principles 
underlying his system which are important. 
Sloyd itself can be taught without the use 
of a single Swedish model. 


Meanwhile under what is known as In- 
dustrial Training, hand and eye were to 
some extent educated, altho what might be 
called the purely educational purpose was 
subservient. The ruling idea was training 
children to habits of industry, perhaps with 
little comprehension of the great pedagogi- 
cal principles involved. 

In the Centennial Year, Emily Hunting- 
ton founded in New York City the first In- 
dustrial School. Her inspiration came from 
a visit to the kindergarten of Misss Haines' 
Private School. Told that, "You need a 
kindergarten in the slums," she thought, 
"no — a kitchen-garden is what we want." 
"An old-fashioned vegetable garden where 
the homely, necessary, substantial things of 
life grew." The name seemed to her suita- 
ble to a system that taught how to make 
homely duties beautiful. 

And so she borrowed from the kindergar- 
ten the idea of teaching by means of toys 
and songs and manginated her system of 
teaching sweeping, table-setting, launder- 
ing, etc., with toy brooms, dishes and tubs, 
enlivening the lessons with appropriate 
songs, marches and other exercises. Other 
cities, both at home and abroad, soon 
learned of her and instituted similar work. 

The schools of the Children's Aid So- 
ciety. N. Y., and other institutions also have 
long trained industrially, although the edu- 
cative idea grows more and more promi- 


There are hereand there those who still 
regard manual training in the light of a 
"fad" — an unnecessary and destructive par- 
asite upon the body educational, whose vi- 
tal organs consist of reading, writing and 

We would call the attention of such scep- 
tics to two important, thought provoking, 
action-stimulating reports of commissions 
composed of men who are not mere theor- 

The first is the report of the Commission 
on Industrial and Technical Training to the 
Senate of Massachusetts. It corresponds in 
spirit to the petition sent to the Massachu- 
setts Legislature in 1869 to have drawing 
introduced into the public school system. 
We quote one paragraph : 



To the average American who has been accust- 
omed to believe that progress is only to be found 
in his own country, and to speak of the nations 
of the old world as effete, the study of the sys- 
tems of industrial education in continental Europe 
is bewildering. The scope of this education is so 
broad, its forms are so multifarious, its methods 
are so scientific its hold upon public opinion is 
so complete, the impulse which it is giving to 
industrial leadership is so powerful, as to entitle 
it to the most thoughtful and respectful study. 

The entire report is both interesting and 
worthy of stndy by educators and school 
boards. It goes into detail as to manufac- 
turing conditions as well as those of trade 
from fundamental grounds and touches also 
upon the problem of child-labor and its re- 
lation to the welfare of the state. It is 
doubtless the fore-runner of great changes 
in the curricula. 

The other report is that of the Royal 
Prussian Industrial Commission sent to this 
country in 1904 to study our methods of 
teaching manual training. This report is 
published by the Bureau of Education, Wash- 
ington, and is illuminating to Americans as 
well as to Germans. It is translated by our 
good kindergarten friend, Dr. Hailmann. 
The different commissioners have been most 
discriminating in their observations. They 
give criticisms favorable and unfavorable to 
our educational efforts. 

We quote one brief paragraph from Prof. 
Dunker, Industrial Councillor of Berlin, who 
says relative to the manual training he ob- 
served in our schools : 

"The manipulation of machines demand keen 
observation and quick and definite decision. The 
control of the natural force harnessed in the ma- 
chine, the management of the tools and of the 
material gives to the young man an assured feel- 
ing of mastership over the surrounding world of 
things, as well as confidence in himself and in 
the future. This feeling leaves no room for the 
world estrangement of the paper-fed natures, which 
at the same time keep timidity aloof from the 
world of things and haughtily look down on man- 
ual labor." 

Again, Dr. Bock, another commissioner, 
remarks "that the attention given to hand- 
work will have an influence that cannot be 
estimated upon the future development of 
industries and trade in the United States." 

We will note in passing that these for- 
eign visitors were greatly interested by 
our success in combining handwork with 
headwork ; in seeing a group of children en- 
thusiastically handling lathe and saw one 
hour, and equally interested in Cicero the 

In line with these, or possibly preceding 
them, is that important volume of the Eng- 
lishman, Fabian Ware : "Educational Foun- 

dations of Trade and Industry." This is a 
fine, discriminating study of the educational 
systems of England, France, Germany and 
the United States, to show the relation be- 
tween these respective systems and their 
success in commerce and industry. 

Last year men prominent in business af- 
fairs, international and domestic, met in 
New York to discuss the need of industrial 
training in the schools. This is one more 
straw indicating the direction of a wind that 
should blow good to thousands of children, 

There is little doubt that there will be 
continually more and more pressure 
brought by the manufacturer to have the 
children taught and trained in these sub- 
jects, which will make of them efficient ar- 
tesans, just as the merchant wants them 
turned into efficient stenographers and 
salesmen and bookkeepers. 

But the teacher and the disinterested pa- 
triot must look further if the eventual wel- 
fare of the country and its people are to be 
made certain. Here, as Mr. Ware points 
out, is where Germany stands as an exam- 
ple. We must not let technical overshadow 
cultural training. Especially in secondary 
education must we beware of premature 
specialization. The manual training given 
must be not vocational but such as will be 
serviceable to the boy or girl in any walk of 

"For it is through secondary education that a 
bread-winning occupation but also to fulfill his 
wider duties as a citizen. 

.... There is a period in the course of gen- 
eral development which is occupied with the gen- 
eral adaption — intellectual, moral and physical — 
to all that compose the modern environment." . 

"A man has to spend his life in certain intel- 
lectual and moral surroundings. From these sur- 
roundings he must, to a very large extent, de- 
rive his mental and moral sustenance, and at 
the same time he must be able to conquer all in- 
fluences in them which are detrimental to his 
physical and moral well-being." 

Mr. Ware also quotes a director of a Ger- 
man technical school as saying: "Technical 
education designed exclusively to meet the 
demands of a special occupation would iso- 
late the technicist from civic life by which 
he is surrounded, and would alienate him 
from the ideal interests of society." 

The German ideal then seems to be to re- 
serve specialization until the child has com- 
pleted the secondary school. 

Germany realizes that the value of the 
child to society increases with the increase 
in the number of his school years. In Sax- 
ony, therefore, as Mr. Ware states, there 
are continuation schools at which attend- 



ance is compulsory after the secondary 
school has been completed for those who 
otherwise might consider their school days 

American educators have as a body held 
the cultural view of education as the ideal 
for the democracy. In their conventions 
they have usually anticipated in their ad- 
dresses and papers the great movements 
which ultimately result in a modification of 
courses to suit present needs. Referring to 
the invaluable anniversary report of last 
year we find that in 1857 the National Edu- 
cation Association was organized. In 1863 
T. L. Pickard gave a paper before it on the 
"Union of Labor and Thought." In 1866 
J. M. Gregory presented one upon the sub- 
ject of "Industrial Education," and in i86q 
J. D. Philbrick spoke upon "The School and 
the Workshop." In 1875 Mr - Philbrick 
raised the question, "Can the Elements of 
Industrial Education Be Introduced Into 
Our Common Schools," and from that time 
on the subject of industrial or of manual 
training seems to have had a place upon the 
program nearly every year. 


Lest, however, after our repeated refer- 
ences to the pleas of the merchant and the 
manufacturer we would seem to have urged 
the utilitarian as against the all-round char- 
acter-building and jov-bringing qualities in- 
herent in the right kind of manual training 
we cite a few words from a few well-known 
educationists, writers and thinkers to show 
the inspirational side of manual training. 

Emerson says: "We must have a basis 
for our higher accomplishments, our deli- 
cate entertainments of poetry and philoso- 
phy, in the work of our hands. We must 
have an antagonism in the tough world for 
all the variety of our spiritual faculties, or 
they will not be born. 

Edward Howard Griggs believes that : 

"Manual training has already proved itself a 
priceless instrument of moral culture. Its great 
value is not that it may help prepare for certain 
tasks in adult life, but that through creative self- 
expression the child comes into contact with the 
universe of law and his simple deed becomes a 

doorway to the whole Nothing else 

clarifies the spirit so effectively as to do some- 
thing effectively." 

And long ago Horace Mann saw that : 
"Manual labor requires, every day, more and 
more culture and insight of mind; science 
is daily entering into more intimate fellow- 
ship with technical and industrial works." 

Felix Adler in an address delivered before 
the National Conference of Charities many 

years ago when the manual training idea 
was as yet in its infancy, gave reasons for 
its introduction into the common schools 
which later experience has more than justi- 
fied. He emphasized the importance of 
manual training as a means of cultivating 
the will power ; the capacity for long, con- 
tinued effort in the prosecution of a pur- 
pose. "The virtues," he says, "depend in 
no small degree on the power of serial and 
complex thinking" . . . To strengthen 
the will, therefore, it is necessary to give 
the person of weak will the power to think 
connectedly, and especially to reach an end 
by long and complete means. The usual 
book studies do not accomplish this because 
they do not interest sufficiently all children 
to hold their attention and because "a per- 
son may have high intellectual attainments 
and yet be morally deficient." . . . By 
manual training we cultivate the intellect 
in close connection with action. Manual 
training consists of a series of actions which 
are controlled by the mind, and which react 
on it." In analyzing the making of an ob- 
ject Dr. Adler recognizes first, that the in- 
terest and attention are aroused; the atten- 
tion of the child is fixed upon the making 
of a concrete object ; the variety of occupa- 
tions involved in the making constantlv 're- 
freshes this interest': 'the pupil learns in an 
elementarv way the lesson of subordinating 
minor ends to a major end." And finally, 
there is the joy of achievement to crown his 
work. Dr. Adler, while thus showing the 
value of such training for children in re- 
formatories who need to have their wills 
strengthened in the right direction values it 
also because it cultivates the property sense 
of the child: his thought, patience, sense 
and skill have gone into what he has made. 
. . . For children who are not delinquent 
it is likewise of value: the man who may in 
future be a dentist or sureeon or scientist 
it gives deftness of hand. But to those who 
later will devote themselves to intellectual 
tasks he finds it also necessary as a means 
of preserving: that spiritualized strength 
which we call skill, the tool-using faculty, 
the power of impressing on matter the 
stamp of mind." 

And the more machinery takes the place 
of human labor, the more necessary will it 
be to resort to manual training as a means 
of keeping up skill, precisely as we have re- 
sorted to athletics as a means of keeping up 

But the final claim of manual training to 



a place in the public school Dr. Adler bases 
upon the common bond which it will help 
to establish between different classes of 

J. P. Gordy believes that the process by 
which the little child gains so much in the 
first few years of his life, viz. : through the 
activity of his hands in the "practical manip- 
ulation of things" should be continued until 
perhaps they culminate in the laboratory of 
the high school and the college. 

Again, he says : 

"The man who has been trained by exclusively 
bookish methods is cut off from a large and sig- 
nificant part of the life of his fellows. He is 
like a man without an ear for music trying to 
listen to one of Beethoven's symphonies. As such 
a man hears only noise, as he perceives no harmony 
or melody, so the book learned man stands outside 
the industrial life of the world." 

Again, "To appreciate the significance of 
work, to realize what it represents in the 
life of the race, is to rob it of its legendary 

The value of manual training courses lies 
also in the fact that "they adapt the school 
to those whose dominant interest it is to do 
as well as to those whose dominant interest 
it is to know." This should in time make 
compulsory education laws unnecessary. 

This thought brings to mind a fine arti- 
cle by J. P. Haney in Education for June 
on "Manual Training as a Preventive of 

"Every workshop," he says, "is a load- 
stone that acts with irresistible attraction 
upon the boy." He illustrates this state- 
ment by a story of an Italian boy, a schola- 
phope, as he terms him, an habitual truant 
who turned to instead of away from the 
school when a special class was established 
which called for work with tools. 

"The truant," he says, "is a bi-product 
of our inefficient school system. . . . He 
is a boy forced out of school by those not 
wise enough to understand the expression 
of his instincts, or clever enough to plan his 
work, so that his passion to bury himself 
in many occupations may serve to retain 
him contented to labor in his own behalf." 

The reform schools have already recog- 
nized the value of this handwork. "Why is 
it necessary to wait until a boy has become 
a delinquent before we turn to tool work 
to effect a cure?" 

Professor James asserts that one brought 
up exclusively by books carries through life 
a certain remoteness from reality; he 
stands, as it were, out of the pale, and feels 

that he stands so; and often suffers a kind 

of melancholy from which he might have 

been rescued by a more real education." 

In her inspirational volume, "Early 

Childhood," Margaret McMillan says: 

All true education is primarily physiological 
It is concerned, not with books, but with nervous 

tissue It was through work, and not 

by books, that our race received the vital part of 
its education. 

And again: 

But the child, in order to receive impressions 
adopts an ingenious method. He creates a small 
world around him, imitating what he sees, but re- 
producing everything on a scale that suits himself. 
He makes toys. 

At least he ought to make toys. He wants to 
make them; but of course he may be thwarted. If 
his parents are well-to-do they buy toys for him. 
And what foolish toys. They were made probably 
in Germany — not by children who want to play but 
by grown-up people who want to sell. Surely, if 
anyone, even a child, has a life of his own, he ought 
to embody that life in his work and begin to do 
this as early as possible. 

Supt. Ballitt, in his address before the 
Massachusetts Teachers' Association, Wor- 
cester, on "Manual Training: Its Educa- 
tional Value," spoke with the conviction 
and the logic that convinces. 

He spoke with earnestness specially upon 

the psychology that underlies the relation 

between motor training and the "ethical 


"If all thought is motor, then the motor ideas 
which control directly the volitional muscles must 
have an important function to perform. In a pe- 
culiar sense they are the raw material, out of 
which the ethical will is formed." 

Again : "Inhibition in the nervous sys- 
tem lies at the root of self-control in morals. 
The man who cannot effectively control his 
inhibiting muscles cannot effectively con- 
control his passion and desires. Flabby 
muscles and weak wills if they are not re- 
lated to each other as cause and effect are 
at all events concomitant effects of a com- 
mon cause — lack of motor efficiency in the 

Dr. Ballitt shows in his paper how man- 
ual training makes for a more efficient grasp 
on the problems that will face our nation in 
the near future — a natural result of our in- 
creasing importance as a world-power. As 
the nations of Europe are rapidly learning, 
so must we. that our future success as a 
people depends less upon our army and 
navy and more upon the kind of training 
we give our children in the schools. 

We will give them the manual training 
which will make them all round citizens of 
our great republic, but to do this efficiently 
we must permeate our training with the 
spirit of Walt Whitman, who opens his 



great poem, "The Song of the Exposition," 

with the inspired lines: 
"Ah, little reeks the laborer, 
■ How near his work is holding him to God, 
The loving Laborer, through space and time." 

NOTE — Dates and figures will illustrate the rapid 
growth of the manual training idea in this country. 

In IS90 there were 37 school systems which included 
such training in their course of instruction. New York 
City has some form of such training in all of its schools. 
The same is true of many other cities. Chicago affords 
such opportunity in many of its schools. 

See report of the Commissioner of Education, of 1905 
for the opinions of the Wesley Commission in Manual 
Training in this country. 



The old saying that "History repeats it- 
self" is now being strikingly verified in the 
almost mushroom-like springing up in Ger- 
many of special educational institutions, 
which strongly reminds us of the "Trade 
Schools" or "Guild Schools" of the Middle 
Ages, although as a matter of course the 
modern institutions differ from the latter by 
their adaptation to the particular wants of 
our present time. 

The greatest feature of resemblance be- 
tween the two kinds of schools lies in the 
active and zealous interest of corporations 
(not of communities and state administra- 
tions), in the advancement of young men 
and women for the better and more efficient 
understanding and execution of special 
technical professions. This interest of cor- 
porate bodies in the matter of education, 
which in mediaeval times contributed so 
potently to the growth and prosperity of 
the Flemish, of the Rhenish and of the 
Hanse-towns, constitutes a most felicitous 
proof of the increase of the democratic spirit 
of modern times, wresting, as it does, the 
monopoly of educational management from 
the hands of patriarchal municipalities and 
interested governments, and enrolling itself 
as an important factor and agent in the ex- 
ecution of a special kind of a new educa- 
tional work, that modern requirements have 
made imperative and absolutely necessary. 

Individual manufacturers, companies 
and corporations have of late become alive 
to the fact that the ever more specializing 
character of modern craft and workman- 
ship will become an insurmountable bar to 
the creation of self-made mechanic-princes, 
like Borsig and Krupp, (the Carnegies and 
Schwabs of Germany) ; that furthermore 
the very best theoretical instruction as ob- 

tained in the technical and real-schools is 
inadequate to the practical wants of the 
clerical and executive departments of in- 
dustry; and that thirdly, the cosmopolitan 
as well as the artistic tendency of the Age 
imperatively demands the creation of a 
force well equipped in every way in the 
theory as well as the practice of high up- 
to-date manufacturing, transportation and 
many other branches of the present day in- 
dustrial work. Deeply imbued with the 
necessity of meeting this deficiency and 
unable to obtain a relief from outside 
sources, either municipal or governmental, 
boards of trade and similar corporations 
have combined in various places of Ger- 
many, actively and intelligently to take the 
educational work into their own hands, to 
establish "Continuation Schools" with 
teachers of their own choosing and with 
equipments peculiar to their individual aims 
and purposes. Even now the spread and 
growth of these new institutions of learn- 
ing, which hold their sessions on weekday 
evenings and Sunday mornings, is a more 
than satisfactory proof of their fulfilling a 
popular demand. May we be permitted to 
give here a brief synopsis of the principal in- 
stitutions of its kind as gleaned from the 
various gazettes and periodicals of German 
cities, which may furnish, as it is hoped, a 
consummate, though by no means an ex- 
haustive, idea of the new educational move- 



In this ancient city, the center of the 
manufacturing of cloth, formerly ranked as 
French, but now proclaimed as "Made in 
Germany," the Board of Cloth Manufact- 
urers has established a school for young 
men, graduates from real schools, but 
already employed in various capacities in 
cloth manufacttiring concerns, for the pur- 
pose of instructing them in the construction 
of the latest appliances of machinery for 
cloth, in the various stages of process of 
cloth-manufactory, in dyeing and coloring, 
in the different manipulations for the vari- 
ous classes of cloth, their costs and their 
markets, but also in the special application 
of chemistry and kindred sciences to that 
particular industry, in the history of textile 
fabrics, in all matters relating to the export 
of cloth to various countries and in corre- 
spondence in several languages pertaining 
to the trade. The school is provided with 
a factory of its own, and the latest improve- 



ments in machines, chemical apparatus 
and experimental appliances. Each one of 
the teachers is either a practical machin- 
ist or an expert in this particular branch 
of teaching. 


This comparatively new manufacturing 
city of Germany, but unsurpassed in pro- 
gressiveness and enterprise, is engaged in 
various industries, which, however, all re- 
fer to the manufacture of embroideries, 
linens, calicos and similar fabrics. As there 
are several corporations that represent 
these various branches of industry, we find 
here several Continuation Schools estab- 
lished, which, singly, may not equal that of 
Aix-la-Chapelle, but which in the aggregate 
surpass it. There is one among them which 
is exclusively devoted to the instruction of 
girl-graduates in the art of designing pat- 
terns for laces, curtains and kindred articles 
especially adapted to the pursuits of 
women. With this exception, the Continu- 
ation-Schools of Crefeld partake of nearly 
the same features as that of Aix-la-Chapelle, 
differing from that one only in the treat- 
ment of the special material, cotton or linen, 
to which one or the other establishment is 
devoted. In every one of the schools the 
very best talent is employed for imparting 
the necessary instruction. 


This city, famous the wide world over as 
the Pittsburg of Germany and the place of 
Krupp's gigantic establishment, was one 
among the first where a Continuation- 
School was founded through the liberality 
of the owners of the great works. This 
school is exclusively devoted to all the 
branches pertaining to iron and steel, as may 
well be surmised. The need of procuring 
a host of theoretically as well as practically 
well-instructed young men in all branches 
of engineering, gunnery, and architectural 
steel-manufacture, in order to keep the im- 
mense establishment up to the growing de- 
mands of the Age, easily suggested the in- 
auguration of a Continuation-School of 
proportions corresponding to the size and 
extent of the great factory. It forms an in- 
herent part of the vast establishment and 
serves as a seminary of future managers of 
its many and various branches. More than 
twenty competent instructors are here in- 
stalled for each one of them. 

We have heard from various Rhenish 

cities, as for instance Elberfeld, Barmen, 
Dortmund, Solingen and many more, where 
Continuation Schools have lately been es- 
tablished, but as they partake of a character 
similar to those mentioned above, their de- 
tailed description here may be dispensed 


It may easily be inferred that the center 
of German education and the cradle of 
nearly every great movement in educational 
progress has not remained a stranger to 
the new and latest feature of improvement 
as represented in the Continuation Schools. 
In fact it was here, where the first idea of 
them originated, and where it was first car- 
ried into execution. If with the exception 
of Leipsic and Chemnitz, this most modern 
institution has not attained that spontaneity 
of growth and development as in West- 
ern Germany, the reason must be sought, 
first, in the limited resources of that part 
of the country, secondly, in its remoteness 
from the world's great markets and thirdly, 
in the aversion of its leading educators to- 
wards the excessive introduction of mere 
utilitarianism into the sphere of education. 
We may therefore confidently expect from 
that region the inauguration of a wise and 
well-matured system of "Fortbuildungs- 
Schulen" as a continuation of culture and 
learning after the completion of the school- 
years proper, perhaps of a more free and 
elective character than the school-routine, 
but nevertheless based upon a thoroughly 
philosophical and psychological foundation. 
For only thus will the Continuation Schools 
assume a worthy place side by side with the 
other institutions of learning and humane 

Fiftieth Anniversary Volume of N. E. A. 

It is half a century since the first report 
was published of the National Educational 
Association, and it is therefore quite fitting 
that the report for this year should take, as 
it does, the form of an anniversary volume. 
We find here the usual reports of the pro- 
ceedings and addresses of the annual con- 
vention, held last year in Louisville, but in 
addition are a number of special anniversary 
papers, which are likewise of great interest 
and value. The United States Commis- 
sioner of Education, Elmer Ellsworth 
Brown, recites the progress in "Fifty Years 



of American Education." Dr. Harris sug- 
gests "How the Superintendent May Cor- 
rect Defective Classwork" ; Dr. Will S. 
Monroe tells something of the papers and 
addresses given at the "Recent Internation- 
1 al Congress at Liege," Belgium. The paper 
by Dr. Nathan C. Schaeffer, then President 
of the N. E. A., on "The Teacher and the 
Librarian" is included, and among the for- 
eign contributions we find the following: 
"The Educational Awakening in England," 
by Michael Ernest Sadler, member of Royal 
Commission on Secondary Education. 
Cloudesey Brereton speaks of the "Teach- 
ing of Modern Languages in England," and 
Miss Dorothea Beale, Principal of the Chel- 
tenham Ladies' College, recounts the prog- 
ress of the "Secondary Education of Girls 
During the Past Sixty Years," while Ca- 
mille See, Counselor of State, Paris, does 
the same for France. "The Modern System 
of Higher Education for Women in Prus- 
sia" is described by Friedrich Paulsen, Ber- 
lin. Pierre Emile Levasseur contributes an 
article on the "Development and Changes 
in Primary Teaching in France During the 
Third Republic," and M. Compayre tells 
briefly "What France Owes to America in 
the Matter of Education." Herman 
Schwartz, of Halle, speaks of "Fifty Years 
of Philosophy in Germany, and the "Past 
and Future of German Education" are the 
subjects of another paper by Paulsen, while 
from far Hungary is a paper by Bela de 
Tormay, who has since died, on "Agricul- 
tural Instruction in the Kingdom of Hun- 

Each of these papers has a valuable mess- 
age for the progressive teacher in America. 

Besides these anniversary papers there is 
an "Historical Chapter," which tells of the 
"Origin of Free Schools in the American 
Colonies," and of "Home and School Train- 
ing in New England and in the South Dur- 
ing the Colonial Period," the former re- 
printed from Brainerd and the latter a re- 
cent contribution by Wefenbecker. Ameri- 
can Educational Associations are described 
by different well-known authorities, and the 
later forms that such associations have tak- 
en is described by others. 

Another valuable feature is the list of the 
titles of papers and discussions from 1857 
to 1906, arranged by years and departments, 
and a bibliography of topics, 1856-1906, 
classified so that any one wishing, for in- 
stance, to look up what has been discussed 
in the Department of Kindergartens can 

turn at once to page 696 and learn what 
were the topics of ail the papers given and 
by what speakers since 1872. 

From the many important papers includ- 
ed between the lugubrious black covers of 
this volume we will give a few extracts that 
are of interest from one standpoint or an- 
other. Mr. Sadler's paper on "The Educa- 
tional Awakening in England" tells indeed 
of a many-sided awakening in which all 
Americans may well sympathize, although 
all of our problems may not be exactly of 
the same nature. There, as here, "the old 
habit of speaking of education as if it were 
simply a matter of school-teaching is losing 
its hold . . . Influenced largely by Locke 
and by Dr. Arnold, England learned to see 
that education included physical and moral 
development as well as intellectual." . . . 
"But it is now dimly being perceived," he 
says, "that this requirement of right physi- 
cal, intellectual and moral conditions in 
training really involves the provision of a 
suitable social environment for young peo- 
ple from their earliest years. And thus 
there is breaking in upon our thought the 
view that all education worthy of the name 
is but one aspect of the social question. 
The shrewder sort of English thinkers on 
education have always seen this. Robert 
Owen saw it; Carlyle saw it; Ruskin saw 
it; and the teaching of these three men is 
part of the intellectual and moral influence 
which lies behind the rise of the new Labor 
party. We, in England, however, are not 
agreed about our social ideal. The result 
is that there is opening up a new field of 
educational controversy which really turns 
upon an ideal of social environment. Hap- 
pily there is a large field of agreement in 
which comon action will be possible." 

The papers recounting progress in Eng- 
land, France anl Germany in regard to 
higher education for women should be care- 
fully read and discussed by American teach- 
ers. Many of the problems confronting our 
trans-Atlantic neighbors are similar to our 
own. Others are necessarily fundamentally 
different. It is interesting to see that the 
leading nations are all realizing that wo- 
man's education should prepare her by due 
training in hygiene, household economics, 
and the natural sciences for the profession 
of wife, mother, and head of a household. 
The French and English papers give more 
in detail the step by step progress in wo- 
man's secondary education during recent 
years. Herr Paulsen, on the other hand, tells 



of proposed plans which are now being con- 
sidered for giving girls advantages corre- 
sponding with those of boys, with due re- 
gard for the differences of sex and the dif- 
ference in careers dependent upon this. The 
writer would discourage the entrance of 
woman into professions tending to make 
them competitors with men, except when 
they show exceptional gifts. The paper is 
at the same time characterized by a clear- 
sighted, broad-minded vision that is willing 
to accord equal opportunity where really 
desired. He does not agree with many of 
his countrymen and alas, of a few of our 
own, "that it is beneath the dignity of a 
man, as such, to submit as a teacher to the 
direction of a woman." All of these coun- 
tries are evidently watching our own edu- 
cational experiments, ready to adopt such 
as may appeal to their good judgment, but 
also weighing them in the balance lest they 
be found wanting. 

Mrs. Frances Cooke Holden, president of the 
Kindergarten Department of the N. E. A., is known 
to the readers of the Kindergarten-Primary Maga- 
zine through several valuable articles which have 
appeared in its pages. One of these replies to the 
question, "Does kindergarten training prepare 
the child for the primary school? The Teach- 
er's point of view," (March, 1905). Two others, in 
Vol. XVI, give practical suggestions on the "Ethical 
Training of Children." Those who have not met 
Mrs. Holden personally will be interested in becom- 
ing somewhat acquainted with her through these 
articles. She is one of the most forceful representa- 
tive kindergarten leaders of the west. 

The Teachers' College of Indianapolis, formerly 
known as the Indianapolis Kindergarten and Pri- 
mary Normal Training School, celebrated its silver 
anniversary October 9, 1907. In 1882 there were 
eight students in the Normal Class. Since then 952 
women have been graduated from this school so 
long associated with the name of its devoted prin- 
cipal, Mrs. Eliza A. Blaker. A total of 53,171 
mothers have been members of clubs and meetings 
held under the auspices of the school. 

Miss Ruth W. Norton takes charge of the kinder- 
garten in the Milwaukee State Normal School the 
current year. Miss Norton is a graduate of the Al- 
bany Normal School, who has had five years of ex- 
perience as a training teacher in the normal school 
at Plattsburg, N. Y. She has spent the past year in 
advanced study at Teacher's College. 

Mrs. Evangeline W. Chapman, who has had charge 
of the kindergarten in the Milwaukee State Normal 
School the latter part of last year, takes charge of 
the kindergarten department in the Whitewater, 
Wis., State Normal School. Mrs. Chapman is a 
graduate of the Milwaukee State Normal School, 
who has had several years of very successful experi- 
ence in Milwaukee and elsewhere. 

The "Bachelor's Guide to Matrimony," by Regi- 
nald Wright Kaufman, a handsome little volume of 
clever little aphersions, most of which are of the 
cynical order; there are a few which breathe a more 
hopeful spirit. Of these we read: "Two cannot live 
on what one can; but the living is better worth 
while." Henry Altemus Co., Philadelphia. 

Important Book Notes. 

The Sixth Year-book of the National Society for 
Scientific Study of Education, is out and proves to t 
special interest to kindergarteners, though it is not 
dressed especially to them, but to all teachers. It tr 
of the "Kindergarten and its Relation to Elementary 
ucation," the papers beuig written respectively by 
Van Stone Harris, Supervisor of Kindergarten and 
mary Education, Rochester; Edwin A. Kirkpatrick, S 
Normal School, Kitchburg, Mass.; Mine. Kraus-Boi 
Principal Kraus Seminary, N. Y. Patty S. Hill, Teac! 
College, N.Y.; Harriette Mellissa Mills, Head Departn 
of Kindergarten Education, New York Froebel Non 
Nina C. Vanderwalker, Director Kindergarten Trail 
Department, State Normal School, Milwaukee. 

The volume is edited by Manfred J. Holmes, S 
Normal University, Normal, 111. The valuable papers 
be reviewed in a later number of the Kindergarten 
mary Magazine. 

"All About Little Johnnie Jones," by Caro 
Verhoeff, with introduction by Patty Smith £ 
This is a more or less disconnected series of si 
stories centering around an ordinary little I 
good as can be today, forgetting to obey tomorrc 
a life history in which many other little lives 
reflected in the old, old process of helping the cl 
to adapt himself to the standards of society, 
ideal has been to deal with the ordinary events 
the daily life in a manner which will reveal tl 
normal values to the child." The incidents are 
such as would naturally interest a child of foui 
five or even older and they are told in a man 
sure to hold the attention. They recount the pl< 
ures, trials and temptations likely to enter lives 
small boys and girls and will therefore help tt 
to understand better themselves and their envir 
ment. One little tale illustrates in Johnny's 
the old-time story of the man who cried "w 
wolf," once too often. Another describes the sn 
boy's birthday party. The fire at Johnny's ho 
will thrill the small hearers and they will lat 
at the story that tells of Johnny crying for 
cookie after he had eaten it. It is a book that \ 
be helpful to mothers, kindergartners, and the c) 
dren in a very happy way. Milton Bradley ( 
Springfield, Mass. 

"Poor Richard, Jr.'s Almanac," reprinted fi 
the Saturday Evening Post of Philadelphia, 
delightful little volume full of wise saws and m 
era instances. We give a few examples: "A vi 
merchant takes stock of himself as well as of 
goods"; "Ability never amounts to much until 
acquires two more letters — stability"; "It is a g 
breakfast food that will cause early rising"; 
man who trims himself to suit everybody will si 
whittle himself away"; "The proof of the home 
in the nursery." There are 365 of such clever 
horisms. Published by Henry Altemus Co., Phi 

Silver, Burdett & Co. have just published a 1 
book series of English Text Books, entitled "Gu 
Books to English Literature," written by Charles 
Gilbert, and Ada Van Stone Harris. They are 
mirably designed to carry out the purpose of 
authors, which is "language expression." Literat 
is used as a basis for teaching language, gramrr 
and literature, inductively. The lessons are so 
ranged that correlation with other subjects of 
curriculum is made simple. Cloth (Book One 
first five years, 234 pp.; price, 45c. Book Two 
rest of course, 3S5 pp.; price, 60c.) 

A lovely book to put into the hands of child: 
who are just entering school is the "Burt-Markh 
Primer," by Mary E. Burt and Edwin Markh< 
The matter is very suggestive and interesting, i 
the illustrations delightful. The book also has 
unmistakable ethical value. Cloth, 119 pp., pr 
30 cents. (Ginn & Co., New York.) 




In the Manual Training Magazine for July, Alli- 
son A. Farley of the Oshkosh Normal School has an 
.lluminating article with "Swedish Sloyd" as its 
text. He defines Salamon's system of sloyd as a 
'series of graduated psycho-physical exercises, 
sighty-eight in all, to be expressed in wood by 
.tools adapted to the exercises. The gradation is 
arranged with a view to a gradual increase of hand- 
eye-touch co-ordination involved in the exercises 
and does not depend primarily upon the complexity 
: of tools or models. The series was selected with 
reference to its power to realize certain educational 
aims which Mr. Salamon had conceived for manual 

Mr. Farley gives a list of the first fifteen models 
and briefly but very clearly explains the close grad- 
ing secured by the relation of one model to an- 
other and also such educational advantages as the 
system was planned to secure. In the light of 
later psychology, however, he then proceeds to 
show in what respects Swedish sloyd as such is 

Mr. Farley's argument centers around the doc- 
trine of the importance of interest in the educa- 
tional process. There is great waste in sloyd, he 
maintains, because "any scheme or system which is 
not so founded, which does not utilize the native 
interests of the children with fullness and ade- 
quacy, must be condemned as wasteful, inefficient, 
and positively destructive. . . . Desire is the 
sustaining force of effort and it determines ex- 
actly qualitively and quantatively the degree of 
power put forth in every effort. The force of the 
blow, the keenness of the seeing, the discrimina- 
tion of the touch — in short, the power and efficacy 
of all activity, whether of sensory-motor adjust- 
ment by which skill of hand is attained, or whether 
of the fine discrimination and association by which 
imagery becomes bright and firm, and flexible hab- 
its of thought are developed, or whether of purely 
physical achievement, or of the moral forces, such 
as patience, perseverance, etc., are determined to a 
minute degree by the strength of the impelling 
force of desire acting upon the will. Hence waste 
of energy seems the logical and inevitable conclu- 
sion of a situation where the individual, child, or 
man, is required to perform a task the object of 
which does not sustain a close and definite relation 
to some of his own needs. "If the task be physical 
in nature the innervation of the muscles will be 
weak and their expenditure of effort small and the 
co-ordinations will be loose and slovenly. 
This condition of arrested mental development cre- 
ated by the long repression of impulse and the dis- 
couragement of the initiative appears almost ir- 
remediable when once established. 

The writer finds the Swedish system limited in 
several particulars. Its usefulness is narrowed in 
that all the exercises are reduced to wood; the ar- 
ticles made being "small and unimportant articles 
of household furnishing, assumed an abstract char- 
acter but a step removed from the purely prepara- 
tory exercises which they were intended to super- 
sede," and the grading and imitative method, etc., 
are such that "the opportunities for acquiring much 
positive knowledge of either a social or scientific 
character are extremely limited." Mr. Farley also 
notes that the interests of children from eleven to 
fifteen (the sloyd age) are not in simple activity 
for its own sake, but in that activity and in those 
objects "which appear necessary as means to ac- 
complish desired ends." 

He recognizes the need of models and of drills, 
however, when the child wishes to accomplish 
something for which he has not yet attained the 
requisite skill." It is in this filling-in process of 
building up the gap between present abilities and 

the realization of desires that models and drills of 
like nature have their legitimate function. For 
the finished model he finds yet another use in the 
standard of taste and of workmanship which it 

Those interested in the subject will be pleased to 
learn that henceforward the Manual Training Mag- 
azine will be published bi-monthly instead of only 
four times a year as heretofore. 

The "Popular Science Monthly" contains an ar- 
ticle of value to people in all walks of life perhaps 
with special appeal to teachers and students. "The 
Ethical Aspects of Mental Economy," by Prof Fred 
E. Bolton, State University, Iowa. He opens with 
the statement, '""o be economical of one's powers 
makes for efficiency; to be prodigal makes for in- 
efficiency. To be efficient in lile is the highest 
ethics. To be inefficient because of prodigality is 
10 be unmoral." He speaks of the need of making 
automatic as soon as possible, especially when 
young, those usual activities thus leaving the mind 
iree ior other things. He dwells also upon the 
need of sleep to the student. And the student must 
learn, too, how much time and strength may be 
justly and wisely given to the social side of school 
and college life and how much to the study end. 
Prof. Bolton applies his arguments to the business 
life as well as to student days and the paper should 
be most helptul to very many of our over-strenuous 

John Patterson tells of the "Child and Child 
Education Among the Ancient Greeks" in the same 

"Die Deutsche Monatschrift" has an article in 
which a lather discusses whether or not the aver- 
age father gives to his children the time and 
thought and companionship that he should, both 
for their good and his own. He contends that the 
father loses much of the joy of life in thus missing" 
the opportunities for education, and friendship and 
future influence that come by thus living with the 
child. In order that the boy of today may grow 
into the good, wise father of tomorrow he thinks 
there should be more of natural science and techni- 
cal teaching in the schools so that the boy may 
later be able to point out to his children with intel- 
ligence and discernment the wonders of the world 
about him. 

The "Review of Reviews" for September, in an 
article by Marion Malius, discusses the question, 
"Are Secret Societies a Danger to Our High 
Schools?" This is a question 01 grave importance 
and principals and teachers may well post them- 
selves upon the subject in order to intelligently 
combat the argument of prejudiced parents. The 
main arguments against the secret society in the 
high school are the following: They are undemo- 
cratic and breed selfishness and snobbery in those 
that are in, and toadyism in those that want to 
get in. In choosing new recruits it seems that 
ability to dress well and to spend money freely are 
strong qualifications for admission. "They tend to 
kill a healthful class spirit. Instead of pride in the 
class of 1907 or lyOS, the class is separated into 
factions, each jealous of its own prerogatives and 
standing. The fraternity or sorority grows inde- 
pendent of the control of teacher and principal. 
The members become impudent and unbearably so- 
phisticated in their attitude toward the faculty. 
They do not tend to elevate scholarship. Many 
schools forbid the secret society utterly. Others 
meet the problem by having a member of the facul- 
ty present as advisor. In several cities the strong 
measures taken by school principals or school boards 
to meet the evil has resulted in lawsuits brought by 
parents, the school representatives being sustained 
in each case. 



The "Circle" for September has an article by Dr. 
David Blaustein describing "The First Self-Govern- 
ing Jewish Community since the Fall of Jerusalem," 
being a brief description of the Hebrew Colony at 
Woodbridge, N. J. Here agriculture, manufactures, 
etc., are carried on efficiently by Jewish immigrants 
who began the experiment in 1891. 

All the women teachers in America and the mas- 
culine portion of the teaching community as well, 
should read about "Woman Suffrage Throughout 
the World," by Ida Hustod Harper, in the "North 
American." It shows that the "world do move," 
especially that part outside of the United States. 
The movement for woman suflTage is gain- 
ing all the time in both Europe and Asia. In 
Japan, lnuia, Persia, even, as well as in Russia, 
woman is being recognized as an important factor 
in the body politic and one whose voice must be 

The "Outlook for September 7 contains a paper 
by G. F. Blakeslee describing the successful work- 
ing of "Woman Suttrage in Finland." Also a 
charming article by Annie Russell Marble on Eliza- 
beth Whittier (.sister of the poet J, and the "Ames- 
bury Home," of which she was the sunshine. 

Teachers of American history will read with in- 
terest the present installment in "Scribners" of the 
"Call ox the West," by Sidney Lee. This number 
cuncems itself with the "American Indian in Eliza- 
be chan England." 

"Harper's" for September contributes to science 
an article by Edwin G. Conklin, Ph. D., on "Photo- 
microscopy by Ultraviolet Light." 

Let parents and teachers read in the "American 
Magazine" Eugene Wood on "The New Baby"; also 
the "Slaves Who Stayed," by Lucine Finok. 

B. J. 

The Southern Teachers' Advocate is an educa- 
tional journal edited and owned by colored people 
as a proiessional organ for colored teachers. The 
June number contains a brief description of the 
KentucKy Institution for the Education of the 
Blind, Louisville, Ky., written by the Principal, 
Faustin S. Leianey. What he says is true of all 
blind people whether white or black. 

Here we have a beautiful three-story building, 
lighted by gas, heated by steam, airy bed-rooms, 
piay rooms, recitation rooms, steam-heated bath- 
100ms, music rooms and all the comforts of a 
modern home. 

This institution is in no sense an asylum or hos- 
pital. No pupil is admitted until some parent or 
guardian vouches to receive him at the close of 
the school session. i\o invalid, no weak-minded 
child, no vicious or immoral person is admitted. 
Only sound, healthy persons of good moral char- 
acter are permitted to attend. It is a state institu- 
tion for the education of the blind. 

There are no charges whatever. Board, lodging, 
laundry, books are ail free. Here the blind or par- 
tially blind child is taught to read, write and 
cipher; he studies geography, history, nature, gram- 
mar. If he shows an inclination tor music he is 
given a musical education. Here he is instructed 
in the workshop, learning to make brooms, ham- 
mocks, mops, to cane chairs, and to practice simple 
upholstery. The girls are taught to sew, to patch, 
to darn, to knit and how to use the sewing machine. 
They are taught how to cut and lit and make their 
own garments. 

There are two reading circles which meet nightly. 

Why should not the blind girl become acquainted 
with the practical side of domestic science? Why 
should she not learn the courtesies of sensible so- 
ciety? Why should she not listen to the reading 
of magazines and newspapers, and discuss civic, 
literary and scientific questions and events? Why 

should she not learn to set and clear away a table, 
to wash and wipe dishes, to make beds, to launder, 
to cook, and in fact to do everything to make her 
home clean, orderly, and attractive? Although the 
blind child may never have to earn a living, still 
she can be a "home-helper." 

The blind child has a right to have a chance in 
the race of life, a right to have a chance to make 
himself a useful citizen. The earlier he starts the 
better. It is much better that he start at six than 
at sixteen. 

The editor of this able little journal is Chapman 
C. Monroe. There is a department of Psychology 
and Pedagogy, which in the June number is de- 
voted to the kindergarten. There are also depart- 
ments of Science and Nature Study and of Domestis 

The trained eye of the artist is constantly see- 
ing beautiful harmonies of color unheeded by the 
unobservant individual. In Edinburgh the camera 
obscura is being used by an educational enthusiast, 
Professor Geddes, in order to revive the starved 
color sense of adults. By its means they are en- 
abled to obtain a glimpse of the artist's delightful 
color world, for in it they see the reflection of 
their apparently commonplace surroundings with 
all their natural wealth of color revealed as in a 
picture. The roads, the grass, the grimy walls, 
even the apparently colorless smoke, assume a new 
significance, so that one is almost tempted to be- 
lieve it to be the result of some magic power. 
Truly "beauty is in the eye of the beholder," and 
the pity is that so many eyes are blind to the 
beauty that is all around them. 

All children have the artistic temperament — it 
is their birthright; but they are often kept from 
the enjoyment of it by being shut out of God's 
beautiful world into prisons made with human 

If children in crowded cities are to be taught 
indoors, they should be surrounded by objects beau- 
tiful in themselves, beautiful in form, in color, and 
in design, for as Ruskin says, "The mind that seeks 
the beautiful is on its way to become a beautiful 
mind." — The Practical 'teacher's Art Monthly, 

The subjects of co-education and of equal pay 
for equal work are matters oi discussion in Eng- 
land as well as in America. Witness the following 

The co-educational school at Harpenden, which 
is to educate boys and girls together from early 
childhood to university age, was opened last month. 
The Rev. Cecil Grant, the headmaster, who for 
eight years presided over a mixed grammar school 
at Keswick, said at the inaugural proceedings that 
his experience was that in a school oi reasonable 
size where religious influence was vital and both 
sexes were educated together it was possible for 
each member of the school to reach an infinitely 
higner level of purity, industry, and general char- 
acter than was possible in separate schools. 

This is one more corroboration of the finding of 
the Secondary Education Commissioners of 18y6 on 
the subject of mixed education. They reported that 
those witnesses who had experience of the system 
were most strongly in its favor, while the most 
decided opposition came from those witnesses who 
knew nothing about it. — University Correspondence 
London, England. 

We have noted lately advertisements for lecture- 
ships and similar educational posts which run: 
"Salary £200 if a man, £150 if a woman." We 
can see no possible justification for this differentia- 
tion, and in the London Day Training College the 
principle of the same pay for the same work, re- 
gardless of sex, has been asserted and maintained 
from the beginning. It may indeed be argued that 
the principle, if carried to its logical conclusion, 



vould lead to an identical scale of payment for 
nasters and mistresses in all our public schools, 
ind we are not careful to resist the conclusion. 
3ut, under present circumstances, the cases are not 
m all fours. In spite of the strides of the last 
lalf century, girls' education is still on a lower 
evel than boys' education, and mistresses are still 
ess expensively and less fully educated than mas- 
ters. Moreover, except in mixed schools, the two 
liexes do not come into competition. If a post is 
idvertised as open to either sex and a woman is 
;hosen, she is presumably better than any of the 
,iiale candidates. Why should she be docked of 
£50 solely on account of her sex? We do not cut 
lown the Civil List when the sovereign is a Queen. 
, — Journal of Education, London England. 

In the English Journal of Education for July M. 
Atkinson Williams, B. A., has a discriminating pa- 
per upon "The Place of English in the American 
Elementary School." She summarizes her impres- 
sions as follows: 

"From the few points I have collected I think it 
will be seen that the Americans are taking this 
matter of the English work as a factor in the train- 
ing of the child seriously to heart. It seems to me 
that the main excellences lie in the careful and 
systematic training in spoken English, the defer- 
ring of the reading and more formal composition 
to a somewhat later period than with us, the com- 
paratively wide course of reading which the school 
curriculum affords, and the consistent effort to al- 
low the children's powers to develop naturally and 
spontaneously. The main defects appear to be a 
lack of thoroughness and a certain superficialty 
which pervades a good deal of the work in the 
American school, also vileness and carelessness in 
the spelling and composition of the older pupils, 
the dangers arising from the undue prominence 
given to oratory and a tendency to overvalue the 
children's somewhat hastily formed judgments." 


Little Folks Land. The story of a little boy in a 
big world, by Madge A. Bigham. This volume com- 
bines both stories and program matter suitable for 
either kindergarten or grades; was published in 
1905-6 in the Kindergarten Magazine. Those who 
followed, then, the experiences of Joe-Boy from 
week to week through the year will be glad to 
learn that it is now to be obtained in book form. 
It is so arranged that the successive chapters may 
be used just as they appear in the pages or if one 
teacher is making a specialty of birds and another 
of insects each may cull that which is suited to 
her wishes. At the time of its appearance in the 
Magazine it was subjected to various criticisms. 
Some objected that child psychology forbade center- 
ing a program for so long a time around one per- 
son. That objection is answered above in the state- 
ment as to the way in which the lessons may be 
used. Others thought the style too sentimental. 
The child to whom the stories are read will not 
think so and in telling them to her circle the kin- 
dergartner will naturally use her own language and 
interject into the telling her own manner and 
spirit. The spirit of the stories is sweet and whole- 
some and one mother in a far-away corner of Ver- 
mont wrote a letter of appreciation to the editors 
of the Magazine, which was almost pathetic in its 
expression of thanks for the printing of the little 
story. The mothers as well as kindergartners will 
be pleased with the suggestions for gift and occu- 
pation work. These are of course to be followed 
in the spirit of the master and not of the slave. Pub- 
lished by Atkinson, Mentzer & Grover, Chicago. 

"Popular Folk Games and Dance," compiled by 
Marie Ruef Hofar, Chicago, has just made the sum- 
mer of 1907 conspicuous by a most successful play 

festival in which hundreds of children took part 
and which was attended by teachers and specialists 
from all over the country. Charities has devoted 
one number to a description of this festival and the 
papers given by different well-known speakers. 
Teachers, settlement workers, students of sociology 
are realizing that in organized and directed plays 
are great possibilities for Education. They also 
perceive in the traditional games and dances of the 
various nations, possibilities not only of natural 
and simple wholesome recreation, but also a happy 
means of amalgamating our hetogenous population, 
to better understand each other. The traditional 
games and dances of our foreign population 
if incorporated into our own life, cannot but be a 
source of enrichment to art, literature and to life 
generally. Miso Mari Ruef Hofer's latest book 
therefore will be of great service to all who wish 
to better understand our immigrant neighbors and 
wish to help them to know each other. This book 
appears in much the same form as "Singing Games." 
It contains games and dances of practically every 
country in Europe. The Scandinavian, Tuetonic, 
Latin and Selavic races are all represented. There 
are games reminding one of the old feudal days of 
knights and castles; visiting games in which the 
courtesies and graces have play; there are the 
graceful, stately dances of one district, and again, 
these with the hop, skip and jump and clap of the 
more lively dance. The compilation of this book 
has involved much patient research and wise selec- 
tion amidst the vast stores of riches that has come 
down to us from the past. Directions are given 
for each dance and words accompany the music. A 
book which will help bring to our strenuous life, 
the spirit of play and simple recreation is much to 
be desired. Flanagan Co., Chicago. Mailing price 
75 cents. 

"Lisbeth Long Frock." Translated from the 
Norwegan of Hans Aanrud by Laura E. Poulsson. 
We are told in the preface that Hans Aanrud's short 
stories are considered by his countrymen as belong- 
ing to the most original and artistically finished 
life pictures that have been produced by the 
younger literati of Norway. The story gives a most 
interesting glimpse into a life quite foreign to 
most Americans. The herdgirl and herdboy are 
practically unknown in the United States and the 
tale of this little eight year old girl who finds her 
way alone down from the mountain on a cold win- 
ter's day with a pack of spun wool upon her back and 
little red pail in her hands, should delight the child- 
ren of our more complex society. They will surely find 
it difficult to imagine themselves living all through 
the summer far upon the grazing fields with only 
the milkmaid and two herdboys for companions, 
and for occupations, following the flock of sheep 
aud goats both in sunny weather and on days when 
it rains or mists. Crookhorn, the self-important 
goat that would not go with its own kind, but 
would insist, first on herding with the cows and 
finally with the horses, is an interesting contribu- 
tion to the study of animal mythology. Crookhorn 
certainly had an individuality of her own. The 
pictures by a Norwegian Artist depicting the farm- 
ers, the mountain scenes, and the interiors of the 
farmhouse are a valuable addition to the text. It 
is a simple little story which well pictures a life than 
which we can imagine no greater contrasts to that 
of our strenuous, nervous, high-strung cities. The 
teacher will do well to place it on her school-book 
puno.m .iaiuso suossai Aqdij.iSogS am naqAi 'saAiaus 
Norway. Both boys and girls will read it with in- 
terest and benefit. They will want to go to Nor- 
way; and whenever they afterwards hear an echo, 
they will not forget that in Norway, the boys 
quaintly speak of an echo as "dwarf language." 
Published by Ginn & Co., Boston. 



Kristy's Rainy-Day Picnic, by Olive Thorne Mill- 
er. Kristy's picnic is spoiled by rain, and her 
mother and friends turn the long day into a very 
short one by telling her stories of incidents in their 
own childhood. One tells of a night in a school- 
room, a blizzard raging outside. Another describes 
a night in a cellar and a rescue by a dog. Each 
one is just such a story as a schoolgirl, or for that 
matter, a schoolboy, reads with intense interest. 
There are sixteen in all. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 
Boston. $1.25. 

Mystic Voices. An Interpretation of Nature, by 
S. L. Mershon, is an unusual little volume per- 
meated by a strong personal and religious feeling, 
and written by one who loves Nature much, and to 
whom she speaks as with a voice direct from God. 
It will make an appropriate Easter gift. Illustrat- 
ed. Published by Theodore Schulte, New York 

"Mother Goose in Silhouettes," cut out by Kath- 
erine G. Buffum, Houghton, Mifflin Co., N. Y. ; 
"Rhymes and Stories," by M. F. Lansing, Ginn & 
Co.; "Famous Stories Every Child Should Know," 
by Hamilton W. Mabie, Doubleday, Page & Co., N. 
Y. ; "Friends and Cousins," by Abbie Farwell 
Brown, Houghton, Mifflin & Co.; "Education by 
Plays and Games," by George Ellsworth Johnson, 
Ginn & Co.; "Waifs of the Slums and Their Way 
Out," by Leonard Benedict, Fleming H. Revell Co.; 
"A Brief Course in the History of Education," by 
Paul Monroe, The Macmillan Co.; "Studies in Ger- 
man Literature," by Richard Hochdoerfer, Chau- 
tauqua Home Reading Series; "A First Course in 
Physics," by Robert Andrews Millikan, Ginn & Co.; 
"Intermediate Arithmetic," by Bruce M. Watson, 
D. C. Heath & Co.; "Elementary French," by Fred 
Davis Aldrich and Irving Lysander Foster, Ginn & 
Co.; "First Latin Book," by E. Cutler Shedd, re- 
vised edition, N. Y., William Beverley Harison. 

Editor's Notes on New York City News. 
In a great cosmopolitan city, like New 
York, which is constantly receiving' hordes 
of immigrants, many of them too frequently 
of low order of intelligence, the task of as- 
similating the widely discordant elements in 
the population is vital. By common consent 
of the citizens it is entrusted mainly to the 
public schools. Out of the raw material the 
educational grist must produce Americans, 
inspired by high ideals of patriotism and 

Realizing this the Board of Education has 
exerted every effort to secure the most ef- 
ficient teachers. To this end it has pre- 
scribed severe rules, governing the qualifica- 
tions for appointment and the activities of 
the teacher in the exercise of her functions. 
And it has been eminently successful. This 
is attested by the fact that many of its kin- 
dergartners are called yearly to responsible 
positions in other institutions. 

To be eligible for the license of kindergar- 
ten teacher, the applicant must have one of 
these qualifications : graduation from a sat- 
isfactory high school or institution of equal 
or higher rank, or an equivalent academic 
training, or the passing of an academic ex- 

amination. In addition the completion of ; 
satisfactory course of professional training 
of at least two years, one of which has beer 
devoted to the principles and practice of th( 
kindergarten, is required. In lieu of thi 
last requirement, the applicant may offei 
evidence of the completion of a satisfactory 
course of professional training of at leas 
one year in the principles and practice of th< 
kindergarten, followed by two years of sue 
cessful experience in kindergarten teaching 

[For further information address th 

The teacher in the primary grades is ; 
regular class teacher and must have th< 
same qualifications. To be eligible for Li 
cense No. I, which entitles her to teach, th( 
applicant must have one of the following 
qualifications : graduation from a higl 
school, having a course of study of not less 
than four years and graduation from 
school for the professional training of teach 
ers, having a course of study of not less thai 
two years, consisting of seventy-eight weeks 
approved by the State Superintendent o 
Public Instruction. The applicant may offei 
many other qualifications, which on accoun 
of limited space cannot be mentioned here 

Between the kindergarten and the pri 
mary grades there is no gap. Passage fron 
one to the other should be continuous. Th 
Board of Education recently facilitated thi 
by enacting a by-law, which provides among 
other things, that the kindergarten license 
"shall qualify the holder to act as a substij 
tute in classes of the first six years in an elel 
mentary day school." In this way the kin 
dergarten teacher is enabled to get an in 
sight into the work of the grades above hei 
and to prepare the pupils for these grades 
Great benefits have been derived from thi; 
wise provision. 

As a result of the recent agitation abou 
salaries, the Board of Education has devisee 
a plan for giving teachers of the kindergar 
ten and primary grades greater compensa 
tion. This step has been deemed wise, be 
cause it will hold the teachers in the Board': 
employ. At present the teacher is paid 
minimum salary of $600, which is increasec 
yearly by $40 until the maximum of $ 1,24c 
is attained after seventeen years of service 
It is proposed to make the minimum $720 
the maximum $1,440; life of schedule six 
teen years, and annual automatic increas* 
$48. 'The old plan will cost $9,277,646 ir 1 
1908. To put the new one into operatiot 
will cost $1,779,045 more. The matter i: 



fore the Board of Estimate for approval. 
le general sentiment among the members 
the Board of Education is that that body 
11 make the necessary appropriation. 
But not alone upon good teachers does 
e proper training of pupils in the kinder- 
'rten and primary grades depend. The 
'urse of study is another important -factor. 

meeting this necessity the Board of Edu- 
tion has exercised superior judgment. 
bere are no breaks in the progression of 
|e course, the growth of the intellectual 
pacity of the child being duly met. 
In the kindergarten the course comprises 
ture study, language, songs, games and 
ndwork. The evolution from the kinder- 
rten to the primary grades is gradual. 
|>r the first three years of the elementary 
hool the course includes physical training, 
ysiology and hygiene, organized games, 
lglish, penmanship, mathematics, nature- 
idy, drawing and constructive work, cord 
d raffia, and music. Sewing is introduced 
the third year. 

Comprehensive instructions as to the 
jst methods of teaching these subjects are 
ovided in the syllabuses prepared by the 
oard of Superintendents. Correlation of 
bjects is particularly insisted upon. Na- 
re study furnishes the topics for composi- 
pns in English, songs are made to harm- 
dze with the general spirit of the course 

study and so the interweaving process 
)es on. 

Considerable latitude is allowed the 
acher, however. Owing to the varied 
aracter of New York, including both city 
d country life in all their phases, the 
acher is confronted with special problems, 
th which no syllabus, designed along gen- 
al lines, can cope. In cases of this kind 
dividuality alone conquers. Evidence of 
; successful application comes to light fre- 
lently. Here a teacher perfects a system 
penmanship, which fails elsewhere ; there 
lother has great success with mathemat- 
s; again, a third, having no better ma- 
rial for her nature work takes her children 

a blacksmith shop to see the smithy 
Drk or to the Brooklyn bridge to watch the 
ips ply up and down East River, So it 
>es on. 

In this great work the teacher of the 
ndergarten and of the primary grades in 
e elementary schools plays an important 
irt. To her comes the material in its most 
astic form. If she begins the character- 
oulding skilfully, success is reasonably 

certain. If she fails, the harm done the 
pupil is almost irreparable. 

An idea of the methods of teaching em- 
ployed may be had by a study of the sylla- 
buses for the kindergarten. In the main, 
these methods obtain in their primary 
grades. The teacher's instructions are in 
part : 

"In nature study, the children should ob- 
serve and care for animals and plant life, 
and should make daily observations of natu- 
ral phenomena. The teacher should take 
the children on excursions to the parks and 
fields, and should encourage them to work 
in out-of-door gardens. 

"Stories and conversations in the kinder- 
garten should relate to life in the home, the 
doings of children, cleanliness and health, 
life of animals and plants, the weather, the 
seasons, holidays, etc. In story telling, the 
stories should be illustrated with black- 
board sketches, pictures and objects. A few 
rhymes and jingles should be memorized. 

"In music the children should be taught 
to listen appreciatively to instrumental 
music and to singing. In singing by the 
children, only such songs should be selected 
as unite expressive melody to appropriate 
words, and those in which the rhythm of 
poetry and music coincide. Only soft sing- 
ing should be allowed at any time and great 
care should be given to annuciation and ex- 
pression. Singing during marches and 
phvsical exercises is not advisable. 

"In physical training, the play and games 
should be interpretive and expressive of 
every-day life. They should lead to a con- 
trol of the muscles, and to mental and social 
development. They should include march- 
ing, skipping, running and other rhythmic 
movements, accompanied by instrumental 
music; gymnastic exercises, in which the 
children imitate familiar movements seen 
in the home and in the street, movements 
of workmen and movements of animals ; free 
play at recess, introducing a few common 
toys, as balls, tops, jumping ropes, bean 
bags, reins and dolls. 

"The handwork includes modeling in 
sand and clay ; drawing, both illustrative and 
object, with heavy crayons; painting, both 
illustrative and object; weaving with col- 
ored splints in heavy manilla mats, and in 
paper mats with fringes; occasional free 
weaving with grasses or raffia : sewing with 
or without needle; paper folding, cutting 
and mounting." 

Teachers' Courses 



Dr. E. Lyell Earle, Principal 

r PHE New York Froebel Normal announces Courses for Teachers under the Di- 
rection of Dr. E. Lyell Earle, to be given by the following instructors: 

Dr. Jenny B. Merrill, Supervisor of Kindergartens, New York City 
Dr. E. Lyell Earle, Principal New York Froebel Normal 
Professor Harriette M. Mills, New York Froebel Normal 
Mari Ruef Hofer, Teachers College 
Augusta Siener Earle, Leipsig 
Mr. Robert Dulk, Teachers College 

The scope of the courses will cover Kindergarten and Primary subjects and will 
be particularly helpful to all those who are to take the City examinations for Kin- 
dergarten licenses and for License No. 1 , to be held in January, 1 908. They will 
also meet the needs of Kindergarten and Primary teachers in their daily class work. 

For information address 


59 West Ninety-sixth Street, 
'Phone, 6657 Riverside. NEW YORK, N. Y. 

(Office Hours daily from 3 : 30 to 5 p. m. Saturdays and evenings by appointment.) 

See page I 30 


5I)£ ^Kindergarten- Jprimar? ^ttagaj?tne 

Vol XX— DECEMBER, 1907-No. 4 


Inasmuch as the Magazine is emphasizing in its Christmas issue the place of re- 
igion in education I have selected as topics for my talks this month questions from my 
:orrespondents bearin? on this important subject. 

One teacher writes as follows: In reading Butler's "Meaning of Education" I find 
that he emphasizes as one of the aims of education the bringing the child into pos- 
session of his religious inheritance. How far is this being realized in our schools to- 
day? and what arc the prospects of its fuller realization in the near future? 

The question is a very natural one and withal not an easy one to answer to the sat- 
isfaction of our readers. There are so many intense personal elements and so much 
personal feeling in the question of religion, that it is hard to bring an unprejudiced 
mind to the consideration of the subject. 

Teachers are uniformly agreed that the child has a right t^ his physical inheritance, 
that the course of studies should embrace subiects that will realize the ideal of the 
sound body, as a preparation or dwelling place for the sound mind. 

Few question the importance of bringing the child into the possession of his intel- 
lectual inheritance, whether from the standpoint of science, of liretature, or of art. 
The course of studies must present these subjects, so that the child may choose there- 
from helps best suited to adapt him to this rich environment. 

Again, scarcely any one questions the necessity of introducing the child to his insti- 
tutional inheritance, from the standpoint at least of the home and the state. Courses 
in history, civics, economics and domestic science, home making, etc., have a neces- 
sary and justly public place in every reputable institution of learning. 

However, when we come to the religious side of the child's institutional inheritance 
we are not so fortunate in having any such consensus of opinion. All assent at once to 
the importance of giving the child religious instruction and religious training, and all 
desire that he possess a truly religious education, but when we come to the question of 
selecting the proper subject-matter for this training and instruction, when we come to 
the question of methods of realizing this religious education we are met with almost 
insurmountable difficulties. 

The trouble is not whether the child has a right to his religious inheritance but what 
are the best means for bringing him into his possession. We are not free in the matter. 
It is a question of the right of the child to know at least this great truth that religion 
has been one of the greatest factors in the civilizing of the world. It is just as unfair 
to impose arbitrarily any particular form of religious belief and practice upon the child 
before he is capable of understanding them, as it is to deprive him of the knowledge of 
the great fact that religion has accomplished so much for the permanent improvement 
of humanity. There has been no greater epoch in the growth of the race than the 
epoch where religion played an important part. 

It is proper that the child in his development pass through some period that corre- 
sponds to the attitude of the race toward nature and life when those problems were 
solved by the principles and practices of religion. Just how great a loss the child suf- 
fers from this deprivation it is hard to say. 

If he is kept apart from the processes by which nature reaches her net products in 
her natural evolution we are told that his scientific development has suffered and that 
the loss is practically irremediable. 

If in infancy he is deprived of the manifold advantages of play and of intercourse with 
other children of his own age and tendencies, the loss to his developments is very great 
indeed. If he is not trained with the jingle of Mother Goose, and the croonings of the 
lullaby, the deficiencies in his development are incalculable. If this be true and if re- 
ligion is such an important culture epoch in the race development, then the child's 
loss during this period of starvation must necessarily be worth consideration. 

If we reflect upon some of the great thoughts and ideals that religion has suggested 
to the world and trace their influence on humanity we shall see how important it is 
that we do not give up that great fact in education without making every effort to pre- 
serve it in its essential values. 


The conception of one Superior Deity who created immediately every soul, who 
loved intimately man, woman, and child, and who furnished them with means of at- 
taining eternal happiness with Him was the noblest contribution made to education 
prior to the coming of Christ. This contribution is found in the Old Testament, and 
was illustrated in the life of the Jewish people. Without that revelation and the influ- 
ences it had on the world the later advance of humanity, subsequent to the beginning 
of Christianity, would have been absolutely impossible. 

If we take the single idea of the Christ child at Christmas and consider its importance 
from the standpoint of education we will find that possibly no other single thought 
stands out so prominently or exercises so momentous an influence. 

Art takes its first inspiration from the majestic composition of the crib of Bethlehem. 
The combination of the sublime and of the helpless in the angelic choir hymnning the 
birth of the infant Christ ; the awe of the Midnight Scene, the simple Shepherds with 
their flocks, and the snow-clad ridges of Judea, have fired the imagination of pain<. c r 
and poet, and have furnished material for song and story that imprint pictures in the 
infant mind, which time does not dim nor age efface. 

It would seem that entirely apart from sectarian considerations there can be no 
more beautiful associative Center for Childhood than the Christmas ideal as illustrated 
down through the centuries, apart from the consideration of the simple humanity or 
the dual humanity and divinity of the Christ Child. We have here a type of beauty, of 
simplicity, withal of majestic power, that may well serve as a starting ideal for chil- 
dren of all creeds and social positions. 

We find herein the beauty of the home thought, the noblest thought of humanity, 
the thought that differentiates man from the lower animals, and makes possible the 
permanent growth of the race. We find in this home thought, family unity, efficient 
service, hope and joy, the necessary accompaniments of the true home circle. 

We find, moreover, the larger social thought of humanity in the simple shepherds re- 
joicing in the realization of this home ideal as illustrated in the Holy Family at Christ- 
mas Tide. We find again the still larger social value realized in the coming of the 
Wise men and the Kings to rejoice at this restatement of the unity and hope and joy 
of home. We find above it all the sanction of the Supernatural, the presence of the 
Celestial Messenger who sings the words of rapture that have made Christmas tide 
eminently a season of joy, the words of Glory to the Highest, and of Peace to Men. 

This one idea of religion exemplified in the season we are celebrating is possible of 
application and realization as well today as it was twenty centuries ago. It would be 
a sad loss to humanity and to the family, and particularly to the child to be deprived 
of this great factor in the true development of humanity. 

Will it not be possible for teachers to unite at least on these great principles of 
religious development, and give the child in our schools his religious inheritance? 
The churches may do a great deal toward bringing him into possession of this right, 
but the school is too powerful a factor to lose the advantage of reinforcing ideals of 
reverence, gratitude, devotion, and the great cardinal virtues, on which the permanent 
efficiency of humanity hinges. 

The child has a right to know at least as a historical fact, and ought as a right to 
know it, when he is passing through his various stages of growth, that religion has 
been a tremendous factor in the development of the race, and that in this course of de- 
velopment it has not committed any greater error3 than science, art, literature, history, 
and philosophy have been guilty of. Let us, therefore, as teachers try to devise means 
of bringing the child into his religious inheritance in the school room as well as in the 
home and in the church. Let us consider religion at least as one of the great civiliz- 
ing factors in humanity without regard to sect or creed. Let us not deprive the child 
of his right, because of any personal bias or individual conviction which, very frequent- 
ly represents in a great many, merely a new stage of intolerance rather than a higher 
conception of the true religious spirit will ultimately correct. 

Above all, let us not impose our adult conviction, frequently modified by personal, 
and not always the purest notions, upon the infant mind, with all its purity and faith 
and hope. Let us see that we do not deprive the child of any influence that will serve 
to make him happier individually, and a more useful and efficient servant of the fam- 
ily and of the larger unit of society. 





The lengthening of the period of depend- 
:ncy of young animals, is proof of advance- 
nent. In childhood, the great prolonging 
)f this helpless period, results in love of the 
amily, and that community feeling akin to 
he "gliedganges" or member- whole senti- 
nent. Prompted by love, parents delight to 
;erve baby — to anticipate the every want of 
his little autocrat. Should the family be 
)lessed with other little ones before the first 
me is grown, the fond parents will find it 
mpossible to continue to assist the eldest as 
>t first. Then, is presented to parents a 

e opoortunity for inculcating in the heart 
ind mind of their first born that self-reliance 
ind responsibility which make for growth 
md independence, and that tender care of 
he youne which is desirable for all. 

Inherent in the average child is the love 
)f labor, as well as of incessant motion. A 
ittle girl who was reproved by her grand- 
nother for her noisy actions, replied: "O, 
grandmother, I must do something." To 
lirect this impulse into the channel of help- 
ulness, is comparativelv easy. Children of- 
:en vie with each other for the opportunity 
o help the father, mother, or teacher. Oc- 
:asionallv, a child indisposed to work, is 
: ound; but, in nine cases out of ten, the 
: ault lies with the parents, who will not take 
:ime and patience to allow that child to ex- 
periment in assisting. Fredrick Froebel 
Javs: "How cheerfully and eagerlv the boy 
ind girl at this age beein to share the work 
Df father and mother — not the easy work, 
ndeed, but the difficult work, calling for 
strength and labor: be cautious, be careful 
ind thoughtful, at this point, O parents; 
ir ou can here at one blow destroy, at least 
for a long time, the instinct of formative 
ictivi*v in your children, if you repel their 
heir, as childish, useless, of little avail, or 
even as a hindrance : do not let the urgency 
of your business tempt you to say, 'Go 
awav, you only hinder me,' or T am in a 
hurry, leave me alone.' " 

Children, in general, manifest a spirit of 
self-help and independence sooner or later. 
If the mother assists in developing this 
trait, it is of incalculable value to her as well 
as to her little one ; for she will not perhaps 
have the strength to wait upon a growing 
family as she did upon the eldest. There 
was once a wise mother who, through an 
exploitation of the spirit of play, judicious 

persuasion, and praise, trained her little 
daughter of sixteen months, to amuse as 
well as to wait upon her baby brother, — 
bringing his clothes and his playthings when 
needed. As the mother was not very robust, 
this saved her much strength as well as 
time; and also benefitted the little girl by 
giving her employment for her energies. 

To do for one's self and to delight in be 
ing a cause, are characteristic of childhood. 
Children are naturallv fond of dressing and 
feeding themselves, lifting obstacles out of 
their own way, and jumping or climbing 
alone in preference to being helped by their 
elders. It is a genuine pleasure to a child 
when he first essays to dress himself, or put 
on his wraps; and from that time forth, he 
is likely to refuse assistance. A lady who 
had been favored with a visit from a wee 
maiden of independent spirit, tied the bon- 
net of this little one on her departure. To 
the woman's astonishment, the little girl 
immediately untied it, remarking: "I can 
do that mvself." She laboriously and slowly 
nerformed the task. 

The rocking of babies to sleep has been 
celebrated in song and poetry. "Rock-a-bye 
baby" is beautiful in sentiment and word- 
setting. But when the life of the mother 
becomes fuller, when she realizes that the 
other members of the family beside the babv 
rightly deserve some of her companionship 
during the evening, the present-day mother 
quite generally foregoes this pleasure. Un- 
less the rocking and accompanying song are 
rythmicallv executed, they are not so con- 
ducive to sleep as is the soft stable bed, and 
the quiet of solitude and darkness. Many 
a song intended for a lullaby is a call to 
alertness rather than a help to the "sand 
man." In case the child is really afraid of 
the darkness, the mother might remain a 
little while with him — not necessarily rock- 
ing nor singing to him; and, gradually train- 
ing him in fearlessness, may later abandon 
this custom. Some fond mothers claim that 
they should not like to miss this happy priv- 
ilege ; but they shall have to abandon it 
sooner or later — so why begin it? The child 
seems not to manifest independence in this 
direction so early as in others : but perhaps 
the cause of this lies in the fact that he has 
not been trained to fall asleep when alone. 
A writer in "The Victoria Magazine" enum- 
erates th ; following as among the rights of 



the child: "To be exempt from rocking, 
trotting, and drugs; to have opportunity for 
natural, unforced development and care that 
is not fussy, love that is not fidgety, and a 
great deal of judicious letting alone." 

Closely connected with this bed-time cus- 
tom, is the telling or reading of stories to 
induce sleep. Those stories which lend 
themselves to the invoking of sleep, are 
scarcely worth telling; for only those which 
could be told in a monotonous, sing-song 
manner would produce the desired effect. 
The imaginative child will be much more 
wide-awake after listening to a "really and 
truly" story. 

Children love to hear stories at other 
times; but it is a strain upon the parent; and 
would much better be abandoned after the 
child can read for himself. Taking turns in 
reading aloud is an improvement on the 
former method, because of the satisfaction 
the child experiences in co-operating with 
his parents ; it also teaches him to appreciate 
the strength which the parents expend to 
afford him pleasure. If it were not so simi- 
lar to his school work, doubtless the child 
would more willingly read for himself at 
home. Invaluable is the habit of reading, 
and parents cannot too assiduously cultivate 
it in their boys and girls. Frequently, chil- 
dren delight in reading stories for them- 
selves, and do not desire to have others read 
to them. The mother of a large family, who 
was wont to read aloud to them overmuch, 
was surprised and hurt when one of her 
children left the circle during the reading of 
a stor" with the remark, "I don't want to 
hear stories." That child, having learned to 
read for herself, and being of an independ- 
ent disposition, rebelled at this unwise 
though loving ministration. 

The clasped hands of parent and child 
during a walk, is a beautiful sight; but, with 
increasing strength, that same child wishes 
to be untrammeled — to run ahead of father 
or mother; and, while he may frequently 
catch the hand of his companion again, the 
requirement to do so is galling to him. Un- 
less his safety is seriously menaced, it is 
wiser to let the child run alone. 

AVhether the impetus toward independ- 
ence on the child's part proceed from the 
parents or from the child's own inherent 
nature, it is sure to manifest itself sooner or 
later; and it can be stultified or fostered. 
The first manifestations of the child's inde- 
pendence bring sorrow to the heart of the 
father or mother. "We love our beneficiaries 
more than our benefactors" ; and the service 

performed for the little one endears him ti 
us. When he no longer requires nor wishe 
us to wait upon him, we experience a feel 
ing of loss or emptiness. To the mother 
heart there comes a pang because she is ni 
longer exactly indispensable to her dear one 
She grieves perchance that she is not con 
suited in regard to every childish purpos< 
or plan. If the tendency toward temporar 
or permanent independence or separatioi 
appears early with the child's retiring alone 
or dressing or walking without aid, as abov 
mentioned, the parents will discover tha 
the best way to counteract the undesirabl 
features of the separation is by indirec 
means. Let them summon all their tact am 
courage for the occasion. Let them be brav 
enough to make a grave for their disap 
pointments, and hide them away forevei 
Let them set themselves resolutely to th 
problem of retaining their child's confidenc 
and affection; for this is a critical period 
when the appearance of outward independ 
ence is apt to cause inner separation, eithe 
temporary or permanent. At this time, i 
is desirable that the parents feel and displa; 
an increased interest in all family affair 
which are closely connected with the child 
in order to stimulate the child's interest. Fo 
this purpose questions are often effective- 
not curious, interfering questions about tb 
"why" and the "wherefore," nor about hi 
intentions — but questions about his play- 
questions which betray a genuine sympathy 
When he is learning to dress himself, if hi 
mother asks how many minutes it takes hin 
to dress — how he begins, etc., and com 
mends his speed — (if she detects any speed 
the child feels a sense of satisfaction an< 

There is no more effective means of se 
curing- a child's confidence than to make ; 
comrade of him — to genuinely interest one 
self in all his work and play. The averagi 
adult appears to have forgotten his youthfu 
aspirations, prejudices, and preferences. A: 
Patterson DuBois puts it: "We allow ou: 
adultism to cast a shadow over the little 
child, so that we do not perceive him in hi: 
true light." When we recall our own youth 
ful aspirations and feelings, and treat oui 
children as we would have been treated ir 
our youth (if such treatment be consistent) 
then shall we succeed in keeping their con- 
fidence and love. Even if we cannot wholbj 
enter into nor appreciate their feelings noi 
aspirations, it is better to assume an inter- 
est; for the assumption lends itself readily 
to the acquiring of the desired interest 



hen we abandon "baby talk," the use of 
i appellation "babv" to designate a six- 
ar-old child, and such names as "Willie" 
d "Johnnie" for half-grown boys,and treat 
:m as if they were big and manly, then 
11 they measure up to the true standard 
manliness, and become our companions. 
Independence is not inconsistent with 
>se companionship; for freedom to decide 

• himself renders a child grateful to the 
r er of that freedom. A writer for the 
ictoria Magazine" says: "From an early 
e some matters come so fully within the 
Id's comprehension that they may be 
ely left to his decision; it should be the 
istant aim of the parent to exercise the 
ulties and strengthen the judgment by 
reasing as rapidly as possible the number 

such decisions." Children cannot be 
ated alike in this respect, for one wishes 

decide everything for himself, and an- 
ler wants every particular decided for 
a. In a case where we can consistently, 
i without injury to the child, let him de- 
e for himself, such decision is wise; for it 
kes for satisfaction, and a sense of one- 
ss with his elders, which is a joy. Alas ! 
| average child has so little opportunity 

deciding anything for himself, that he is 
contented, or even indifferent and weak- 
led, lacking in judgment. A mother once 
ompanied her ten-year-old daughter to 

• dancing teacher's for a private lesson. 
3 time being unexpectedly fully occupied 
t then, the teacher asked this lady if she 
uld prefer to have her daughter wait 
ne time, or to take her lesson the next 
7. Instead of answering for her as most 
thers do, this wise woman inquired of the 
le girl as to her wishes, and the child de- 
ed in favor of waiting. That was a sam- 

of the method of treatment pursued by 
3 mother; and the daughter has respond- 
in the most beautiful manner. Now that 
| is grown, she is the chum and compan- 

of that mother, manifesting a love and 
r otion, than which greater is seldom wit- 

Phere is no more certain method of win- 
g and retaining the affection of our sons 
1 daughters than to ask their advice 
>ut family affairs — or about any matters 
which we can consistently do so. Even 
ye feel that we cannot follow their coun- 
5, we have gratified them; and we may, 
the failure of their plans in such matters, 
ivince them that our way is best. Of 
irse, we have to consider the age and de- 

gree of maturity of the child, as well as his 
nervous temperament; for we do not wish 
him burdened with such decisions nor made 
prematurely old. But the average child, 
when he arrives at years of discretion, may 
be safely consulted about money mat- 
ters, and be infromed, to some extent, 
of the condition of the finances of the 
family. This is especially a good plan 
in families where the income is quite 
limited. Most children are inclined to 
spend too much, unless they are informed 
as to the funds of the family; and if appealed 
to in the right manner, many a spendthrift 
child is willing to "call a halt." However, if 
the arents tell him nothing of their re- 
sources and liabilities, and scrimp them- 
selves to grant his requests for money, he 
may unwittingly embarrass them in finan- 
cial matters. An only son, one of the best 
boys in the world was inclined to spend 
generously, but when his mother consulted 
him about their money matters he was very 
willing to save on "this" or "that," or to 
wait awhile in purchasing some coveted ar- 
ticle. These "heart to heart" talks bound 
mother and son more closely together, and 
he felt no hardship in imposing a limit on 
his expenses, but rather a pride in doing so. 

In a family of unusual affection the chil- 
dren were never given an allowance, but 
were supplied with some spending money, 
and, of course, had all the necessities of life. 
While they were cautioned not to be extrav- 
agant, they really had no idea that the fam- 
ily treasury was getting low. Had they 
known it, gladly would they have begun to 
oarn for themselves earlier. After they be- 
gan to work, they would willingly have sup- 
plied money for the home had they been in- 
formed as to the state of affairs. However, 
nothing on the subject was said to them 
until years later when the home was sold, 
and it developed that it had been mortgaged 
years before. The sorrow and chagrin of 
those sons and daughters might have been 
prevented by the parents' taking them into 
their confidence, for then they would have 
felt that they were co-laborers with the par- 
ents. The over-weening father or oftener 
the mistaken mother feels that the family 
tie is strengthened by the child's requesting 
money, and confessing as to its expenditure 
each time he has necessity. This may be 
true in a sense ; but this method affords him 
no responsibility in the matter, nor any ade- 
quate idea of the value of money. In time 
he will rebel at any refusals; and, disliking 



to ask each time, he may beg of others, or 
even appropriate the coveted objects which 
the money he longed for would buy. Grant 
a child an allowance, even if only a penny a 
week, and make him responsible for its care 
and expenditure, and he will become as 
ready to seek counsel about it as the parent 
is to grant it. Instead of binding the child 
to the parent more closely, it opens a widen- 
ing chasm to withhold consultation and in- 
lormation in regard to money matters. 

As the boy or girl advances in independ- 
ence, he or she begins to inquire as to the 
mystery of life. Parents frequently repulse 
uiem with a pretense of ignorance or with 
some subterfuge. Then, the child has no 
recourse except the crude and often impure 
explanations of his companions. It requires 
tact, wisdom, and courage to handle this 
subject in the proper way; but Mrs. Andrea 
noter Proudioot in her "Letters to a 
Mother," and some other authors as well, 
lias given excellent suggestions along this 
line. With these at hand, parents are inex- 
cusable for any remissness in these matters, 
remaps the mother desires to defer this 
heart-to-heart talk until the period of adol- 
esence; but if the child demands the explan- 
ation earlier, and receives it not, the lack of 
i" may prove an entering wedge of separa- 
tion between mother and child. So many 
cnanges of feeling incidental to this critical 
period make for mdirierence and separation 
mat it may be too late for the postponed 

Insistence upon implicit obedience paves 
the way ior many a lannly "jar. Pauerson 
jju Bois wrote: "if there is one thing more 
than another that parents are resolved upon, 
it is that the child shall be obedient; yet 
th°y do not always see that true obedience 
grows out of respect, and respect comes 
with closeness of the personal relation; 
when a father and his son are intimate com- 
panions, there can hardly be want of respect 
between them; and the law of obedience 
ceases to be regarded as law because it is 
felt as love." Both parents may be very 
determined and independent — may claim di- 
rect descent from the signers of the Declar- 
ation of Independence — and yet be shocked 
and displeased that their children desire to 
"break away" from restraint at all, or ever 
rebel at swift obedience of seemingly arbi- 
trary commands. The author quoted above 
says: "How much do we condemn in our 
children that is only a dutiful and beautiful 
imitation of ourselves; the great majority 
of parents are probably not sufficiently edu- 

cated up to the niceties of delicate points i: 
the science and art of child training to un 
derstand how much can best be done b 
seeming to do or say so little." 

Perhaps the most potent factor in separa 
tion between parent and child is punish 
merit. An old lady once remarked: "Whe: 
I was a child my mother punished me se 
verely, and often unjustly, and I have neve 
quite forgiven her." In speaking of he 
childhood the Countess Potacka said: " 
loved my mother, feeling that I owed he 
much, and that her high character demand 
ed my fullest respect; but with this sent! 
ment was connected a sort of fear whic 
spoiled our intercourse; she wished for m 
confidence, and I often felt a desire to giv 
it to her entirely, but from the moment tha 
my opinion or intention contradicted hen 
she scolded me severely, and drove back 
confession, nearly slipping from my heart. 
"Affection quenched by lack of response- 
rebuff or frigidity, is soul murder — ofte 
more than he r ted words. 

Judicious praise bestowed upon the chil 
for his independence, or self-assistance, i 
fact, for any worthy action or laudable mc 
tive — even if the result be unsuccessful- 
fosters love and unity. Indiscriminate rial 
tery is to be avoided; for it makes for sel; 
consciousness and egotism. Jacob Abbot 
says that "the baby is never scolded for hi 
blunders in learning to walk or talk, bu 
ever encouraged and praised, and possibl 
this is the reason of his rapid progress i 
tnese directions, compared with others. 
Commend whenever it is possible; and 
reproot or punishment is necessary, let : 
follow the line of the offense, and be admir 
istered without show of anger. 

How is the confidence of grown person 
won and kept? By politeness, by encoui 
agement, by compliments, (deserved or otl 
erwise), by faith in their ability, and thei 
loyalty to ourselves; — never by scolding 
rudeness, nor belittling them. Verbal er 
couragement is craved and appreciated b 
adults, and often proves a bond of unioi 
How much more efficacious then will it b 
with the little one who has not yet learne 
to let "virtue be its own reward" ! We som< 
times resort to harmless and perhaps corr 
mendable schemes and subterfuges- 
"work" others, as we say. We have n 
compunctions of conscience in addressin 
our indifferent acquaintances or even ot 
enemies as Dear Mr. — and My Dear Mr 

. Why should we be so loathe to en 

ploy similar methods in winning children 



vVhen we treat them as equals, respect their 
"ights, and confide in them, then will they 
•espond with their confidence, become our 
:rue companions, respecting themselves as 

well as respecting us — independent, and 
self-reliant, and yet grappled to us by 
"hooks of steel." 



The Old Lantern. 

Even the sun seemed in a hurry for Christ- 
mas to :ome, for he made the days shorter. 
If Tommy had gone to bed before the sun- 
set, as he did in the summer time, his old 
.lady would have had no milk for her tea, 
and if the farmer had waited for the sun- 
shine to waken him, as it used to do, his 
.day's work would be begun too late, and 
,things would go wrong all day. But you 
remember that Jack Frost could not keep 
them in the house when there was work to 
be done, so you need not suppose that Tom- 
my and his father stayed in bed because it 
was dark. If the sun would not waken them 
something else must, for there was the milk- 
ing to be done before breakfast, and the ani- 
mals to be fed; and so the farmer set the 
alarm clock, and in the early morning when 
it was still as dark as night — b-r-r-r-r would 
go the clock, reminding him of his work. 
Tommy, too, would hear it and would hurry 
into his clothes so as to be in time to carry 
the lantern for his father. 

Somehow, the barn seemed a different 
place when there was only this little speck 
of light that moved from spot to spot to find 
the horses and cows in the blackness, from 
the barn as he knew it in the daytime, with 
the sunshine streaming in the windows, 
pointing out every wisp of hay that had fall- 
en in the corners and every cobweb that 
hung from the heavy beams overhead. 

It was always Tommy's favorite place to 
play; in the chamber above there was hay 
piled almost to the roof — enough for the 
horses and cows until next haying time ; in 
another corner was a great heap of dry 
leaves that would make fresh beds in the 
horses' stalls all winter. There were great 
:hances of finding hen's nests full of eggs in 
this wonderful chamber — and twice had 
Tommy discovered a whole family of kit- 
tens snuggling in the hay ! Who knew what 
other treasures might be found by hunting? 
Then in the great room below were the 
:arts that were used on the farm and the 
:arriage that would hold all the family at 

once, besides the sleigh that shook its bells 
at everyone who went near it. 

You see there were reasons enough why 
a boy should like this barn, but in the early 
morning or at night, when his lantern 
moved about like a firefly in the darkness, 
Tommy could not see these things just as 
they were; the place seemed bigger, and 
when he held up the lantern and looked 
about him, the different things and their tall 
black shadows were so mixed together that 
the family carriage might be a king's coach, 
while the harnesses hanging against the 
wall seemed like the armour of a brave 
knight who might at any moment come 
down the grand staircase, and, buckling it 
about him, ride away in the darkness on his 
fiery steed that could be heard stamping in 
the stall. 

Everything about the place now seemed 
like story land; so Tommy liked the barn 
best of all when he was holding the lantern 
and peeping toward the dark corners at 
these wonderful things. In the daytime, 
when the sun streamed in the windows, they 
would hide themselves from its brightness, 
but he always knew that they would be 
waiting for him again at night, like the stars 
in the sky, and the old lantern on its nail, 
and mother's bedtime story. 


Christmas Shopping. 

Now every time that Tommy went on an 
errand to the store he kept his eyes open for 
the best thing to get with his Christmas 
money. But somehow the things in this 
store were not just what he wanted to buy; 
there were tea and coffee and soap and 
candy and calico and spools of silk and many 
more things, but non. of these seemed just 
right for a Christmas present. 

It seems that his mother was thinking 
about tli2 very same thing, for she meant 
to get something very nice for each one at 
home, and she did not intend to do her 



Christmas shopping at the store where she 
bought her sugar and flour; she was plan- 
ning that when Tommy's bank was opened, 
she and her boy would let the old horse take 
them to the city, where the stores were full 
of wonderful Christmas things. But this 
was to be a surprise, and she did not breathe 
a word of it to anybody ; so Tommy kept on 
wondering what he should buy at the store, 
until one morning, the very week before 
Christmas. Then she told him that they 
would go that very dav, and you could not 
find a happier boy anvwhere than he was 
when he heard it. 

The little front door of the bank was un- 
locked, and when the pennies were counted 
Tommy found that he had earned more 
than half a dollar; now he could buy pres- 
ents for everybody, and, best of all, mother 
was going to take him to the city to select 

But how could he get hers? 

They started off as soon as the work was 
done, and had a good time every minute of 
the way, for there were a great many things 
to see and talk about. In the city they 
found it rather noisy, and crowds of people 
were hurrying in every direction; there was 
hardly any sky to be seen, nor much ground 
either, so that Tommy wondered how city 
boys could have any fun ; but inside the 
stores it was just beautiful ! It was not hard 
to find things good enough to buy, but the 
trouble was to choose among the many 
things; at last he bought a pair of mittens 
for his father, and for Susie a handkerchief 
with little red rabbits chasing each other 
around the edge ; then he found a pretty 
calendar for grandma, and a rattle for the 

But still there was mother's present to 
buy. While they were down in the base- 
ment buying the rattle, he had seen a shin- 
ing tin dipper with a long handle ; he re- 
membered that the one that hung by the 
water pail in the kitchen at home was dull 
and getting a little rusty; for a long time 
he had not been able to see his face in the 
bottom of it when he was taking a drink 
of water. He felt pretty sure that mother 
would like this new one, and he made up 
his mind to find out what it would cost. 

Now when everything else was done he 
asked his mother to wait for him at the 
head of the stairs while he did another 
errand, and he scrambled down and bought 
the dipper, for it cost only ten cents; he 
asked the clerk to wrap it up with a great 
deal of paper so that the shape would not 

show, for mother must not guess what hei 
present was to be, and the clerk took sc 
much pains that it almost fooled Tommj 

Mother was waiting for him at the head 
of the stairs, and I think she, too, must 
have had a secret, for under her arm was a 
bundle as wonderful at Tommy's. 

The Christmas Tree. 

On the day before Christmas Tommy 
and his father took another trip down to 
the woodlot, but this time it was not to get 
wood for the fires; some of the trees that 
grew there were too precious to be chopped 
into kindling wood, for Santa Claus him- 
self had seen to the planting of them, andi 
had kept them green all winter for a special! 

All the other trees had dropped their! 
leaves in the fall, and stood up straight and' 
bare, showing to the farmer every inch oij 
wood they had to give ; but these trees hid: 
their wood from sight and waved theirj 
glistening green arms to Tommy, hoping! 
to be chosen for his Christmas tree. 

At last the very straightest and greenest; 
of them all was carried to the farm house,! 
and placed in the sitting-room ; then just' 
after supper began the wonderful doings' 
for which he had been waiting. Tommy 
had to stay outside the door, and never 
really knew what happened inside, or| 
whether Santa Claus truly came ; he and) 
Susie waited and watched while father wenti 
in and out, carrying bundles of every sizej 
and shape, for all the family sent in their, 
presents by him ; Santa Claus did not once 
come to the door, but Tommy and Susie 
thought they could hear him talking to 
father, and finally they heard a whistle that 
must have been his call to his reindeer; 
they ran to the window to catch a glimpse 
of him as he drove away, but just then 
father opened the sitting-room door and in- 
vited the family inside. 

The baby had never seen a Christmas 
tree before, and he crowed and stretched 
out his hands to the brightness, for it was 
covered with twinkling candles, to say 
nothing of other things nearly as bright. 
There was mother's shining tin dipper 
hanging down from the topmost bough! 
Tommy saw that first of all; then he saw 
baby's tin rattle winking at him in the candle 
light, and what do you suppose was gleam- 
ing close beside it? A pair of skates fit for 



king! But even these he could not look 
i very long, for every bough held wonder- 
.1 surprises, and it was some time before 
i and Susie could stop long enough to 
;ar father read out the names. 

I would like to tell you everything there 
as on that tree ; of course there were 
■anges and candy for all, and bright red 
)ples, too. Prehaps you have guessed 
lat the shining skates were for Tommy; 
asides these he had a muffler and some 
ooks and handkerchiefs, and Susie had 
uade him a napkin ring out of birch bark 
om the woodlot. She had a beautiful doll 
lat would open and shut her eyes, and a 
ox of paper ones, too, with pretty dresses 
nd hats; then she also had books and hand- 

kerchiefs, and we know that one of these 
had little red rabbits chasing each other 
around the edges. 

The baby just squealed over his rattle 
and some bright colored balls and a little 
woolly dog; as for father and mother, after 
they had seen their presents, they said they 
could not think of another thing to wish for. 

So the tree made everybody happy, which 
was just what Santa Claus meant him to do. 
For a whole week he stood in the sitting- 
room, dressed in stars and paper chains, 
and then he let his green needles drop off, 
just to show the farmer that he was made 
of wood, too, and could work as well as 




Subject: The Sheep. 

This is an appropriate subject to intro- 
uce at the Christmas time, providing a 
leme which may be used to inspire in the 
hild all that the sheep symbolizes of gentle- 
ess, obedience, faithfulness, not only 
hrough the showing of beautiful pictures 
nd the telling of Bible stories, but espe- 
ially through the games. The quiet, rever- 
ntial mood of the shepherd as he cares for 
is flock, can be reflected in the child's play, 
nd the chosen shepherd or sheperdess 
liould always be the one who has made the 
'reatest effort that day to be the most lov- 
ng and self-sacrificing child. Such a game 
jvill be entered upon with so much appre- 
iation for the quiet, protecting shepherd, 
hat, as he leads his lambs, even their bleat- 
'ng will be that of the gentle, quiet crea- 
ures. During this play the kindergartner 
:nd the children who are not from time to 
ime taking part, can sing the hymn, "Little 
'^ambs so White and Fair," from Walker 
,md Jenk's Songs and Games for Little 
Dnes. This game if used just before begin- 
ning work for the day produces so quieting 
m influence that the effect will be felt 
throughout the rest of the morning. 

The story of the "Shepherds Watching 
Their Flocks by Night," may be dramatized 
lit the kindergarten Christmas. The Christ- 
nas star can be represented by the first 
ight that appears at the summit of the 

'hristmas tree and the "angels" will sing, 
"Shine Out. Oh Blessed Star." The stories 
used at this season should begin with the 
Prophesy of David and John. These, to- 
gether with the rest of the series, are to be 
found in Andrea Hofer Proudfoot's "Christ- 

I. Visit a sheepfold.* 

As with all other practical subjects, the 
child, if arrangements can be made, should 
be first brought into actual contact with the 
object to be considered, and pictures and 
stories presented after a real experience. 
If possible, then, allow the children to visit 
a flock of sheep. Perhaps they can even 
participate in feeding them. Call their at- 
tention to what the sheep eat in winter in 
contrast to the summer. Note how the 
sheep lie down when they sleep, and also 
what is further necessary to the care of 
these animals. 

The facts may be made more vital to the 
children by having them construct a sheep- 
fold of the cardboard modelling paper. One 
side of the barn can be left open to enable 
the children to move the sheep about. The 
latter, they can cut out of any stiff paper 

*Step one, to visit a sheepfold, as well as step 
two, to bring a lamb into the school-room, might 
not be possible for some kindergartens. In such 
cases, pictures may be used for this part of the 
work. Of course wool can be obtained anywhere, 
so that the rest of the lessons are practicable for 
any kindergarten. 



The "wooly lamb" can be made by stick- 
ing wool to both sides of the model, and 
then pulling it over the back. This fold can 
be put into the sand table, and can be used 
by the children during free-play periods. 

Such a piece of work can be done by a 
small group working together, each one be- 
ing assigned the part for which he is best 
fitted. No child should remain idle, how- 
ever ; those not making the barn can con- 
struct the hay racks, and the rest, the sheep. 
Such "group work," whether arranged for 
the kindergarten or the primary grades, is 
a most valuable experience to the children, 
and also a test of the discriminating power 
of the teacher, who will wisely devise each 
kind of occupation so that it will best fulfill 
the need of the individual child. 

II. Bring a pet sheep or lamb into the 

Let the children feed the lamb and handle 
its coat. Of course, being winter, it will 
not be the natural time for sheep shearing, 
but the children can examine the sheep 
shears, and can be shown just how the 
shearing is done, and enough wool can be cut 

off to enable them to handle a piece. 

III. A picture and "finger-play" lesson. 

The children can be shown pictures of 
men washing and shearing sheep, the teach- 
er drawing from the children all that they 
know or have seen. After this, they can 
either have a finger-play like the one of the 
Sheep in Emily Poulsson's "Finger-play 
Book," or the little group can create a game 
to illustrate what they have heard or seen. 

IV. Purchase a fleece or part of one. 

V. Wash some of this wool. This can 
be done easily if the kindergarten possesses 
some little pans or tubs. Each child in a 
group should be given a small piece of the 
soiled wool, and it can be successfully 
washed through the hands with wool soap. 
For this work there must be plenty of clean 
water at hand in order to properly rinse the 
wool. A small piece is enough for one child 
to wash, as he must have time to spread the 
wool in the sun to dry, and still be able to 
put away his materials in an orderly fashion. 

VI. Picking and carding of the wool. 

Part of a group can be occupied with pick- 
ing out the wool with their fingers, while 
two children at a time card it. One child 
can hold the card that contains the wool 
with both hands, while the other combs 
through it. 

The wool can be used in this state to f 
doll comforters and to make "wooly lambs 
In preparation for the spinning, howeve 
before each lot of wool leaves the card, 
must be gathered into strands about a qua 
ter of an inch thick. 

VII. Spinning. 

If possible, have an old lady come in at 
spin some of the prepared wool. If not, tl 
kindergartner can dress as a "grandmar 
ma" and take her place. Spinning cann 
be done bv the usual kindergarten child, 
no spinning wheel can be obtained, sho 
pictures of the same and let the childn 
make their own thread by twisting the wo 
with their fingers. If the woolen thread 
spun, it can be twisted by the spinnii 
wheel into yarn; if only twisted by the fi 
gers. thicken the amount used. 

VIII. Dye this thread or yarn. 

To make a vegetable dye. see direction 
in the following sheep plans for the prima: 

This yarn can be used by the children 
tie their doll comforters. 

Knitting in the simplest form can also 1 
done on spools, according to the usual chil 
ish method. 

Crocheting can be done by children wl 
are more dexterous. A kindergartner cou 
of course carry this subject further than 
here indicated. For further suggestions $ 
the following plan for the primary grades 

The Shepherdess 

Once long, long ago, far up among tl 
high rocks, lived a sheperdess who can 
for a flock of wild mountain-sheep whi( 
no one else had ever been able to tam 
The sheep and the maiden lived togeth 
in a cave. She loved the sheep, and som 
times would sing such beautiful songs 
them that they would all gather around h 
to listen. In the summer she sheared the 
thick coats, washed the wool, and with 
lined the cave to make it warm and cor 
fortable for the winter. 

One summer night a spider, which h; 
been living in the top of one of the tre 
came safely down its web, but landed in 
heap of wool which had been drying in tl 
sun. "Aha," said the spider, "this is tl 
softest bed that I ever saw." But when 1 
came to try to find his way out, his feet b 
came tangled in the wool. The more 1 
moved about the deeper he found himse 
buried. There he struggled all night, 
last giving up all hopes of ever getting ov 



The next day, however, as the Sheperd- 
ess was picking over the wool she uncov- 
ered him. He was so frightened he could 
hardlv move. 

"Oh, Mr. Spider, you poor fellow, how 
did you ever get here?" and she loosened 
the wool from his feet and set him upon a 

"I spun my way down from the tree and 
became entangled," said the spider. "But 
you have saved my life, and I thank you. 
Now I would do something for you. What 
shall it be?" 

"Show me how to spin," said the maiden. 

"Well, that is rather difficult," said the 
spider, "for in order to spin I always carry 
a kind of fairy thread which has no end, and 
is always ready for use. Perhaps I could 
show you how to spin the wool into 
thread." So saying, he tapped one of his 
feet three times, and immediately there ap- 
peared a little Wood-fairy, dressed in brown 
leaves and an acorn cap. 

"Good morning, Master of the Wood- 
fairies. Do you see that web of mine upon 
the tree? Change it if you can into a wheel 
that I may teach this lady how to spin." 

The master then stooped, and plucking a 
trumpet flower, blew it with all his might. 
Ten thousand Wood-fairies then appeared, 
who bowed as they came before the master, 
and lifted their acorn caps. 

"Your wands of oak!" said the master, 
and immediately ten thousand waved in the 
air. The master then blew the trumpet; 

the wands were lowered, raised again, and 
gentlv pressed against the spider's web 
which suddenly changed into an oaken 

"Now," said the spider to the maiden, 
"tread the wheel with your foot," and then 
he showed her how to twist the wool into 
thread. Thus she learned how to spin, and 
the spider dismissing the fairies climbed up 
into the tree and went to sleep. Hour after 
hour the maiden spun the wool until she 
had many long, even threads. 

One day, while she sat spinning, she 
heard a chirping, and looking up, she saw 
a little bird on the nearest limb watching 

"Twee, twee," said the little bird, "that 
would be fine for my nest ! O give me a 
piece, for I have been hunting for this very 
thread the whole day long! Just give me a 
bit, and I will teach you how to build a 

"Of course I will," said the Sheperdess, 
and she gave her a long thread. 

"Twee, twee, chee," sang the bird, "now 
I am happy. Come with me and I will build 
my nest on yonder branch where you can 
see." Then with her bill, in and out, over 
and under, she wove the thread, showing 
the maiden just how to make the nest strong 
and beautiful. 

When it was finished the bird sang the 
sweetest song that was ever sung, and the 
maiden went home with a happy heart, for 
now she knew how to weave. 


During current year the Kindergarten- 
Primary Magazine will publish each month 
one of a baker's dozen of songs, by Isabel 
Valentine and Lileon Claxton. These songs 
are offered to the public by the composers 
"in recognition of the need of city children 
of songs distinctly related to city life." 

The following foreword from Dr. Jenny 
B. Merrill, supervisor of kindergartens of 
Manhattan, the Bronx and Richmond, is a 
happy introduction to the series: 


A city is full of beautiful things well worth sing- 
ing about. 

Even nature is roundabout the city child if we 
give him eyes to see. Does not the city child love 
the blue sky and the clouds that "every day go 
floating by?" 

The shadows chase and play with the city child 
on the city pavement; the raindrops dance, the 
snow sparkles and the frost makes patterns of lace 
and whole forests on the window-panes. 

There are parks with trees and playing fountains 
and great flower beds here and there. 

City children are learning to love these beauties 
of nature and many are the nature songs provided 
to inspire love for them. 

But I am glad that the authors of this new song 
book have found it possible to clothe some of the 
more distinctively city sights and common sounds, 
so attractive to little children, with the language 
of song. 

May these simple songs help our city children, 
and the children of many other cities, "to clap 
their hands and sing for joy," of the daily sights 
they must needs see and in which they may well 

"So shall the drudge in dusty frock 
Spy behind the city clock 
Retinues of airy kings, 

Skirts of angels, starry wings. 

'Tis the privilege of Art 

Thus to play its cheerful part." 
New York City. — Jenny B. Merrill. 

The first song of the series, "The Fire- 
man," will be found on another page. 









3 4- 













«jb 2 



.A C 





ANY kindergartners lose 
a valuable opportunity 
in not having a Moth- 
ers' Meeting early in 
December to talk over 
some of the dangers, as 
well as the joys, of 
Christmas festivities. 

The greatest danger, 
in large 
that of over-stimula- 
on and excitement. 

Children of kindergarten age are not old 
aough to "keep secrets" in the adult sense, 
rid the effort to do so should extend over a 
:w days only, if at all. 
No better way of bringing this danger to 
le notice of mothers can be found, than the 
evice of the two contrasted pictures pre- 
nvted by Dr. Mary J. Woodallen in Ameri- 
in Motherhood, December, 1905. I ad- 
ise reading these two stories to mothers, 
hey present two methods used by a wise 
id an unwise mother in preparing for the 
hristmas celebration. 

One can overload a child's mind with se- 
•ets and mysteries, as well as his stomach 
ith sweets. 

A second danger consists in expecting a 
Dung child to be really altruistic. A child 
as a right to "love to get," and it is only 
I slow degrees that he learns "to love to 

Selfishness is a necessary trait in a young 
lild. He must learn the joy of possession 
id exercise the right of holding on to what 

his. Hence, the warning, Do not over- 
imulate the child's desire to give even at 
hristmas time, else you may create a mush- 
>om growth and a false, unnatural desire 
) be praised for giving, which may prove 
) be a subtle and serious form of selfish- 
:ss. Still we learn to give by giving. 

A third danger to be discussed is the pos- 
ble purchase of fragile and comic toys that 
ccite interest for a day, but do not give 
:al lasting pleasure. While such toys need 
3t be entirely rejected, we recommend, 
ainly, toys that lead to construction and 
•-tivity, as balls, tops, reins, building blocks, 
ills, doll's houses, (made possibly by 
ther or older brother from a wooden box), 
iniature household furniture and utensils; 

miniature tools of all kinds, a paint box or 
colored crayons, and large-sized pads of 
drawing paper, blunt scissors and colored 
paper, toy animals of all kinds and sizes, 
farms, sheep folds, wagons, boats, cars, fire- 
engine, a sand table, sand moulds, picture 
books, etc. 

Little girls also enjoy pretty boxes, 
trunks, bottles and baskets. These are in a 
sense active toys, for they can be opened 
and closed, tilled, emptied and refilled. 

Boys like whistles, drums, and trumpets, 
but the noise occasioned by such toys may 
cause discomfort in city homes. It is not 
right to give them as presents and after- 
wards prohibit their use. 

In conducting a Mothers' Meeting in 
early December it will create a pleasant sur- 
prise to distribute paper and pencils and 
ask each mother to write a list of favorite 

These slips should be deposited in a box 
and read off impersonally by the leader. 

Criticisms may then be called for and 
given without hurting any one's feelings. 

Some mothers may not accept the decis- 
ion offered at once, but the seed sown may 
bear fruit another year, 

Kindergartners and mothers must do this 
work of pruning, fox our toy stores are a 
test of good judgment, and in time their 
oroprhtors can be .iaJe to feel the pressure 
of public opinion. 

Playing toy store should be recommended 
ior "i home amusement. 

Children love to fit up a table as a toy 
store, or p< ssibly the leaf of an extension 
table will serve for a counter. 

Froebel'; commentary on "The Toyman" 
may b : read and discussed with profit, for 
many pr.-ents do not realize the value of 
permitting children to choose, and of re- 
quiring them to adhere to a choice. The 
younger the child, the quicker he will de- 
cide an 1 with very little reason. The child 
should not be chided for his choice, as wis- 
dom will grow with years, if only he is al- 
lowed the experience of choosing, even 
though it results in disappointment. The 
young child nav be indirectly helped by 
limiting his choice to one of three or four 
toys. In this way undesirable toys may be 



The kindergartner should present various 
picture and story books and comment upon 
their comparative merit to mothers. While 
picture books of circus and menagerie need 
not be wholly discarded, is it not well to 
encourage pictures and stories of animals in 
their homes? Pictures of domestic animals 
and of country life should be freely furn- 
ished for the city child, and city scenes 
..nould be furnished for children living out 

ji cOvvil. 

Great ^an; is necessary ni selecting story- 


'"Pet;r Rabbit" is a classic, but many 
would-be similar stories are inferior. Do 
not be deceived b- euphemal resemblances. 
Old time stories, Bible stories, even fables, 
may be introduced gradually, although 
many of these are more suitable for the age 

just beyond the kindergarten. Urge a good 
edition of "Mother Goose." 

Another danger to be avoided is that of 
depriving the children of dear old Santa 
Claus. Santa may be introduced by sugges- 
tion rather than direct statement. 

What story conveys a greater truth 
through the imagination? 

Reading the story of "The Night Before 
Christmas" is perhaps the best way to pre- 
sent the story. Let Santa's picture appear 
a very few days before Christmas and dis- 
appear immediately after the holiday. 

^See an article on "Veiled Truths," by 
Miss Mills in the Kindergarten Magazine 
for December, 1906, and one on "After 
Christmas" in the Kindergarten Magazine 
for January, 1907.) 

"The true fairy comes and goes quickly 
and to linger too long is to become dis- 


I'll stroke my kittie's soft warm fur, 
And then she will purr and purr and purr. 
— Mary Dunham. 

Little eyes were made to see, 
And little ears to hear 
How mother loves her baby, 
Her baby good and dear. 

Baby dear, 

Don't you hear? 
Father's coming; 
Mow he's here. 

Hear the North Wind, blow, blow, blow; 
Feel my ringers ; oh ! oh ! oh ! 
See how blue each little tip, 
How my nose the wind did nip. 
Oh! oh! oh! please don't blow. 

— Marjorie Heath. 

Listen to the big clock 
Standing in the hall; 
iick tock, tick tock, 
Telling time for all. 

— J. A. Brodsky. 

Hear the rain upon the roof, 
Clatter, clatter, clatter, 
Sometimes loud, and sometimes soft, 
Patter, patter, patter. 

— B. A. Walton. 

The dinner bell rings 
And I smell good things. 

— Eunice Stapleton. 

Listen to the organ man, 
Playing, playing, playing, 
He is playing all he can, 
That's why we are staying. 

— Sylvia Mark. 

Pitter, patter, hear the rain 
Falling on the window pane. 
Lver" day I see the sun 
Going away when day is done. 

— B. C. 

Plang, pling, my banjo can sing, 
Plang, pling, plang, pling, 
Softer still the sweet tunes ring. 
Plang, pling. 

— G. Benedict. 

♦These rhymes were made by the Junior class of 
the New York Froebel Normal, 1907-08, in connec- 
tion with the study of Proebel's Mother Play, "The 
Sense Games." We believe that the expressions of 
awakening interest in the great themes of child 
nurture should be permitted to sound their notes of 
spontaneity. We shall be glad, therefore, to re- 
ceive similar contributions from other training 
classes. H. M. M. 




T Christmas time, the first 
year of teaching in one of 
the public kindergartens of 
New York City, we found 
ourselves facing a difficult 
problem, as many of our 
little ones came from Jew- 
ish homes. 

A Christmas celebration without "the 
sweet story of old" seemed as great an an- 
omaly fs would a wedding party without a 
bride and groom — and yet what would the 
kindergarten be without any celebration? 

We set about to find a solution of the 
difficulty with the result that notwithstand- 
ing the omission of the actual story with its 
beautiful dramatic setting we preserved the 
spirit of the occasion. 

By means of various songs and stories we 
were able to bring a message of peace and 
good will, always a heavenly message in- 

The culmination in our thanksgiving fes- 
tival was gratitude for all the essentials to 
physical well-being, food, clothing, shelter 
as well as thankfulness for home, love and 
loving care. This spirit of thankfulness 
must naturally find an outlet in tangible 
form and so the thought of love and giving 
followed logically that of gratitude and 
thankfulness. We cast about for those 
heavenly gifts to all mankind, which are a 
common heritage. The thought of the 
stars watching over us while we sleep — 
suggestion of guardian angels, is one of 
these gifts. The Christmas tree, that pro- 
duct of seed and earth and sun and shower, 
is also one of the gifts of Nature. Then 
there is Santa Claus, the embodiment of 
the spirit of loving and giving with all the 
accompanying charm of mystery and won- 
der — surely we can bring him in as one of 
the factors of our Christmas festival. 

Soon we found ourselves amid niches of 
material — in song and story. 

The first thing to be done was to call a 
Mothers' Meeting to explain our plans for 
one Christmas festival in which to establish 
good faith and confidence. 

The time between Thanksgiving and 
Christmas was all too short in which to pre- 
pare for this happy festival. There was the 
story of the stars, song of the beautiful 
Star — "A loving child is born today" — and 
the echo of all the million other stars — "A 

loving child is born today," and the never 
ending search of the stars all over the world 
at early morn, for the loving child, and the 
consequent joy in the heavens upon 
the discovery of any one such child. 

"Little star that shines so bright, and the 
much-loved old story, "Twinkle, Twinkle, 
Little Star" ; also the favorite, "Lady 
Moon," and the charming lullaby of Tone- 
lius, "Baby's Boat Is a Silver Moon," have 
all been used for this purpose. Then again 
we have the joyous message of the bells as 
another topic of song and story — the 
Christmas bells and also the New Year 
bells so beautifully expressed by Tennyson 
in "Ring Out Wild Bells." This topic re- 
lates itself to the memory jingle of the 
sleigh bells and the beautiful snow which 
the month of December almost invariably 
brings us. We did not forget the stories 
and songs that cluster amid the Christmas 
tree — the story of the Discontented Fir tree 
or the songs, "This Tree Was Grown on 
Christmas Day," and "Oh, This Wonderful 
Tree." In this connection we have the pur- 
pose of the tree — to bear the fruit of our 
own making — those little gifts of love for 
mamma and papa and friends. We are 
helping Santa Claus. In reality we each 
become a Santa Claus. Oh, the joy of hav- 
ing our own secrets, of mystery that at- 
taches itself to so much of our life at that 
time ! We become little elves, good fairies, 
carrying great secrets in our hearts, bun- 
dles of loving thoughts wrapped up in our 
brains until we almost burst with glee over 
it all. "the Santa Claus and the Mouse" 
fills us with amusement to think Santa 
should find a rival while at his work, the 
little mouse outwitting old Santa. The 
favorite song in this connection is "Old 
Santa Claus Puts on His Cap," and much 
loved lines '"Twas the Night Before Christ- 
mas," all of which brings to the child such 
a rich store for his imagination and fancy. 
Naturallv when we talk of Santa Claus we 
think of "Toy land" — the myriads of toys 
in the shop windows. Their game in this 
connection lends itself with such charm to 
the children; and then with the thought of 
Santa Claus comes the consciousness of our 
sins and we all become suddenly angelic, 
"yes, for Christmas the name of no bad 
child is ever found in that great book kept 
in Santa Claus Land." 



Christmas in other lands brings us an- 
other side of the story. Thoughtful pro- 
vision for the birds by putting on a high 
pole the sheaf of grain, leads us to consider 
"The Birds' Christmas," even in our own 
home. "The sparrows (like the poor) we 
always have with us." 

The story of Piccola brings us such a 
beautiful lesson — the value to the little 
child, of the little live bird, as compared 
with what can be bought with silver and 
gold. Then for a climax the legend of the 
"Christ Child," omitting the name of the 
heavenly visitor; bringing home the truth 
that true hospitality is found in the loving, 
generous heart and home however humble. 

"ue not atraid to entertain strangers lest 
ye eniertain angels unawares." 

VV e are quite sure that during these days 
of happy work and play preceding the day 
of days, lessons of love were learned, that 
were just as real as if all was based on the 
Bible story of the birth of the Christ child, 

and our hearts glowed with love and peace 
and good will to all, as we carried our gifts 
to father or mother, and a Christmas tree 
decked by our own hands to the little crip- 
ple boy. 


Twinkle, twinkle, little star. 

Little star that shines so bright. 

Lady Moon. 

Tiny little snow flakes. 

Tiny marks in the snow. 

Who comes this way. 

Clap, clap, the hands. 

Old Santa Claus. 

Kap on tne nouse top. 

Oh, tins wonderiul tree. 

1 his tree was grown on Christmas day. 

Jingle bells. 

Ring happy bells. 

Baby's boat. 

Sleep little baby of mine. 



Once a horse, a cow, a sheep, a dog, a 
cat, and a hen, met on the same road and 
traveled along together. Soon the days 
grew cold, and they could not And enough 
to eat. 

"I wish I had a warm barn," said the 

"Moo," said the cow, "I would like one 

"Wow! Wow!" said the dog, "a kennel 
will do." 

"Baa!" said the sheep, "in a pen I would 

"Cluck, cluck," said the hen, "a perch, 
not a pen." 

"Meow!" said the cat, "by the fire a 
mat. What is better than that?" 

"Everyone to his taste," said the horse; 
"but what is that noise?" They all listened 
and heard a buzzing sound, so — z, so — z, 
so — z. . They looked about and saw a house 
not far away, near the road. Now the 
nouse was a carpenter's shop, and as it hap- 
pened the carpenter was sawing, and this 
was the noise they heard. They trotted up 
to the house and looked in at the door. The 
carpenter, when he saw them, stopped. 
'"Well, what do you want?" he asked. 

"A warm barn," said the horse. 

"Moo!" said the cow, "I would like one 

"Wow! wow!" said the dog, "a kennel 
will do." 

".Baa!" said the sheep, "in a pen I would] 

"Cluck! cluck!" said the hen, "a perch,| 
not a pen." 

"Meow!" said the cat, "by the Are a mat., 
What is better than that?" 

"If i make you these things, what will, 
you do for met" asked the carpenter. 

"i," said the horse, "your wagon will 

"And I," said the sheep, "will give you 
thick wool." 

"irresh milk from me, every day," said 
the cow. 

"I will guard you," said the dog. "Wow! 
Wow !" 

"And I," said the hen, "will lay a fresh 
egg every morning at ten." 

"And 1," said the cat, "in your house, on 
a mat, will watch every mouse. What is 
better than that?" 

"Very well; it's a bargain," said the car- 
penter, and he went to work. He got some 
men to help him, and they sawed and ham- 
mered, planed and chiseled. Before long 



hey had built the barn, and next that the 
chicken-house, with some perches inside ; 
'hen came a pen for the sheep, and a kennel 
"or the dog, and last of all the carpenter 
built a house, for the carpenter said it 
vould never do to leave out the cat, and he 
aeeded .. rev/ house anyway for himself 

nd his family. 
Thev all lived very happily in their new 

omes, and every night the horse said : 

"I like this barn." 

"Moo!" said the cow, "I like it, too." 

"Wow! Worn!" said the dog," a kennel 
will do." 

"Baa!" said the sheep, "in a pen I would 

"Cluck! cluck!" said the hen, "a perch, 
not a pen." 

"Meow!" said the cat, "by the fire a mat. 
What is better than that?" 



The December, 1906, number of the Kin- 
dergarten Magazine containing the ques- 
tionnaire on Santa Claus came to me a 
week after leading a discussion on "The 
value of Santa Claus in Moral Training," at 
a mother's meeting in which our seven kin- 
dergartens were well represented. 

It may be that the opinions expressed 
were colored by the form in which the sub- 
ject was presented, yet the discussion was 
so informal and opinions were given so 
freely that the suspicion seems ungrounded. 
Nearly every mother present expressed a 
belief that the myth of Santa Claus was an 
important factor in moral training. And it 
was by one of these mothers that the follow- 
ing statement was made, a statement upon 
which I shall base a few remarks in answer 
to the questions raised in the questionnaire : 

"I do not believe that children's ideas of 
Santa Claus and the Deity conflict, because 
my children play Santa Claus and they 
never think of impersonating the Deity." 

How full of meaning is this mother's re- 
mark to the thoughtful mother or kinder- 
gartner ! What better ideal can we give the 
child than one which can be made a part of 
his personality, — an ideal so near his needs 
that it leads to a direct emotional outflow 
through play? Could the child's parents 
serve this purpose? He is accustomed to 
their loving care and daily gifts. He cannot 
appreciate what is an integral part of his 
own life until such loving care is brought 
to consciousness. When he is told that 
Santa Claus, whom he has never seen, is 
coming on Christmas even, coming in a 
most mysterious way to bring him the 
things his heart desires, his whole being be- 
comes aglow with eagerness and expecta- 
tion and the imagination goes forth in cease- 
less quests, seeking somehow, some way, to 

fathom the great mystery. And when, on 
Christmas day the same child views his lit- 
tle pile of treasures and finds his expecta- 
tions realized, each gift that appeals to his 
needs opens a new pathway to his heart and 
lets into his being a multitude of joys. 

A selfish delight ! we say. Yes ; truly so, 
yet, oh how pregnant with possibilities for 
a training in unselfishness ! Is not unsel- 
fishness in different forms a natural con- 

imitant of the growing personality? Must 
it not take root in selfishness? What better 
means have we of enlarging the personality 
than through ownership ? What better 
means of bringing this about the first time 
than through the hands of an unseen giver? 
Are the facts that Santa Claus's gifts come 
only occasionally and that they are distri- 
buted with partiality noticed by the child? 
How could ideas revealing constancy and 
self-sacrifice in giving form a part of a 
child's ideals before his life-experience has 
led him to form the habits out of which such 
ideals naturally grow? 

An article on "Children's Attitude To- 
ward Law," published in Studies in Educa- 
tion, 1896-7, will, give us much light on the 
question of the child's natural attitude to- 
ward law and justice at different stages in 
his development. 

Is not Santa Claus a symbol of the All 
Giver that accords well with a little child's 
imperfect ideas of truth and justice? 
Through playful activity the child may be 
led to attempt to realize this ideal. His 
first form of expression will naturally be a 
material one; having experienced the joy 
of ownership through gifts, he will desire 
to impersonate the giver. And as he shares 
his treasures with others, or plans and 
makes little gifts, who shall say that the in- 
adequacy of the material giving will not 


make itself known in some subtle way and 
draw out a need for a higher ideal, one that 
may flow forth freely into service unchecked 
and unbounded by material limitations? 

Let us make the child's ideal grow from 
year to year by giving him gifts of the spirit 
which shall illumine and enkindle the ideal 
we try to represent through presents : thus 
may his personality expand and his own 
giving be likely to show a shifting of em- 
phasis from material to spiritual giving. 
Stories are a potent factor in enlarging the 
child's personality. Let us begin with the 
Santa Claus myth and tell stories of loving 
service which shall grow out of it and em- 
body in a progressive form the ideal Santa 
Claus symbolizes. Along with these stories 
let us tell, from year to year, the Bible story 
as it is given in St. Luke. Its symbolic im- 
port can be at first only partly discerned 

but the majesty, beauty and simplicity of 
the Bible version afford a medium for aes- 
thetic training, which will make possible a 
gradual unfolding of the spiritual ideal em- 
bodied. Little by little will the real spiri- 
tual significance be revealed until near adol- 
escence, the expanding ideal, interprets 
truly our highest symbol of the All Giver, 
the gift of life itself in all its fulness for the 
service of mankind. 

How can there be a break, a sense of dis- 
appointment, a distrust in others if the ideal 
symbolized by Santa Claus be made to grow 
each year by a shifting of emphasis from the 
letter to the spirit of truth? A child thus 
trained will naturally express in loving ser- 
vice the ideal that fits each succeeding stage 
of his development and have naught save 
faith in the ideals thus engendered. 



The full-page illustration of this month is 
given to supply a few timely hints for black- 
board work during: the season of good cheer. 

Let us see how we can go about working 
them out. 

It is well to space off on the board the ap- 
proximate size the drawing is to occupy, 
then sub-divide, giving the largest space for 
the most important detail, this in our illus- 
tration is the rectangular form having the 
Christmas tree ; this space is now filled in 
with a soft gray tone, using the chalk flat, 
after which the tree is sketched in with 
charcoal accenting here and there and 
blending with the finger, the trees in back- 
ground are similarly put in, though much 
fainter, to give distance to the picture. The 
bells and candles next demand our atten- 
tion ; having sketched these in faintly make 
a cut out or pattern of stout paper for the 
bell and laying this against the board scribe 
around it with a wedge-pointed chalk ; when 
all have been traced in, take a piece of chalk 
about one and a half inches long and with 
the C stroke put in the sides on all; then 
with the same chalk do the rims ; it will be 
seen that the pressure on the chalk must be 
lightest at the center to give the effect of 
roundness. The cand':s, too, are put in 
with the C stroke, using three-quarters inch 
piece of, also the flames and ribbons 

See Full Page Illustration — Frontis 

of smoke connecting the bells. A touch of 
charcoal blended here and there will add to 
the vapory effect of the smoke. 

Now for the lettering, point the chalk 
and lightly sketch in, aiming for correct 
spacing; when this has been gotten, print 
them in neatly, maintaining an even pres- 
sure on the chalk. The holly leaves, which 
serve as an embellishment to the quotation, 
need no directions. Lastly, go over the 
drawing, accenting - where necessary ; put in 
snowflakes, snow covered boughs, and the 
few crisp touches which represent snow- 
covered vegetation in the foreground. 

Let us now see in how many ways this 
illustration will serve us as suggestions on 
other lines. By eliminating the panel con- 
taining the tree, the space could be used for 
the verses of a Christmas carol. An appro- 
priate design might be made by using the 
belk as a border for a Christmas quotation. 
By enlarging the tree and making it a full- 
Hedged Yule-tide specimen with its candles 
and the many good things it will delight the 
heart of the child. Again, take out the 
center .panel and substitute a calendar. 
Thus it will be seen that many are the ideas 
which can be adopted from one design and 
has been shown in the foregoing 
to show the readW how her 


originality may be stimulated. 





During the last three months the children have 
been led to feel now much is provided for them, 
how carefully their needs are looked after and how 
many helpers are constantly busy, so that they may 
be happy. Now comes December, the month when 
the children may make something to express their 
gratitude for all this loving care. 

To be sure they have before tnis entered into the 
spirit of helpfulness by dusting chairs, putting- 
things in their proper places, and running errands 
to partly repay for all these things, but now a gift 
is to be made, something that can pass from hand to 
hand and finally be presented to the loved one. A 
real Christmas gift mingled with love and patience. 

During the month the thought of the children 
will be directed to the toyman, the securing of the 
Christmas tree, Santa, and at last the day on which 
the gifts of love are bestowed. In all the prepara- 
tion for that climax, if the work be over-exemplified 
and the joy of giving be lessened, the purpose of the 
work will be lost. Christmas is the time of loving 
gifts. Each preceding month has presented some 
form of animal life that naturally connected itself 
with the work. Santa's reindeer will be the ani- 
mal to which the inought of the children will be 
directed during December and he will figure more 
or less in the drawings of the month and possibly 
in the cutting. 

This is a season when so much gay coloring may 
be indulged in and free invention be greatly en- 
couraged. The work that follows is not intended 
to be suggestive for gifts necessarily, but many of 
the things may enter into the presents if the 
teacher and children desire them. Wnen decora- 
tions for the tree are being made the cnildren will 
enjoy making the same things for the tree at home 



SlBr Ced-ar 




a^ 5 ^ Caitiivj-ba/bftet (~ 


that they make for the tree in school. This will 
also permit many children to have pretty decora- 
tions on their home trees wuo otherwise would have 
very little. This will be one way to add to the 
Christmas joy. 


Cedar tree. Cedar branch and berries; pine tree, 
pine tree and cones: hemlock tree, nsmlock branch 
and cones: lighted candle, drum and sticks, horn, 
Santa and sleigh, chimney, reindeer; Christmas 
tree with decorations for book cover. 

Free Drawing. 

Illustrate story work; home of Christmas tree; 
securing the tree; transporting tree to city; window 
in toy shop; visit wit. mother to toy shop. 

Practice Drawing. 

Candle stick, chimney, (high) sleigh. 



Pictures from magazines to be pasted in picture 
books for grfts: Christmas tree, mantle piece, 
stockings, Christmas toys, candy baskets, candy 
cones; strips for chains for tree; silver strips to be 
rolled for circles for tree; boy with sleigh. 

Cut mantle piece and stockings separate. Paste 
on a mounting paper. 

Drawing and Cutting. 

Colored stockings for tree, dollies, toys, Santa, 
reindeer. Pictures of the tree decorations that are 



bought in the shops, as balls, stars, etc.; rocking 
horse; illustration of stories. 

To make the rocking horse let the children draw 
a good-sized picture of the horse; tnen cut same. 
Use this picture as a stencil for the other horse. If 
the children cannot uraw well enough to make their 
own stencil the teacher may give them a stencil at 
first. Use colored pencils to decorate. Paste a slat 
in between tj.e two horses' bodies to make them 
stand up. Any such realistic object gives the great- 
est pleasure to the children. 

Folding and Cutting. 

Lanterns for tree. Mats and strips for gifts (cut 
double.) Open grate fireplace. Snowflakes (fold 
and cut per described before.) 

To make the lanterns for the trees take a square 
paper 4x4 or larger; cut off one edge for the handle; 
fold one diameter; cut on this fold to within one- 
half inch of the edges and not too close together. 
Open paper and paste together, so that the fold 
runs through the middle between the top and bot- 
tom of the lantern. Paste handle; add a chain. 
These lanterns are very effective if made of colored 
paper, but for the older children they may be made 
much more elaborate by using a plain paper and 
drawing or painting to represent Japanese lanterns. 
This is done by making a black band at the top and 
bottom and painting some simple design, as seen 
on lanterns in shops. 

Designs for Japanese lanterns: 

This is a very good time to introduce transpar- 
encies and it may be done in connection with the 
lanterns and the ^nristmas star. To maks the lan- 
tern take a good-sized piece of paper, black pre- 
ferred, and fold one diameter. Cut the outline of a 
Japanese lantern on the open edges thus: 

Then cutting from the fold follow the outside of 
the paper and an outline of the lantern is the re- 
sult thus: 

Open this and paste it on a piece of brightly 
colored tissue paper larger than the outline of the 
lantern, so as to give strengm while pasting. After 
the paste is tnoroughly dried cut away the tissue 
outside the black edge of lantern. Support with a 
string the color of tne tissue paper ani hang in 
window or before a candle. 

To make the outline for the star transparency 
take a four-inch square, fold sixteen squares and 
diameters and diagonals. To secure the points of 
the star fold on diagonals and cut from corners to 
line running one inch from edge of the paper 
where it crosses the diameter. 

Open and fold on the other diagonal and cut as 
before. A four-pointed solid star is the result. Be- 
ginning on the diagonal cut parallel to the outer 
edge leaving an open star one-half inch wide. 
Paste this on a yellow square of tissue paper 4x4. 
When dry cut away tissue outside of star and hang 
in window. 

To make tne open grate fireplace, take a piece of 
either red or black paper 4x4, or larger, fold the 
sixteen squares; cut out a piece in the middle two 
squares by three squares, leaving the mantle piece. 
Paste the mantle on a piece of manilla paper. Cut 
blue and white plates for mantle. Draw and cut 
clock. Represent fire with red and yellow pencils 
and use black paper strips to represent grate. These 
strips should only be pasted at the ends and should 
stand out from the mounting sheet to look like a 
half round grate. 













Paper Tearing 

"fiochmg horse Chain 

•made, otsilver 


£Si&*v? <p^ JatJpvnfrfr y?x\x,ivt\5> 

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Whatever the money market may say, 
we are living in good times, in glorious 
times, because in an era in which new ques- 
tions are to be solved, new responsibilities 
to be faced and we are daily becoming more 
and more awake to our own share in the 
social welfare. The social consciousness 
which is developing is accompanied by the 
joy of knowing that each one may have 
some small share in shaping a new and 
glorious future for humanity. 

With the advent of the Christmas season 
all hearts turn afresh in loving contempla- 
tion to the little Child who for centuries has 
been reverenced as the Son of God and 
who came to teach men that in every child 
lay the seeds of the Divine. 

The potentialities of the divine are inher- 
ent in all. Then to us comes the question: 
What may we do to bring them to fruition. 
In other words, what may be done by home 
and state and school for the religious nur- 
ture of the child? 

The theory and the practice of religious 
education naturally varies with each race 
and each age, as it depends on the prevail- 
ing conception of religion and religious nur- 
ture. In the main we will confine our pres- 
ent paper to a consideration of some of our 
own modern problems and the suggestions 
offered for their solution. 

Our modern conception of God and of 
religion is higher and deeper than ever be- 
fore in the history of the world. We are 
slowly coming to adjust our training of the 
young in accord with new insight and 
vision. The modern Sunday school move- 
ment dates back tothesuccessfulschoolsin- 
augurated in 1780, by the loving heart of 
Robert Rakes, a Gloucester printer and 
publisher, who started a charity-school or 
"ragged-school," as they, unfortunately, 
came to be called, in which, on Sun- 
days, he gathered the children of the 
extremely poor, who had no other 
opportunities for learning, and taught 
them in secular subjects. Later they 

became more religious in tone, al- 
though from the hrst they must have been 
influenced by the truly religious spirit of 
their founder, if we may judge from the 
hrst Sunday school lesson on record. 

We are told that Raikes once brought a 
magnet to the school and showed how, if a 
piece of iron were brought in contact with 
it, it invisibly drew another toward it. 
Thus, he told the children, if you are good, 
you exercise an invisible power for good. 
And the children, fancying themselves mag- 
nets, brought other children to meet him in 
the cathedral yard before service." 

In the United States, the Sunday school 
from the beginning was established in con- 
nection with the Puritan church for the in- 
culcation of religious truths and doctrines. 

Early in the century several organiza- 
tions of Sunday school workers were formed 
and in 1824 the American Sunday School 
Union was organized. It held Ave national 
conventions in the years, respectively, 1832, 
1833, 1859, 1869, and 1872. The last con- 
vention adopted the uniform lesson plan 
which was to be issued by the publishers of 
different denominations, i his uniform plan, 
so long in use, was the joint work of B. L. 
Jacobs and Bishop Vincent. 

The International series of Sunday school 
lessons has served a good purpose in the 
interch nge it has established between 
churches widely remote and of different de- 
nominations. It made for more systematic 
and more intelligent study and use of the 
Bible than had before been possible, but in 
the light of modern psychology it is found 
wanting in important particulars; it is not 
based upon sound psychologicalprinciples 
and is giving way to more approved methods 
and the graded course. 

When thoughtful pastors, Sunday school 
superintendents, and p: rents begin to real- 
ize that the established methods were not 
bringing forth the desired results they be- 
gan to study causes. 

In February, 1903, was organized the Re- 



ligious Education Association, which ad- 
admits to membership all religious sects, 
Christian, Jew or Gentile, and is studying 
the problem of religious education from the 
broadest possible star [point and in the 
light of all that modern science can furnish, 
whether from the pedagogical, the philo- 
sophical, the idealistic or the strictly practi- 
cal side. It has an organ, "Religious Edu- 
cation," which prints many of the valuable 
papers contributed to the annual conven- 
tions, with other articles as well. 

There is now a Sunday school depart- 
ment of this organization, which will lend 
invaluable aid to the advancement of the 
Sunday school. 

By most advanced and practical workers 
today is advocated the payment of skilled 
teachers, who alone should be entrusted 
with the religious nurture of the child. 

We will give a few typical illustrations of 
the new methods and management and 
materials now being introduced in the best 
schools. The following is the general out- 
line of a plan suggested by Henry F. Cope 
in his invaluable book,"'! he Modern Sun- 
day School," just published. 

Kindergarten-Religious concept ions 
molded by stories, games and exercises. 

Elementary. — I. Religious conceptions in detail 
molded by stories, manual work, memorizing of 
simple passages. Grade 2. Similar, but with more 
detail, Biography introduced. The other grades 
would take up the Old Testament narratives with 
geography woven in. Manual methods are used. 

Other grades take up the life of Jesus, then the 
lives of the apostles, a general introduction to the 
Bible (a year's survey of the whole.) 

Then comes Grade 7, with biography of the Old 
Testament and beginnings of hero study. Also 
Christian biography. Have pupils work on heroes 
of Christian biography as they would on Washing- 

Church History with the Acts as beginning, and 
also Christian Missions. 

Secondary. — Preparation for church membership 
— Christian life and Christian service, also litera- 
ture of both Testaments. 

Senior. — Historical Study of Biblical literature; 
advanced life of Christ, and Christian evidences, 
doctrines, practical ethics, comparative religions, 

The teachers would study child-study, religious 
pedagogy, Sunday school organization, management 
and other topics. 

Mr. Cope recognizes not only the value 
of manual methods, but also sees that the 
dramatic instincts of the children may be 
utilized with good effect, which recalls a 
wonderfullv interesting" dramatization of 
the story of Joseph, which we saw given at 
Hull House, Chicago, by the children of a 
local dram? lie club. 

Years ago, when the Ethical Culture Si 
ciety broke away frem the traditions of tl 
synagogue and the church it had to woi 
out its own course of moral instruction, ; 
it was one of the pioneers in the new wa 
As with any growing body modihcatioi 
have occurred in harmony with increasir 
knowledge and insight. To meet the nee< 
of the young people there is now a Ch: 
dren's Sunday Morning Assembly, whic 
was organized with the following aims : 

i. To gather children of the same aj 
into groups and foster among them goc 
public standards. The endeavor is made • 
have the children feel that that for whic 
they stand is the true, the kindly, and tl 
brave thing, and that they as a group, star 
against dishonesty, cruelty and meanness 

2. To create these ideas and ideals 
certain kind of teaching is done. 

3. The last half hour is spent in a ge 
eral meeting, in which all join in singir 
and in responsive service and listen to 
short children's sermon. The use of tl 
words of the great religious masters and 
music and poetry stir the emotion , mal 
the children feel as well as know, that tl 
good in life is the one transcendently ir 
portant thing. 

4. Each of the smaller groups, excep 
ing the younger children, has an organiz 
tion of its own for carrying on certain cha 
itable enterprises. The Sunday contrib 
tions of the children are used for charitab 

The following stories and subjects a: 
studied in the various groups in the A 
sembly : 

I. Fairy Stories and Fables. — The purpose 
these is to develop the child's imagination, to gi 
him a sense of unity with his environment, and 
point out the simple duties of early child life. T 
children of this group are seven and eight years 

II. The earlier stories from the Bible, dealii 
with the relations of parents, brothers and siste 
and friends; the purpose being to make clear wh 
these duties are and to give the children a sense 
their sacredness. 

III. The heroic figures of the Bible are given 
the form of stories, and examples are also drav 
from Greek history and fable. The special lesso 
center around courage, loyalty, honor and self-saci 

IV. The Hebrew moral code is studied becau 
as a whole it deals with duties and virtues with 
the comprehension of the children from eleven 
twelve, and because it is the most concrete expoi 
tion which we have of justice, temperance, charlt 
honor to parents and so forth. 

V. The Lessons of Freedom, illustrated fro 
Greek history. Physical freedom and prowess a 
shown to have been developed by the training 
the Spartan children; intellectual freedom is : 
lustrated by the Athenians, and moral freedom 1 



the example of Socrates. The struggle for national 
independence is illustrated by the battles of the 
Greeks with the Persians, in the latter part of the 
year that part of Koman history is dwelt upon 
which deals with the rise of the Plebeians and with 
class struggle and freedom. 

VI. As a preparation for the study of the New 
Testament, Hebrew history is briefly recounted. 
The stories of its chief heroes, martyrs and prophets 
are retold. 

VII. The last year's work deals with the New 
Testament. A brief life of Jesus is given and a 
selected number of the parables discussed. 

Many Unitarians use a course planned 
some years ago by the Western Unitarian 
Sunday School Society. This arranges for 
a six years' course with one-hall the year a 
study ol duties and for the remaining months 
with a study of religions. The initial year is 
used as a text book, that remarkable little 
book, "Beginnings," by A. W. Gould, which 
takes up questions: "How the World Be- 
gan, How the Floods Came, How Laws, 
The Idea of God, Man, Language, Sin, 
Death, etc., etc., came into the world, give 
in turn the Biblical story, the myths of 
other nations and tribes of men, and the 
story as told by science. 

The second year takes up the religions of 
the Older World, Egypt, Assyria, Persia, 
Greece, Rome, etc.; the third year is given 
to a study of the growth of the Hebrew 
religion; then the flowering of the Hebrew 
religion, with special reference to Jesus and 
Paul, partly chronological, but largely ana- 
lytical study, as of T esus and his attitude 
toward the poor, the rich, toward the sick. 
The sixth year studies the growth of Chris- 
tianity under the Greek church, Roman 
Catholicism, Protestantism. 

The last year subject is the flowering of 
Christianity; the rise and growth of the lib- 
eral religious movement. It is largely a 
study of martyrs, heroes, and leaders, from 
the Reformation down to our own Emer- 
son, Channing, and Parker. 

Jenkin Lloyd Jones interpolates in this 
course what he calls the blank leaf between 
the Old and the New Testaments, being a 
study of the Apocrapha. The spirit of this 
course is such as to till the children with an 
appreciation of the inspiring search of 
man f--vm the beginning of time for truth; 
for union and communion with a power 
higher than himself; of the passion for 
righteousness, which was in man from the 
beginning and has grown as he has grown 
in knowledge, insight and love. 

"Noble Lives and Noble Deeds," by Ed- 
ward A. Horton, is used by many in a study 
of Duties. 

In Mr. Jones' Sunday school the children 

learn little by little each year and repeat in 
concert some great and beautiful message 
of inspiration. One year it may be the ten 
commandments; another time the XVIII 
Chapter of Corinthians; one year they 
memorized the beatitudes and one season it 
was Ruskin's Creed of the Guild of St. 
George, which became forever a part of the 
child's mind and heart. 

The youngest children in this school are 
under the guidance of trained kindergart- 

In this course the children think out the 
answers to certain questions each week and 
write out the replies in their own language. 
Some pregnant sentence from the particular 
person or race being studied is also com- 
mitted to memory, so that at the end of the 
year the mind has a rich store of wise and 
helpful statements of truth. 

Drawings made by the children and pic- 
tures sought out utilize the child's instinct 
for self-activity. 


One of the signs of the times which 
should most encourage the progres- 
sive Sunday school educator is the fact that 
the great universities are beginning to take 
hold of the matter. Many of the faculty of 
the University of Chicago have for some 
time been writing upon this subject after 
more or less practical experience on the 
held. 1 he trained teacher, with his knowl- 
edge of the child-mind and his acquaintance 
with pagan as well as Bible myths and liter- 
ature and history is coming to the aid of 
the Sunday school, tor some years there 
has been in Chicago a Sunday school in 
which advanced theory is tested by educa- 
tional ^perts. 

We have at hand specimen pages from 
"Child Religion in Song and Story," by 
Georgia L. Chamberlain and Mary Root 
Kern. It is written with both mother and 
Sunday school teacher in mind, and gives 
songs, stories and suggestions for group 
work. The book would seem to be quite up 
to date in both matter and method. The 
Bible story of creation is told as myth, not 
as fact, and the present scientific theories 
are explained in a simple manner. For 
stories to illustrate different virtues or 
faults the author fearlessly draws from ma- 
terial outside the Bible. "We would not," 
says the writer, "lead the children to feel 
that religion is only in the Bible. It should 



be brought to their attention through na- 
ture and through outside literature as well. 
. . . The wealth of story material in the 
Bible is so great, and if not introduced in 
the period of childhood is so likely to be 
ignored, that but three lessons in the series 
are presented through outside stories." 

Another book, published by the Univer- 
sity of Chicago, is "An Outline of a Bible- 
School Curriculum," by George William 
Pease. This teacher-author also feels quite 
free to draw upon other than Biblical 
sources for his lesson material. He has 
included "the revelation of God in physical 
and human nature as well, being fully aware 
of the importance of weaving the familiar 
phenomena of the child's every-day envir- 
onment into the fabric of the moral and re- 
ligious lesson." 

The course is graded and covers seven- 
teen conccutive years. 

Columbia University is also working out 
a Sunday school course in connection with 
the Horace Mann School. 


Several years ago, preceding the great 
and imposing convention of the Religious 
Education Society, the Northwestern Uni- 
versity, i^vanston, 111., celebrated its fiftieth 
anniversary by a great meeting to discuss 
the special problem of the academics and 
the High Schools. Principals, superintend- 
ents, and supervisors from every section of 
the countr- attended this convention. Of 
unusual interest were the sessions which 
discussed the question of how moral and 
religious training could be secured to the 
pupils of the public schools. This conven- 
tion was significant of the growing sense of 
a lack somewhere in our system. 

Educators and educationists of every 
phase of religious thought have for some 
time been dissatisfied with the results of 
the public schools, as shown in the char- 
acters of the pupils. As met in the business 
world the average graduate of the schools 
gives little evidence of high principle or the 
power to resist temptation; of a generous 
or even just regard for the comfort or 
pleasure of others, of faithfulness in daily 

Many thinkers are inclined to place the 
responsibility for this really serious state of 
affairs upon the lack of moral and religious 
training in the schools, and are endeavor- 
ing to find a way out of the tangle. 

Direct religious instruction is, as we 
all know, impossible in the public schools 

themselves. The problem then consists in 
deciding whether direct moral teaching is 
feasible or desirable; upon what principles 
it should be based; what books and meth- 
ods may be used; whether the Bible may be 
used as a text book or not. 

This brings us at once to the much-argued 
questions as to the use of the Bible in anyi 
way at all in the schools whether as text; 
book of religion or of literature. 


Norman Wilde, of the University of Min-| 
nesota, contributes to the September "Edu-i 
cational Review" an important paper upon! 
the "Psychology of Religion and Morality,"! 
which makes an excellent connecting link' 
between Sunday and the day school dis-i 

Mr. Wilde, speaking of religious psy-l 
chology, gives some of the implications ofj 
the "young science," stating that the "veryj 
existence of the science has emphasized the! 
fact that religion is a part of the natural ex- 
perience of man, not a graft artificially in- 
duced, but a product of the essential forces 
which make him man. . . . The problem 
of religious education is not how to add re-j 
ligion to a nature devoid of it, but how toj 
develop religion in a life already disposed! 
to it." 

Then follows this important declaration: 

Conversion is not reversion but development. 
This means of course the throwing of the educa- 
tional emphasis backward upon the earlier years 
of life rather than waiting for the years of con- 
scious choice in adolescence. . . . It is folly toj 
allow the child to grow up without religion in order, 
that it may be forced upon it by a violent disturb- 
ance in its later life. If we are to have an idealj 
religion for manhood the seed must be planted in 
the congenial soil of childhood. 

Again, he states that "psychology has 
emphasized religion as an experience," as 
he points out, religion as formerly defined, 
was largely a matter of belief. Now, 

"Comparing typical examples of religious experi- 
ence, it has shown that the constant and invariable 
element is not any form of intellectual belief but 
rather a certain practical attitude of will and Its 
accompanying emotions. Conversion may occur 
without any definite conception being involved and 
vital religious experience continue without any 
formulated account 01 its self or its relation to 
God. Beliefs are wholly secondary matters and arel 
the results of education before or after conversion. 
. . . Religion is not knowledge but life, and the 
methods of education for it are not those adapted; 
to the impartation of ideas, but to the suggestion 
of a way of life. Training and influence and limita- 
tion are the means of religious education, not in-! 
struction in catechisms or theological systems." 

Mr. Wilde does not attempt to define 



religion, but states the characteristics of 

the religious attitude briefly as thus: 

"Recognition of, and adjustment to, a supreme 
order of life. The religious man is he who recog- 
nizes a meaning in life, who has faith that it is not 
a mere chaos of events without order and without 
value, but an intelligible system in which it is pos- 
sible to live a reasonable life. And this system he 
believes to be an absolute system to which his own 
subjective desires and aims are to be strictly subor- 
dinate. The values which he recognizes are not 
individual but over-individual desires. He feels 
himself to be a member, humble, but necessary, in 
this supreme spiritual order of life." 

Modern psychology in proving that the 
child is not a little man, but is quite differ- 
ent in mind as in body from the adult, de- 
clares that it is to have a religion of its own, 
one fitted to its needs and not to that of 
its parents. 

"His religion must be the spontaneous outgrowth 
of his own needs and nature, the expression of his 
own life." 

Extracts are quoted by our writer to il- 
lustrate by a few instances the great variety 
and richness possible in such religious ex- 

"Instances," he says, "might be multiplied al- 
most at will from literature and philosophy of these 
extra-ecclesiastical religious experiences, but these 
suggestions are enough of the possible breadth and 
variety of the consciousness of God. If religion is 
man's supreme adjustment to life then whatever 
reveals to him something of its supreme worth will 
be for him a revelation of God and an incentive to 
his service." 

Mr. Wilde's final conclusion is that: 
The task of religious education is to rouse a sense 
of the truth that life has a meaning and that the 
individual must interpret that meaning or fail in 
the problem of life. This is a much more difficult 
task tuan the teaching of the catechism or Bible 
history, but it is the only thing worth while. And 
how is it to be done? Only by suggestion and ex- 
ample. Imitation is the key to life. Only as the 
child finds others practically believing in, and seek- 
ing to interpret, the meaning of life will he himself 
do the same. It is the reality of the actual re- 
ligion of others that must rouse his questioning 
and induce his practice." 

He finds the remedy for the present 

problem : 

"Not in making religion a school study, but in 
having school studies so taught that they may be 
lelt as implying a religious view of the world." 

Upon this background, argues Mr. Wilde, 
could be developed the specific religious 
life as desired by parents. 


In "Religious Education" for August, 
Walter L. Hervey, Ph. D., has a paper 
upon "Moral Education in the Public Ele- 
mentary Schools." This gives in a general 
way the present status of the subject in the 
United States. 

He speaks of the great differences in the 

school laws of the different states, in some 
of which the use of the Bible is expressly 
forbidden. In others the reading from it is 
allowed, but word or comment thereon is 
forbidden. In other states the use or non- 
use of it appears to be left to the judgment 
of the teacher or the prevailing sentiment 
of the community. 

As regards education in morals there 
seems to be equal diversity. In a few states 
only is a syllabus in morals offered by state 

Two states, Virginia and South Dakota, 
are at present devising: some system of 
moral instruction, the latter to be on a 
basis of scripture. 

But not lone ago, we learn, that an at- 
tempt on the part of the Empire state to 
introduce a bill compelling moral instruc- 
tion met with "determined and overwhelm- 
ing opposition." 

Formal text book study in morals also 
seems at present opposed to prevailing 


In the latest number of this same journal 
(October) is a paper by United States Com- 
missioner of Education Dr. Brown. 

He points out that "religious education 
cannot permanently employ methods which 
are out of harmony with the methods of 
secular education." 

Whereas in the middle ages institutional 
religion was the mould in which most chil- 
dren were educated, today it is natural 
science which rules the minds of men. 
"And modern education is allied with mod- 
ern science"; we may confidently expect 
that it will in this age mould religious edu- 
cation to its standards and processes. 

Dr. Brown points out that the science of 
this age is the same science throughout the 
world, forming a bond that unites all peo- 
ples. But "religion, as well as science, 
stands for a permanent need of the human 
soul," and although Dr. Brown believes that 
in the distant future the differences of the 
sects today will become subordinate to re- 
ligious affirmations as wide as undegenerate 
mankind," he recognizes that we are liv- 
ing in an age of sectarianism. 

Dr. Brown sees that in modern science 
education tallied not only with modern 
science but with democracy. 

Even in monarchical lands this is true, 
"our secular education, as both democratic and 
scientific, finds its greatest elevation, it makes its 
warmest claim to the devotion of men, on the moral 
plane. Democratic education seeks the good of 
every man because he is man, and so reaches its 



high moral conception of social service. Scientific 
education teaches men to follow truth for the sake 
of truth, in the full conviction that human interests 
and clear truth must in the end be one. In its pure 
devotion to truth, natural science is moral, un- 
swervingly moral." 

Dr. Brown points out that there is a 
drifting away in this age from the old doc- 
trinal and ecclesiastical elements and that 
a great part of religious aspiration and 
emotion rises outside the churches, but that 
it is none the less religious. "For many in 
the present age" religion is reached by the 
moral sense, rather than morals by the way 
of religion. It is rather through the moral 
sense, through the hunger after righteous- 
ness they find a moral universe in which the 
all-righteous God is their Father. Accord- 
ing to our writer, then, for the sake of re- 
religion's own self, education today must 
be true to its character of today." 

Dr. Brown, therefore, believes that the 
most vital meeting place for education and 
religion in this age is on the moral plane. 
Through its emphasis on moral conceptions, 
education itself, secular education, if you 
would call it such, may help religion to work 
its wa-- through and overcome its present- 
dav sectarianism. Education will be the 
best ally of religion in this age if it holds 
true t^ its alliance with science and democ- 

Dr. Brown's emphasis upon this great 
democratic foundation of our education is 
certainlv in accord with the meaning of our 
Christmas festival. We cannot refrain from 
quoting one paragraph at length: 

"Observe now vitally the several lines converge. 
Democracy stands for the brotherhood of man. Re- 
ligions bases that brotherhood on what is ultimate- 
ly a more cohesive and organic conception, the 
Fatherhood of God. In this humanitarian age. how- 
ever, it seems more probable that the great majority 
of men will find the Father through that brother- 
hood rather than find brotherhood through a prior 
knowledge of the Father." 


In "Education" fcr October, Selden P. 
Delany, Dean of All Saints' Cathedral, has 
an article bearing upon this subject. This 
is a plea for direct moral, or rather religious, 
training, not in the public schools but al- 
lowed for by the school program. Dean 
Delany contends that "It is not to be ex- 
pected that children will ever care anything 
for moral character if for five days in the 
week they are taught all about mathema- 
tics, geography, spelling, reading, literature 
and science, but nothing about morality. 
Children are not fools. They are logical 

enough to conclude that the things they are 
taught in school must be important things 
of life, while the things that are not men- 
tioned must be the unimportant things." 
The writer believes that the foundations of 
Christian moralitv are to be found in the 
facts and revealed truths of the Christian 
religion only. He thinks religion should be 
taught along with morality. He finds the 
answers for the most part unsatisfactory 
which different schools of ethical thought 
give to the question, "Why must I do 

To him, the only r°ply that is conclusive 
and comnelling is that of Christianity. "We 
must do right because it is the will of God, 
and our true welfare here and for eternity 
depends on our conforming to His will." 
The good Dean seems to pass over lightly 
the innumerable religious wars, the perse- 
cutions and the agonies that have been suf- 
fered all through the ages because men dif- 
fered as to just what was the true will of 

Nevertheless, the plan he suggests for 
meeting- our public school difficulty is a good 
one. He would have the school hours so 
arranged that once a week the children 
might be permitted toabsent themselves for 
one morning or afternoon to attend relig- 
ious instruction in their own churches. The 
privilege could be limited as to ages of the 
children or unlimited. "It ought to be a 
simple matter so to arrange the curriculurr 
that religious instruction could be substi- 
tuted for other studies of a voluntary char- 
acter, such as manual training, elocution 
botanv, etc. According to this plan the re- 
sponsibility for the moral training of chil- 
dren would rest upon their parents, where 11 
ought to rest. Apparently, it leaves the 
parent and the church to take advantage o 
such opportunity or not and, as he suggests 
it would undoubtedly furnish the churches 
with a stimulus to make the religious in- 
struction as thorough as possible and tc 
base it on the most approved pedagogica 

Dean Delaney proceeds to state that sue! 
an idea is by no means new, being widel) 
discussed by leaders in religious education 

At the Inter-Church Conference in New 
York, iqoc, the plan was advocated bv Dr 
Wenner, President of the Lutheran Synoc 
of New York and New Jersey. A similai 
proposal was made by a Roman Catholic 
Father McDermott. Another conferenc* 
was held in New York in 1906, in which al 




denominations took part, including Jews 
and Unitarians. In April and again in May 
of that year other meetings followed. 

The plan proposed seems quite feasible 
in its main outlines. It allows for the dif- 
ferent convictions of all religious or non- 
religious bodies and for all who feel that the 
religious instinct of the child and of the race 
should have recognition and nurture, and at 
the same time would relieve Roman Catho- 
lics and Lutherans of the burden of main- 
taining their own parochial schools. 

In "Education" last year, Prof. Paul H. 
Hanus had two articles upon "School In- 
struction in Religion," in which he advo- 
cated Bible schools maintained each by its 
own denomination, wherein should be given 
detailed instruction in the Bible. He makes 
the church responsible for religious educa- 
tion a* such. He believes that formal in- 
struction in religion in the public schools is 
undesirable, unnecessary, and in most cases 
legally impossible. He ckims that the "de- 
cline of religious faith and morality went on 
under compulsory religious instruction and 
in an atmosphere saturated with ecclesiasti- 
cism in school and college" : and that the 
growth of religious faith and morality is 
contemporaneous with the gradual emanci- 
pation of the school and college from the in- 
cubus of compulsion in religion, and with 
the growth of the free, secular, public 
school. Prof. Hanus has the optimism of 
genuine faith and believes "that it will soon 
be popular to be an earnest and honest pub- 
lic official, and at the same time more profit- 
able than to be a shirking, or self-seeking or 
dishonest official." 

He does think it both possible and de- 
sirable to have moral instruction in the 
schools, the aims of such instruction to be: 
1. To inculcate respect for physical health 
because the welfare of self and tie race de- 
pends upon it. 2. To inculcate respect for 
the idea of the "virtues of work," the need 
and blessing- of steady employment as the 
indispensable means of ministering to the 
welfare and happiness of the individual and 
the race. 3. To inculcate reverence and 
love for truth, beauty, and goodness, wheth- 
er of nature and art, and hatred of vileness. 
4. To cultivate the native instinct for sym- 
pathy until it becomes a controlling in- 
fluence in conduct. 

Prof. Hanus quotes from several author- 
ities to show that religion as a subject of 
study, conducted as in Germany, does not 
accomplish the purpose. One sums up the 
case in trn statement : "In the lower grades 

it is without effect and in the upper grades 
it breeds hypocrisy." 

Winthrop D. Sheldon contributed three 
important papers to "Education" last year, 
in which he gave some truly practical sug- 
gestions toward a program for Ethical 
Teaching in the schools. See December, 
1906, January and February. 1907. 

He groups the subject-matter under nine 
heads. The school, considered as an insti- 
tution established by the community and 
the state and the ethical relations and obli- 
gations to it of the pupil. 2. Some general 
topics. 3. The essentials of personal char- 
acter. 4. The ethics of the playground. 5. 
Of the home. 6. Of business life. 7. Of 
social life. 8. Of citizenship. 9. Of war. 

Under each of these he suggests from ten 
to thirty sub-topics. The ninth topic, "Eth- 
ics of War," is especially interesting and 

The second article closes with a few sug- 
gestions as to sources of material for illus- 
tration. The Bible is named as an impor- 
tant source, but "varied material may be 
found in newspapers and periodicals of the 
day, all the more interesting and striking 
because drawn from the living, acting pres- 
ent." The February number gives an ex- 
tended list of helpful books. 

Coming down to what has actually been 
accomplished in the matter of incorporat- 
ing ethical courses in a school, we must, of 
course, look into the Ethical Culture 

Those of the Ethical Culture School who 
have been working upon this problem for so 
many years reply to the criticism that moral 
instruction involves a "series of cold and 
abstract intellectual exercises, that the rules 
of conduct are apt to be treated like the 
rules of arithmetic, that the feelings and the 
will are neglected and the connection be- 
tween moral precept and moral action 
weakened with the statement that the 
appeal of the Ethics teacher is to the in- 
tellect, the feelings and the will conjointly, 
and that pains are taken to provide outlets 
for the awakened sense of duty in practical 
philanthropic activities. 

The final ideal for which these educators 
are working is to bring into harmonious re- 
lation the three ideals of individual effici- 
ency, social stability, and social prog- 

The course followed follows practically 
along the lines of the Childrens' Assembly, 
given on page , and will not be repeated 
here. We will merely briefly say that in the 



higher grades the study includes a look into 
the penal legislation of New York state; 
slavery is made a subject of study, as well 
as the abject condition of the poor in our 
large cities. Also a study of the negro prob- 
lem and allied questions; leading to consid- 
erations of the moral questions involved in 
the use of wealth, of position, of opportun- 
ities, and other privileges. Another year, 
interest centers around the ethics of busi- 
ness and vocations generally. Still later, 
the ethics of the state and of politics, of tax- 
ation, etc., is worked out. 

Throughout these studies the character 
and attitude of the teacher is regarded as of 
supreme importance, that reverence for the 
right ma- be inculcated and the children 
saved from anvthing like casuistry or argu- 
ment for the sake of argument. 

The Ethical Culture School, while not 
perhaps teaching religion as such, does aim, 
as its central object, to nut the child in pos- 
session of himself with a sense of his obli- 
gation to the present and the future, to em- 
nlov his powers not for mere personal ends, 
but that he may thereby realize his 
highest self in service to societv. Litera- 
ture, historv, and art are taught throughout 
tematic course in ethics is taught through- 
out the school and its celebration and fes- 
tivals are emploved as at once forms of 

the school, as means to this end. A sys- 
homage of the past, and suggestive vehicles 
of ideals for the future. 

We have, perhaps, in the foregoing pages 
quoted too copiously from the various writ- 
ers cited, but in this season of joy and uni- 
versal good-will it seemed a happy privilege 
to give the illuminating extracts from writ- 
ers representing very different points of 
view, but all of which express the same high 
consciousness of the supreme value of the 
child ; the same desire to bring to richest 
fulfillment for the service of the Most High, 
all of the inhe ent possibilities in body, 
mind, and spirit. The consecrated teacher 
of whatever creed or sect will rejoice to 
find that there is at his disposal such a store 
of rich educative suggestion ; he will also 
rejoice to know that others of a different 
faith and viewpoint are also working, each 
in his own way, for the highest welfare of 
the little child, and that each and every one 
may contribute his quota of faithful service 
and helpful suggestion. To him who be- 
holds the Divine spark in each inhabitant 
of our country, in every town, is seen the 
possibilities of a Celestial City. Tradition 
says that it was a kindly wolf that suckled 
the founder of the Roman Empire. What 
mav be expected of our cities when each in- 
habitant receives the nurture befitting the 
children of the Divine? 




The resignation of Dr. Von Studt, the Prussian 
Minister of Education and Public Worship, and the 
appointment of Dr. Holle to that office, are officially 
announced on the first nage of the "Zentrabblatt 
fuer fuer et sesammtc Unterrichts-Verwaltung im 
Koenigrirch Preussen." Brief and matter-of-fact 
as the edict appears, great changes are expected 
from it. The retiring minister was known as a 
stern and strenuous upholder of religious instruc- 
tion in all Prussian public schools to the point even 
of the inoculation of all secular instruction with 
religious sentiment. This will no longer be thus: 
for, although no radical changes may be expected 
for some time to come, it is certain that a far more 
liberal spirit will characterize the new minister's 
administration. Two or three measures, instructed 
by him from the very outset and published in the 
"Zentrabblatt" would seem to indicate it. The first 
of these authorizes the appointment of special fe- 
male teachers in the branches of feminine gymnas- 
administration. Two or three measures, instituted 
tresses in the departments of housekeeping and 
practical hygiene, while the second and third refer 
respectively to more liberal pensions for teachers 
and more ample provisions for the widows and or- 
phans of teachers. This is undoubtedly a step in 
the right direction and augurs well for the intro- 

duction of more comprehensive and liberal attrac- 
tions throughout the whole domain of education in 

The "Blaetter fuer das Gymnasial Schulwesen in 
Baiern" (Bavaria), breathe the same spirit of ed- 
ucational progress in that country, as does the 
Zentralblatt for Prussia. One of the most interest- 
ing essays in this journal is one entitled, "Higher 
Geography in Gymnasiums," by Dr. Enzensprenger, 
which advocates the introduction of scientific treat- 
ment in connection with linguistic and classic study 
and all historical branches. Such a combination, 
it is claimed, would tend towards ridding classical 
learning from much of tne purely scholastic char- 
acter that is still attached to it. 

The "Archiv fuer die gesammte Psychologic," E. 
Neumann and W. Wirth, editors, is as usual abound- 
ing in very profound and copious contributions, 
among which we note especially an article by Karl 
Buehler, entitled, "About Thoughts," conceived in 
an entirely new and as it seems to us, very practi- 
cal and suggestive manner. Another article, by 
Otto Weiss, treats "The Registration of human 
heart-tones by means of soap-films, which method," 
illustrated by numerous photographs and drawings, 
appears to us as a great improvement over the many 
previous processes instituted for that special pur- 



The "Mittheilungen der Gerellschaft fuer 
deutsche Erziehungs-und Schul-Geschichte" con- 
tain several araicles of the highest interest to the 
students of Educational History. An account of 
the "Development of the School Book from the 
earliest stages to its present perfection," by Alfred 
Hinbaum, may not unaptly be called an objective 
lesson of pedagogy, as the school book is the vis- 
ible representative of the educational status of a 
certain period. 

Another equally interesting article by Dr. Beisclo 
treats the history of the Prussian Garrison 
schools, institutions which are little known, al- 
though they have considerably contributed to the 
progressive education. Both of the two articles are 
specially deserving of the attention of American 
teachers who desire to perfect their knowledge of 
the History of Education. 

Another publication of equal interest to teachers 
is the "Deutsche Schul-Monats schrift," edited by 
the German Teachers' Union. The issue of last 
month of this journal brings to an end Mr. Thos. 
Mack's essay on "The philosophical foundations of 
Pestalozzi's pedagogy," an article which well merits 
to be re-read in order to grasp it in its entirety. 
Another article superscribed "Defects of our Edu- 
cational System," though highly interesting, seems 
to us somewhat too radical. 


The "Revue Pedagogique" contains first an essay 
by Mr. F. Delattre on the "Infantine Literature of 
England, from its origin to the present day," dem- 
onstrating the wealth of English folk-lore in its 
fullest light; secondly, a "Proposition for the Cele- 
bration of some special event by the National 
Schools," for which purpose the twenty-fifth anni- 
versary of the school law is proposed for this year, 
and thirdly, what seems to us the most interesting 
article of all: "Chronicle of Primary Education in 

"The Revue Internationale de l'Enseignenent Su- 
perieure" is replete, as always, with very thought- 
ful and timely contributions, among which we es- 
pecially name: "The Royal French College of Ber- 
lin, from 1686-1907," by H. Schoen; and the "Edu- 
cation of Young Girls in Germany," by Louis Weill. 
The institution described in the former article was 
founded by the exiled French Huguenots with the 
co-operation of the Elector of Prussia and has con- 
tinued to exist and prosper under the patronage of 
his successors. 

"The Revue de l'Enseignement Post-Scolaire" 
contains quite a good many readable articles, among 
which M. Hubert's essay on "Educational Stagna- 
tion" may find a special mention. 


In last month's issue of the "Practical Teacher" 
we note particularly a report of the educational 
Federal Conference at Saxton Hall, where peda- 
gogues from Great Britain, Ireland, and many Brit- 
ish colonies met and discussed various subjects of 
interest in common to all. 

The "School Guardian devotes quite a number of 
pages to the all-absorbing national problem, the 

Reform Bill, and discusses the possible solution of 
the vexed question, as lately proposed by Sir Henry 
Campbell-Bannermann. The "Guardian," however, 
seems to cherish little hope in the measure proposed 
and finds the only possible solution in the abolition 
of the House of Lords. 


The "Educational News" of Edinboro, Scotland, 
reports a movement among Scotch school teachers 
directed against every kind of secrecy in the ap- 
pointment of teachers and demanding for all teach- 
ers the privilege of inspecting all letters received 
by school authorities with regard to the installation 
of teachers. Up to this time this privilege has 
been denied to prospective candidates. 

The "Frankfurt Schat-zeitung (Germany), con- 
tains among other communications one from Swit- 
zerland, reporting the free distribution of school 
books among the school children of thirteen Swiss 
cantons, which has uniformly resulted in a great 
improvement in the pupil's progress. 

The "Paedagogische Z,eitung and Volksschul- 
Journal" agitates an effective and vigorous co-oper- 
ation of the children's parents with the teachers of 
their respective schools, and advocates regular 
monthly and even weekly meetings between the 
parents and teachers for the creation of a greater 
mutual interest in educational matters. 

"Lo E'cole Nationale of Brussels (Belgium), dis- 
cusses the introduction of the Flemish language 
into such national schools of the kingdom, where 
hitherto the French tongue was alone taught and 
practised. The Wallons, who speak only French, 
having a great majority in the Chambers, it is 
hardly probable that the measure will be carried 
out throughout all Belgium. 

"L'Eaucateur (Paris), mentions the interesting 
fact, that the Portuguese government will annually 
send forth a number of teachers from Portugal to 
the educational centers of Europe and America, 
with the two-fold purpose of studying the schools in 
the different countries and of inducing there the 
recognition of the Portuguese language, which 
hitherto has been more or less ignored in the curri- 
culums of educational institutions. 

As the proposed spelling reforms has failed to be 
adopted in France, as it has in America, M. Brial 
suggests in the "Revue Blase" the annual and grad- 
ual introduction of a certain number of words, the 
spelling of which, has been remodelled, and hopes 
that so, after all the spelling reform may be realized 
during a course of years. As the school books could 
hardly be altered every year, it would seem to us 
that, plausible as the proposition is otherwise, the 
desired result can not be attained. 

In "Le Volume" Professor Germontes, a promi- 
nent French educator, recommends the re-introduc- 
tion of school prizes, which had been done away 
with in French public schools. His arguments, 
however, in favor of return to this antiquated 
method are not likely to be shared by the majority 
of enlightened teachers. 



Miss Hortense May Orcutt, long connected with 
the j\ew York City public schools, and who wrote 
the valuable history of the kindergarten in New 
York City public schools, which was published in 
the "Kindergarten Magazine and Pedagogical Di- 
gest" last spring, has been called to southern fields. 
Those who knew her good work will be interested 

in the following extracts from the "Savannah Morn- 
ing News": 

Under the direction of the new supervisor, Miss 
Hortense Orcutt of New xork, the Kate Baldwin 
Free Kindergartens opened the first of October. . . 

Extensive improvements nave been made in the 
kindergartens, particularly in Chatham kindergar- 
ten house, wnich has been entirely done over, the 

I 4 2 


walls in cream with brown borders and brown 
woodwork. In this building will be the class-room 
of the training school instead of, as last year, in the 
.fublic Library building. Improvements have also 
been maue at Soutuside Kindergarten. 

Eastside wil not be opened before the middle or 
last of October. Miss Vaughan, tne director, is de- 
tained in the North by the serious illness of a 
friend. Miss i.iartha Sasnett, who so efficiently as- 
sisted Miss Newton in the general management of 
the kindergartens last winter, and who has been 
retained by Mr. Baldwin during the summer, has 
gone to New York to take a course in domestic 
science at Teachers' College. Miss Lasnett will be 
greatly missed from the force. 

The need of greatly extending the kindergarten 
system in Savannah is very forcefully emphasized 
by the fact that for every kindergarten opened this 
fall there is a waiting list numbering nearly as 
many children as the kindergartens are able to en- 
roll. It was not an easy thing for the kindergart- 
ners to turn away scores of eager mothers with re- 
sponsive cnildren, who coaxed to stay. Nor was it 
always easy to uicide as to just which children 
should be given the preference. At Southside chil- 
dren from a nearby day nursery, supported by the 
King's Daughters, and which is really a sort of 
orphan asylum, were given preference on account 
of their greater need. Trinity church kindergarten 
also has a waiting list of something like thirty 

The demand for kindergartens in Savannah has 
grown far beyond the possibility of meeting it by 
any private organization or association. What is 
needed is not only that the Kate Baldwin Free 
Kindergarten Association continue its work, and 
Trinity church continue to support its large kinder- 
garten, but in auuition to these, kindergartens 
should be opened in connection with the public 
schools until all children of kindergarten age are 
provided for. 

A new private kindergarten has just been opened 
in connection with the Haskell-Page School. 

The Savannah Kindergarten Club, resuming its 
meetings the second Wednesday in October, enters 
this season upon its fourth year. The general sub- 
ject selected for study is "Fundamental Educa- 
tional Principles," as found in Froebel's Mother 
Play Book, and this will be discussed under eight 
heads, the club holding its meeting, as usual, once 
a month, from October through May. 

1 tie eleventh annual session of the Atlanta Kin- 
dergarten Normal Training School opened this year. 

The school has been unable to meet its call for 
teachers the past summer. Five of the eight free 
kindergartens of Atlanta are in charge of the A. K. 
N. grauuates. Many other graduates are engaged 
in various parts of Georgia and other states. 

Miss D'Nena Bridger and Miss Charlotte Dun- 
moody of class '0 1, have opened a flourishing kin- 
dergarten in Dublin, Ga.; Miss Patty Sparks in 
Montezuma, Ga. ; Miss Margurite Howland in Mari- 
etta, ua.; Miss Margaret Cook, class of '97, is in 
charge of a kindergarten training school at Horo- 
shiha Girls' School, Japan. 

Miss Nina M. Whitman has been appointed to the 

kindergarten position in the Stevens Point, Wis 
Normal School, which has been occupied for som 
years by Miss Margaret Lee. Miss Whitman is 
graduate of the St. Paul Kindergarten Trainin 
School, and of Chicago Kindergarten College. Sh 
nas had a varied experience of several years and i 
well equipped for her work. 

There are at present in New Mexico but thre 
kindergartens (one being at Santa Fe), includin 
that at the State Normal at East Las Vegas. Bu 
a training department has been established in th 
Normal School with three students to form the firs 
class, and other parts of the state are waking up t 
their need. Raton is just ready for a kindergartei 
and Miss Lora J. Holmes, training teacher at th 
State Normal, expects soon to help start one. Th 
new life is stirring as well in Albuquerque. 

The Froebel Club of Hartford, Conn., is enjoyin 
an extensive course in program making and met! 
ods for tne kindergarten. This course, of forty le( 
tures, is being given by Miss Harriette Melissa Mill: 
head of Department of Kindergarten Education c 
New York Froebel Normal. The club meets Satuj 
day afternoons from two to four o'clock, and by s 
doing is able to have two lectures at each sessioi 
one nour theory and one hour practice. The lee 
tures already given have been most beneficial to a: 
anu the club is congratulating itself on the goo 
fortune of having secured so able a leader as Mis 
Mills for tuis year's work. 

"The School as the Instrument of the State," Mai 
Study Departure at the University of Wisconsir 
Last summer, late in the session of the Wisconsi 
legislature, a bill was passed establishing a com 
spondence school as a department of the State a 
Madison. This establishes the crowning feature c 
the admirable educational system of that state. 

Provision now exists in the state system of edu 
cation whereby, not only the youth of the commor 
wealth from the kindergarten to the universitie! 
have educational opportunity, but the large grou 
of unclassified adults of all ages and all degrees cl 
advancement is now also guaranteed, a responsibli 
standaruized system of instruction which may tj 
pursued at home through the mails. This work i, 
being made largely practical, and to relate effe(j 
tively in one way or another to the problems of lit 
confronted by such an adult class of students. Thl 
artisan or the clerk may receive elementary an 
technical training; the professional man may uti! 
ize the new department for keeping abreast of th 1 
additions research is constantly making in ever 
field of knowledge; and the teacher may earn a co 
lege degree, "learning while earning." 

Correspondence students wno are residents c 
Wisconsin have, besides exceptional co-operating as 
sistance from the state library system. 

This establishes a new precedent for State Un| 
versities in extending educational services to ever| 
productive interest in the state similar to those e 
long and so effectively rendered by the agricultura 
colleges alone. This is one aspect of President Va| 
Hise's interesting policy of "making the Universit 
the instrument of the state." 


The November Atlantic" is a 50c. anniversary 
number. It contains an unpublished poem of Low- 
ell's written in 1857, the year in which the maga- 
zine was founded, he being its first editor. Charles 
Eliot Norton gives a few pages to the "Launching 
of the Magazine," and we learn that Emerson, 
Prescott, Longfellow, Holmes, Mrs. Stowe, and 

Motley contributed to the initial number. Th 
high ideal which dominated the first editors h£ 
been maintained for fifty years. John T. Trow 
bridge tells of an "Early Contributor's Recollei 
tions," a delightful reminiscent paper. W. I 
Howell gives the "Recollections of an Atlantic Ec 
itorship." Fellow editors will read with sympt 



thetic interest this glimpse behind the scenes. 
Thomas W. Higginson speaks on Literature, 1857- 
1907; Politics, 1857-1907, is treated by Woodrow 
Wilson, and Arthur Gilman allows us to Barme- 
cide guests at the delightful Atlantic Dinners. 
Bliss Perry writes of Francis H. Underwood, the 
"Editor who never was Editor." It includes much 
Interesting correspondence between the publishers 
and the contributors, whose co-operation they so- 
licited for the magazine that never was born. "Un- 
bound Old 'Atlantics' " is the enticing title of an 
article by Lida F. Baldwin. Walter H. Page writes 
of "The Writer of the University." Facsimilies of 
the original covers of the first number of the jour- 

play ceases at ten years of age with Polish chil- 
dren, owing to outside pressure of necessity, but 
when about twelve there Is a recrudescence of in- 
terest in dolls "which is perhaps a cropping out of 
the maternal interest." It will be interesting to 
compare this data with that obtained by Dr. Hall. 

In the same journal, Harlan H. Ballard discusses 
spelling reform under the title, "A Modern Babel." 
He is opposed to the reform movement, finding it 
"unnecessary, undesirable and impossible." 

"The School Review" gives "the report of the 
New England Association of Teachers of English 
on Courses of Study" as its lea-ing article. Ac- 

cd <Q> S3 ^e -ji £p # 

* + !>+'•#• 

Cortesy the School Arts Book 
Deiign* Made by Two Boys with Rubber Font* of ^Toy Printing Set*. 

nal are given. The "Atlantic" has from the be- 
ginning kept nobly true to its creed as there given. 
Science, 1857-1907, is the contribution of Henry 
S. Pritchett. Hamilton W. Mabie speaks on Art 
during the same period, Architecture, Painting, 
Sculpture, Music. 

"The Pedagogical Seminary" contains, in its 
September number a "Study of Dolls Among Polish 
Children," by Mme. Anna Grudzinska. She used 
a part of Dr. Hall's questionaire as an aid in her 
study, receiving 182 answers from Warsaw and 
other parts of Poland. We are told that none of 
these children owned a bought doll. Those they 
owned had been made with their own hands. Doll 

cording to returns receiver! this report finds "not 
a drift but an eddy. Change is in the air, but 
motive seems not to have risen to consciousness, 
and changes of emphasis or of order move blithely 
to the step of "all hands' round." The report 
throws light on shadowy phases of the present 
chaotic situation and its suggestions will undoubt- 
edly lead directly or indirectly to better things in 
the future. 

The "Chautauquan" for 19j7-08 should be in 
every high school and every American home. It is 
running a series by John Graham Brooks, "As 
Others See Us, or America in the Light of Foreign 
Criticism," quoting from visitors to this country 



from the early days and giving the cartoons and 
caricatures of noted draughtsmen of the different 
periods, that illustrate^ the caustic, often highly 
prejudiced articles. "The Story of American Paint- 
ing," by Edwin Spencer, is another valuable his- 
toric series, well illustrated. "Some Great Ameri- 
can Scientists" is another set of articles which 
Americans should read. As will be seen from the 
above, the study of the C. L. S. C. centers this year 

finding that the desire for precision and fo 
strength of expression are the main agencies lead 
ing to the employment of such phrases as "wher 
from" for wnence"; "prepaid" for "paid," et< 
Teachers of English will be interested. "Socialisr 
and Communism in Greece" is the title of an in 
teresting article by T. D. beymour. LL. D., in th 
same magazine. 

The "Catholic World" contains an article by th 

27 CW- 
Courtesy School Arts Book 


around our own country. The volume will be valu- 
able indeed for reference in time to come. "Our 
Talent for Bragging" is one sub topic of Mr. 
Brooks' paper for October. 

If you want to understand that somewhat dis- 
puted term "Progenatism" read in the "Educa- 
tional Review" for October the article "Progena- 
tism and Education," by P. J. C. Woodbridge. 

In the same journal W. H. Carpenter makes a 
plea for a "Rational Terminology." 

In the November Harper's" Thomas R. Louns- 
bury of Yale writes on the "Causes of Expletives," 

Countess de Courson called "Helen Keller's Frencl 
Sister," describing the method by which Soeui 
Marguerite in a convent near Poitiers, France 
trained and educated a little girl, Marie Heurin 
blind, deaf and dumb from birth. 

In the pages of this same journal we read thai 
the Archbishop of Dublin favors changing th< 
canon of obedience, making it compulsory to ab- 
stain from alcoholic rather than meat on days o) 
fasting and abstinence." 

The "School Arts Book," edited by Henry Turnei 
Bailey, is an artistic little montnly published in 



/orcester, Mass. It is brimful each month with 
rticles suggestive and inspiring for all who teach 


In the November number was published a charm- 
iig design for a book mark, charming in its simple 
nes and good proportions and appropriate senti- 
lent, which the publishers kindly allow us to re- 
roduce. We are permitted to print also an in- 
cresting set of designs made by two boys with the 
ubber fonts of their toy printing set. Those who 
ave read Ruskin's "Two Paths" will be reminded 
f the design shown there as an illustration of 
rder, symmetry and number in design and the dis- 
ussion there suggested. Another set of practical 
uggestions is seen in the designs for name cards 
jr a Thanksgiving table, which may with little 
hange be adapted to other festivals. The "School 
Lrts Book" encourages original effort on the part 
f teachers and children while maintaining the 
ighest standards of conception and of execution. 

Two important serial features of the seventy- 
fth volume of "The Century" begin in the Novem- 
>er issue: Mrs. George Cornwallis- West's remin- 
scences of her life as Lady Randolph Churchill and 
J rof. Percival Lowell's papers on "Mars as the 
ibode of Life." 

Specially timely articles — though of widely di- 
erse interest — are sympathetic reminiscences of 
'Grieg the Man," by a friend, William Peters; a 
uggestive discussion of "Automobile Problems," by 
-lenry B. Anderson, and Ernest Thompson Seton's 
iaper on "The Natural History of the Ten Com- 
nandments." setting forth in detail the author's 
■easons for believing that some, at least, of the ten 
:ommandments have a certain effect of law among 
mimals. With our daily papers filling column af- 
er column with details of divorce suits and the ap- 
jarently increasing disregard of the sanctity of the 
carriage tie, it is interesting to read that: Upon 
he whole, we find the animals succeeding — that is, 
ivoiding disease and holding their own, spreading, 
md high in the scale — in proportion as they ap- 
jroach the ideal union. 

"St. Nicholas" for 19U7-08 will contain a serial 
sy Major-General O. O. Howard on "Famous Indian 
Dhiefs." The November number contains an article 
describing how some boys made a balloon of 256 
newspapers "and an amount of paste and patience." 

The "School Arts Book" has entered upon its 
seventh year replete with inspiring matter. 

Miss Irene Sargent has an interesting article on 
Benvennto Cellini and his work. 

Miss Reed under the caption "Rythmic Ruler" 
?ives some interesting illustrations of problems 
worked out by her students. Such results speak for 

The "Manual Training Magazine" comes to us 
decked in a new cover and as a bi-monthly maga- 
zine. It is full of good things for the manual train- 
ing teacher, notably the exhaustively illustrated 



isthe principal-' 

i' ,'.. 

Courtesy Scliool Arts Book 
article on joints by Mr. Noyes of Teachers' College. 
Our best wishes go to the magazine on its new 


It is a pretty custom that holds in Germany — that 
af making ready for the Christchild by cleaning up 
|the playroom and putting all the toys and play- 
things in good order, that all may be sweet and 
fresh and clean to welcome the little Visitor. 

This idea may be happily adapted to the kinder- 
garten. Let the children help the teacher get room 
and closets in order for the beautiful Christmas fes- 
tival. Different children may be given the paste 
dishes to wash and wipe. Others may look over the 
gift boxes and help glue together broken covers. 
Some can mend the cardboard boxes which hold 
thread and needles, and all may assist in one way 
or another. 

The kindergarten toys also should be inspected. 

Dolls may be doctored and surgical operations per- 
formed on them; other children, as upholsterers, 
may mend furniture, while yet others sew new bells 
on the reins or put a new coat of paint on the toy 
animals. If your kindergarten is one composed of 
the children of well-to-do parents the little folks 
may wish to bring to the kindergarten some of their 
home toys that are discarded or broken and repair 
them to give away to others less fortunate. This 
giving away of an old, worn and beloved toy, may 
involve more of sacrifice on the part of a child than 
the spending its own money to purchase a brand- 
new gift. It is giving something that really is his, 
and possiblv dear to him because of many happy 
hours together in the storm and stress of childhood. 




"Geographical Stories Retold from St. Nicholas," 
in six volumes. This is an attractive series of books 
of adventure, travel, and description, chiefly in the 
great sections of the United States. 1. Western 
Frontier Stories are told respectively by Joaquin 
Miller, Harry Perry Robinson, Mary Austin, Maur- 
ice Thompson, Frederick Funston, and others, and 
recounts thrilling adventures which call for cour- 
age, hardihood, quick wit in emergencies and other 
sterling qualities of border life. 2. Stories of 
the Great Lakes are told by Gustav Kobbe, Mrs. 
Scuyler Van Rensselaer, H. S. Canfield, W. S. Har- 
wood, Lieut. W. G. Ross, u. S., Rev. Cutter Service, 
Howard F. Sprague, and others. Among ihe allur- 
ing titles are: "The Life Savers Ride of a Hundred 
Miles"; "A Boy's Recollections of the Great Chi- 
cago Fire "; ' Jog Teams and Sledges in Michigan"; 
"In a Forest Aflame." 3. Island Stories takes the 
reader lurtner afield. F. A. Collins describes Rob- 
inson Crusoe's Island; Osgood Welsh tells about 
Cuba; Rosalie Kaufmann gives "A Little Talk 
About the Philippine Islands," and Bishop Potter 
recounts his "Impression of the Hawaiian Islands." 
H. B. Stimson contributes "Tale of the Cannibal 
Islands." 4. "Stories of Strange Sights" tell some- 
thing of mirages, ocean storms, waterspouts, etc., 
with one chapter on "Queer Carriers," describing 
the means by which burdens are carried in some 
parts of the world. 5. Stories of Stories, the sea, 
and 6. Southern Stories, complete the stories. 
Century Co., N. Y. 

"A Brief Course in History of Education," Paul 
Monroe, Ph. D., Professor in History of Education, 
Teachers' College, Columbia University. Macmil- 
lan, publisher. 

Specialization is, today, the dominant note in 
the field of education. But here, as elsewhere, 
specialization is safe only in so far as the specialty 
is seen in its relationship to the general movement 
within whicn it takes its rise. Hence, in the pro- 
fessional training of teachers in Normal and Train- 
ing Schools, special training must be given set- 
ting or perspective in iue study of a general his- 
tory of education. 

In this volume, Dr. S. Monroe responds to a need 
of training school in providing a text book that 
presents the essential movements of the history of 
education. This is a text book intended to present a 
maximum amount of stimulating information in a 
minimum of space, and is an abridgement of a 
larger volume published in 19 05. Its point of view 
is the essentially dynamic character of the educa- 
tional movement which is traced from primitive 
education to its development into the eclectic tend- 
encies of the present time. This volume will meet 
a need of kindergarten training teachers who recog- 
nize the necessity of viewing the kindergarten, not 
as an isolable institution, but, rather, as a factor 
in the general educational movement. To these 
teachers the section dealing with the Froebelian 
movement will be of especial interest, since here, 
Dr. Monroe gives to Froebel a juster appreciation 
than has been accorded by other historians. 

Dr. Monroe approaches his task with the deep 
earnestness befitting his theme — "the ever solving, 
but never solved problems of education." 

"The Open Road Library of Juvenile Literature, 
Rhymes, anu Stories"; compiled and edited by 
Marian F. Lansing; published by Ginn & Co. 

This is the initial volume of a series which is to 
include fairy tale, folk lore, myth, legend, stories 
of history, explorations, nature, science and bio- 
graphy. In this number are presented familiar 
rhymes that gradually pass to the more extended 
poems and stories that are, or should be, constitu- 

tive of every child's thought previous to taking n 
the conventional study of literature. This litt] 
volume argues well for the success of the serie 
The appeal to the eye is pleasant. The illustn 
tions, by Charles Copeland, are simple and meai 

"A Book of Nursery Songs and Rhymes," edite 
by T. Baring-Gould; published by McClurg O 

Still another collection of nursery songs an 
rhymes! But this collection is unique. The fir 
selective judgment of its editor has retained onl 
the finest and best that this province of literatui 
affords. Not only may one find here one's favorit 
rhymes, but the value of these rhymes is enhance 
by a setting of more than ordinary attractivenes 
which includes border decoration and quaint illu; 
trations on wood. 

A holiday gift book, which both children an 
adults will appreciate. 

"Another Book of Verses for Children;" edite 
by E. V. Lucas; illustrated by F. D. Bidford. Mai 
millan, publisher. 

Accompanying a frontispiece and title page i 
charming colors is this sentiment: 

"We know not who in olden time 
It was who first invented rhyme; 
But few have done as much as he 
To brighten things for you and me." 

This is a book of poetry for children, and is ii 
tended to be read aloud. On reading the table ( 
contents one is convinced that the term "children 
is used in its widest application, since the selei 
tions range from the most recent nonsense rhym< 
of Cosmo monkhouse to poems such as Word: 
worth's "I wandered lonely as a cloud." Strang' 
indeed, would be the child, young or old, for who! 
this book does not offer resources of entertainmei 
and culture. 

"Father and Baby Plays"; by Emilie Poulssor 
illustrations by Florence E. Stover; music l 
Theresa Garrison and Charles Cornish. Publishe 
by The Century Co., New York. 

It is a commonplace of experience that whei 
there are playing children and responsive mother 
there exist mother plays and mother songs. Th 
province of the mutual life of mother and child 
one of great interest, since many peoples in man 
lands possess a repertoire that indicates the « 
periences, grave or gay, that enter into the life c 
mother and cuild, under cover of song and pla; 
But the province of father play has remained ui 
known, awaiting the coming of one whose insigt 
should discover its resources and make use of thei 
for the mutual development of father and chile 
Miss Emilie Poulsson has entered and taken po: 
session of this unfamiliar province in which th 
father's play with baby is its crowning deligh 
In this book Miss Poulsson has made it possible fc 
us to understand a little of tne joyous intimacy t 
the play life of father and cnild. She tells us th£ 
"without play, motherly and fatherly play, plent 
of it, day in and day out, not only is the baby th 
loser, but parents lose much also." And so hei 
are pick-a-back plays, tossing, jumping, trottin; 
and hiding plays, shadow plays, rockaby and quit 
plays, each having its accompanying rhyme an 
rhythm, making an appeal to the awakening cor 
sciousness of the child and leaving an impressio 
that nothing can ever quite obliterate. In ii 
spontaneity and simplicity the book is delightfull 
refreshing and stimulating. Its illustrations ai 
good and the music pleasing and appropriate. Mif 



rison has been especially happy in the music 
the rockaby song, "Baby Dear." Every father 
ild know tnis song and be able to croon it to 
baby when playtime is over, feeling with the 
i its charm of exquisite tenderness, 
his book has a unique message. It has been 
red with convincing power by one whose uner- 
■ intuitions search out the hidden meanings of 
and lift them into the clear light of con- 
usness for the guidance of all who love chil- 
i. It is a valuable contribution to the literature 
>lay, and is an especially valuable book for 
ers to own. It should meet wim large appre- 
ion as a holiday gift book. 

Mother Goose in Silhouette," cut by Katherin 
?uffum. This trim little book will interest the 
11 child very much and will undoubtedly incline 
to ask for the scissors taat he may try to cut 
lar pictures. Nearly all of the familiar Mother 
se verses are cleverly illustrateu by these well- 
clearly defined silhouettes. The "cobwebs," 
ch are so soon to be swept away by the old wo- 
i (whose basket would seem to have been 
first air-ship), are ingeniously suspended from 
s to crescent moon. Price 75c. Houghton, 
lin Co. 

American Indian Fairy Tales," by Margaret 

ipton. A nandsome volume containing fifteen 

ies based upon government reports of Indian 

and the folk-lore found in Schoolcraft, Copway 

Catlin. Between the lines one catches an en- 

tening glimpse into Indian thought. We would 

give the book into the hands of very young 

dren or those of sensitive imagination, as some 

he images called up may leave unpleasant im- 

isions, as with the early English fairy tales. 

the virtues as well as the craft and cruelty of 

ige life are shown and the average, natural boy 

girl will follow with intensity the marvellous 

sntures of these heroes of a primitive life, and 

approve their simple ethics. The volume is a 

itiful one, with clear, large type, and marginal 

irations, but the frontispiece might give the 

ltmare to some children. Dodd, Mead & Co., 

t York. 

Captain June," by Alice Hegan Rice. A charm- 
little story, the experience of a young Ameri- 
boy who is left for some months in Japan with 
Japanese nurse while the mother goes to the 
lippines to attend his sick soldier father, Robert 
ers Royston, Jr., has courage shown and can 
3 a secret, besides possessing the human, boyish 
lities that endear him to our hearts. The Cen- 
I Co., New York. $1.00. 

Wee Winkles and Her Friends," by Gabrielle E. 
Iison. A story that children will enjoy hearing 
mother read to them. Love and care for ani- 
s is incidentally inculcated. Harper's, N. Y. 

Abbie Ann," by ^eorge Madden Martin. Those 
) have known and loved Emmy Lou will antici- 
i wnn pleasure an acquaintance with Abbie 
l and they will not be disappointed. Abbie Ann 
, most lovable young personage, and her experi- 
es are described in ihe sympathetic manner, the 
igled toucnes of humor and pathos which we 
1 in Emmy Lou. Century Co., N. Y. 

The Teddy Bears in Toyland," by Elizabeth 
don. The adventures of the toy bears are re- 
nted in verse, and these are illustrated by large 
tures photographed on the spot by "our special 
ist," showing the bears in various acts of depre- 
ion, the toy village with the toy soldiers, the 
Is tea-table and other possessions, after the bears 
r e done their worst. The big boy giant finally 
ngs home the bears in triumph. Dodd, Mead & 
, New York. 

'The Princess and the Goblin." This charming 
:y tale by George Macdonald has been reprinted 

with the original wood-engravings by Arthur 
Hughes. This new edition has been further em- 
bellished by many full page, colored pictures by 
Maria L. Kirk. The story has held its own for 
many years and this new edition will be warmly 
welcomed. J. B. Lippincott, Phila. 

"The Adventures of Merrywink," by Christian 
Gowan Whyte; illustrated by N. W. Wheelhouse. 
This book won the ,*. ±00 prize offered by the Book- 
man, London, for the best illustrated story book for 
little children. Thomas Y. Crowell Co., N. Y., pub- 
lishes this edition, which makes a large volume 
with many full page illustrations. 

"Friends and Cousins," by Abbie Farwell Brown. 
A pretty story describing the interesting doings of 
a group of wholesome, normal, right-minded chil- 
dren. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

"Little Me Too," by Julia Dalrymple. It is a 
charming little story and as being suited to rather 
young children will doubtless be read aloud by 
mother to innumerable little people in the course 
of the year. Little, Brown & Co., Boston. 

"The Modern Sunday School in Principle and 
Practice,' by Henry Frederic Cope. This is a rarely 
valuable book to those in any way interested in the 
efficient organization and conduct of a Sunday 
school. It gives the result of all the newest experi- 
ments, with primary, adolescent and adult grades. 
The writer fully realizes the importance of the 
recent contributions of psychology to a knowledge 
of the child and all of his suggestions appear to be 
based upon sound pedagogical principles as well as 
upon practical first-hand knowledge of Sunday 
school problems and Sunday school successes. The 
first chapter gives a brief history of the Sunday 
school movement. Then follows the plan for or- 
ganization with full appreciation of all that good 
organization means to the success of the school. 
Another chapter takes up the different officers and 
their respective duties. Another chapter speaks of 
the pastor and his relation to the school. In "Re- 
cruiting and Retaining Pupils" he gives sound sug- 
gestions, among others thai of cultivating the 
"school spirit ' by appeal to the best and highest 
in the natures of the pupils. "It grows by intensive 
work and mere extension in numbers will not se- 
cure it." He also recommends that "the school 
advertise itself by efficiency." He warns of the 
danger of baits and bribes, but upholds the use of 
diplomas as evidence of good work done and faith- 
fulness in attendance. His ideas as to building 
and equipment will be helpful to those who can 
afforu to build as they plea se and to those who 
must make use of meagre equipment and unsatis- 
factory buildings and rooms. One chapter dis- 
cusses the program thoroughly and wim the needs 
of the children of different ages continually in 
mind. Mr. Cope would have a carefully graded 
system and classify the children and promote them 
not on their Sunday school examination standards, 
but according to age or to public school grades, in 
order that the emphasis in the child's mind may 
be upon the spiritual side rather than the intel- 

He has a chapter on manual methods. A pro- 
posed curriculum is given in some detail. There 
is sound sense in his treatment of the library 
problem and the concluding chapter, "Factors in 
Sunday School Success," has words of inspiration 
for all workers interested in the higher education 
of the children, whether they be orthodox Chris- 
tians or belong to the more liberal wings of ethical 
thought and aspiration. Fleming H. Revell Co., 
New York. 

"Education by Plays and Games." by George 
Ellsworth Johnson, Superintendent of Playgrounds, 
Pittsburg, Pa. This is one of the most useful books 



upon play as a means of education which has yet 
appeared, and every teacher as well as every par- 
ent and Sunday school teacher, should own a copy. 
In G. Stanley Hall's introduction he tells us that 
Supt. Johnson some ten years ago gathered nearly 
a thousand of the most important and widely dif- 
fused plays and games, eliminating a large propor- 
tion, and then analyzed the remainder to show 
what muscular and psychic powers, what degree of 
mathematics, etc., each developed. These he graded 
and marked to determine at what age and stage of 
development "each was capable of its maximal ed- 
ucational value." This book is a result of both 
study and practical experience. The first pages 
rapidly give in review the different theories of play 
and the author contributes himself most illuminat- 
ing passages. Then follows a review to answer 
the question, "Can play be engrafted successfully 
into our system of education and still be play?" 
'ihe Andover (Mass.), summer playschool and 
what it accomplished is described in detail. Pages 
65-83 give minutely the characteristics of the peri- 
ods of childhood and their relation to a course of 
plays and games. Period one, ages 0-3, period 
two, ages 4-6, period three, ages 7-9, are next an- 
alyzed; then period four, ages 10-12, and the final 
period, ages 13-15. It is interesting to see how in 
the matter of puzzles alone the interest shifts from 
age to age. At one time mechanical puzzles in- 
terest most; then geometrical puzzles, and later 
those involved in language and arithmetic. The 
writer calls attention with each period to the par- 
ticular objects that appeal to the collecting instinct 
The physical, intellectual and psychic qualities of 
each stage are noted. We are thus prepared for 
an intelligent study of part I, which describes very 
fully the games suitable for each period. The es- 
sential characteristics of the period are first re- 
viewed, then follows a list of the apparatus and 
toys for that stage. 

In the same order follows the review of the es- 
sential characteristics of period two, with the ap- 
paratus and toys demanded for the fullest develop- 
ment. In this chapter is given a most suggestive 
account of a play-room in a Massachusetts mill 
town, which is supplied with all the different toys 
and apparatus, dolls, animals, picture books, slide, 
swing, etc., which afford the right environment for 
children of ages from 4-6. Here, "for more than a 
year and a half the children have been turned, 
about sixteen at a time, into this room, by the sin- 
gle teacher in charge, the door closed, and the 
children left entirely to their own devices. Here 
they play happily and freely. The marvel of it 
increases; for after all these months, the teacher 
has yet to find the first case of quarreling, noisy 

disorder or abuse of toys or apparatus 

The expense of the room has been less than thirty 
dollars a year. It has made it possible to care for 
the first grade children without employing an as- 
sistant teacher, thereby saving the town several 
hundred dollars." Free plays, nature-plays, con- 
structive plays, are suggested. The succeeding 
chapters analyze in the same order each period 
and a great variety of games. There are outdoor 
sports and indoor games; puzzle games, games of 
chasing, throwing, aiming. The grade teacher 
will find in the hook suggestions for making her 
arithmetic, spelling, geography lessons, lively and 
interesting. The great value of the book lies in 
the careful grading of the many many games given. 
Each one has been given place in accordance with 
the needs of the child. The book is fully and 
charmingly illustrated. Two of the pictures will 
be shown elsewhere in this magazine. One page 
shows nine varieties of "cats cradle" designs. An- 
other shows the collection of insects made by a 
street Arab who attended a summer school. One 
illustrates eight lessons in boxing. Another, boys 
playing at war with a snow fort. We see children 
playing at store under the trees; boys felling trees 

under instruction; boys pictured with the pets they 
have trained. This will serve to indicate that play 
is taken by Mr. Johnson in its widest significance. 
The book will prove to be both practical and in- 
spirational. Ginn & Co., Boston. 

"The Oozy Lion," by Prances Hodgson Burnett.i 
This is a very charming little story related by| 
Queen Silverbell, and already known to the readersi 
of St. Nicholas. The lion longs to enter into so- 
ciety and be sociable and the fairy queen tells him' 
how he may accomplish this desire. As a conse-! 
quence the happy lion learns to eat Breakfast Pood 
and cream, to smile sweetly and to purr. Then the 
wee children all flock around him, climb up over 
him, and teach him all manner of delightful tricks. 
The author warns the grown-up person who reads 
the story aloud to children that he must know how 
to roar. ihe dainty and cleverly drawn il- 
lustrations are by Harrison Cady. Mrs. Burnett's^ 
use of the word "cosy is not common in the United! 
States, but in England it is used in the sense of] 
contented, sociable, easy. Price 60c. The picture! 
of the "poor, sensitive, lonely orphan Lion" is a 
delightful mingling of humor and pathos. Cen-I 
tury Co., New York. 

"Famous Stories Every Child Should Know,"! 
edited by W. Hamilton Mabie. This is indeed a! 
representative collection as the list of titles Willi 
show. Prom England we have Dicken's "Child's 
Dream of a Star," and Ruskin's exquisite master-' 
piece, " r i ne King of the Golden River," from the! 
German the child will learn to know the water-! 
sprite Undine, that lovely creation of de la Motte 
Fouque. Hawthorne is represented by two, the 
"Snow Image and the "Great Stone Face"; the 
Bible contributes a part of the story of Ruth. The 
patriotic spirit is stirred by the "Man Without a 
Country." From France is selected Ramee's "Nurn-j 
berg Stove." Then we have the heart-stirringj 
story of "Rab" and the humor-provoking tale of 
"John Gilpin," while tne set concludes with that 
early American short story, by William Austin 
"Peter Rugg, the Missing Man." There is an in- 
troduction from t_e pen of M~. Mabie which will 
at once charm and instruct the children. The front 
ispiece, by Blanche Ostertag, is an exquisite ideal 
illustration of the "King of the Golden River. 
Doubleday, Page & Co., New York City. 

"The Field and Forest Handy Book," by Dan CJ 
Beard. Many are the handy books written by Mr.j 
Beard. This good-sized volume proves that he hadj 
by no means exhausted the vast field of construc-j 
tive activities which allure the normal boy. Amon? 
some of the things which clear description and sim- 
ple, explanatory drawing bring practically before 
the eye and mind are the following: 

A tailless Filipino kite is described, also a work- 
able air-ship. Another division tells how to make 
a herbarium and a bird house. Herbariums, and 
vivraiums are described in detail, and the mechani 
cally inclined boy will rejoice in learning how tc 
construct a fire-engine that will work. In anothei 
chapter the boy learns how to cross a stream on 
a log, as well as how to meet other problems oi 
forest life. The necessities of successful campins 
out are gone into with much minutia and not onlj 
are we told how to put up tents, how to plan the 
camn in general, but how best to pack the camt 
horse, and also how to build a real log house. The 
city boy of the age of adventure will rejoice tc 
learn now to camp out in his own backyard. Wher 
winter comes with its specific possibilities, the boj 
can learn from the book how to make snowshoes 
and his own bob-sled. The things described are 
arranged in order suggested by the course of the 
seasons — spring, summer, autumn, winter. Thosel 
in charge of boys' summer camps will find this a 
useful source book, Charles Scribners' Sons, Ne-vs, 


Coitrteaj the \.hauiuiiii"a.a 
Gluek on the Brink of the Golden River. From Heroes Every Child Should Know. 

Courtesy Doabiedar, Page & Co. 
Portrait of Lady William by Ralph Earl [ 1 75 1 - 1 80 1 ] . From the Story of American Painting by E. Spencer. 

'"Oh, Mother! Mother! Father! Father! Look at our 
Lion! We found him ourselves I He 's ours ! ' " 
Coartesj- Century Co. A'err 1'ork 


From Johnson's "Education by Plays and Games." Ginn & Co., Publishers 




" ories of the Saints," by Mrs. C. Van D. Chen- 
re 1. This delighciul volume is a new edition of 
m ection of stories published in lfsbS at the in- 
«3 of a jilip Brooks and dedicated to the chil- 
es of Trinity Church Sunday school. There is 
tei introduction which puts the children in 
e ray of rightful appreciation of the beautiful 
i jgends, and then we read of some of the ad- 
nires of St. George, St. David, and St. Patrick. 
K of the most interesting chapters is that de- 
t to St. Columba of Iona Island, who was poet 
■ill as priest, and translater of the Bible. From 
iterested librarian we learn that this chapter 
:t found in the original edition of 1888. St. 
.oas of Assisi is of course given place and some 
Lets of his sweet, fraternal sermon to the birds 
;;iven. A number of pages are devoted to the 
r it saints of old, and, finally, the closing chap- 
• ells of traces of the saints that are found in 
^ica in the names of cities and rivers. A 
;:h is given of the Spanish and French priests, 
1 left their mark upon our country with special 
:int of the good monks who founded so many 
usteries in California and through them taught 
Indians, in real brotherly fashion, habits of 
1 1, inuustry and settled living. It is a chapter 
which our children should be familiar. We 
too little account of the gracious influences 
in our country, to the consecrated lives of 
y of the old Catholic Fathers, who devoted 
" lives to the children of the wilderness. Along 
. their study of the more materialistic myths 
legends of paganism it is well that the children 
;ld know something of these equally heroic 
and women, who, with the courage of the 
ier, united the more gentle virtues which we 
illy associate with the name of Christianity. 
:. Barbara and St. Catherine, and St. Elizabeth 
iungary are among the women whose lives and 
lies are here sei down. The book is illustrated 
1 pictures from several of the Old Masters. A 
itiful and appropriate Christmas gift Hough- 
Mifflin Co., Boston. 

Hiawatha's Wooing," illustrated by Wallace 
Ismith. This unique book will make a charm- 
gift upon an occasion of betrothal or marriage. 
) a narrow oblong volume, the paper being a 
irkably good imitation of birchbark, beauti- 
1 soft to the touch. A narrow strip of soft in- 
icing deerskin appropriately binds pages and 
r together. The color decorations are in black 
red, conventional designs at top and bottom, 
mating with scenes described in the verses, 
gfellow's musical verses are and will continue 
ie perennially fresh as long as true-hearted 
:hs find the maidens of their choice willing to 

Moonlight, starlight, firelight, 
Be the sunlight of their people." 

ublished by Joan W. Luce & Co., Boston. 

ood stories from the "Ladies' Home Journal." 
se clever stories represent the cream of those 
lished in the "Good Story department of the 
ies' Home Journal." They are reprinted by the 
ry Altemus Co., Philadelphia, by special ar- 
jement with the original publishers, and will 
r e an unfailing antidote for a fit of the 
s. 50c. 

Books Received. 

"Milly and Oily," by Mrs. Humphrey Ward. 
(Doubleday, Page & Co.) 

"In the Harbor of Hope," by Mrs. Elizabeth 
Blake. (Little, Brown & Co.) 

"Alice's Adventures in Wonderland," illustrated 
by Arthur Rackhaw. 

"Theodora," by Katherine Pyle and Laura S. 
Porter. (Little, Brown & Co.) 

"Waifs of the Slums," by Leonard Benedict. 
(Fleming Revell Co.) 

"Moni, the Boat Boy, and Other Stories," by 
Edith F. Kunz. (Ginn & Co.) 

"How to Invest Your Savings," by Isaac F. 

Every-Day Ethics, by Ella Lyman Cabo. This is 
a rarely valuable contribution to the study of prac- 
tical ethics. Mrs. Cabot speaks from the results of 
many years' experience in working out the school- 
room in this practical plan, which makes most fas- 
cinating and helpful reading, and should be of 
great assistance to both teachers and parents. She 
speaks from a broad platform of wide reading and 
culture, of deep thought and minute analysis. Her 
comparisons and illustrations are most illuminat- 
ing. The moral life she considers is the one which 
has a purpose; sin is to start out with a purpose 
and then not tolive up to that purpose. "It is 
not the kind of purpose, but the fact that one has 
a purpose whatsoever, that is the password to the 
moral sphere." Even if a person says, "I hate re- 
sponsibility; I'm going to be just as irresponsible 
as I can," he becomes responsible through that pur- 
pose, for to resist all impulses toward steady work. 
. . . is to carry out a difficult project and so to 
be subject to moral laws. 

Among her chapter headings we select these as 
alluring examples inciting to further study: "The 
Power of Purpose; Goodness the Essence of Man- 
hood; Sin the Avoidance of Light; The Light of 
Conscience; Interests as Life Givers and Life Sav- 
ers; Effort, Sacrifice and Drudgery; Courage (the 
difference between courage and fearlessness) ; Open- 
mindedness and Prejudice, etc. We feel (.hat the 
chapter on Truth and on Open-mindedness and 
Prejudice are particularly important in their fear- 
less and impartial and clear-seeing analysis. No 
child but will be helped by the wise suggestions. 
here given the wise teacher to choose the right 
when once he knows it. 

The lies of carelessness, of exaggeration, of fear, 
of self-seeking, of kindliness, are all analyzed, and 
reasons shown for condemning each one. 

The Teachers' Key, of almost 100 pages, is a very 
important part of the volume. It shows the method, 
in detail, with which she studied with her class of 
boys and girls the questions of right and wrong 
which they must meet every day. And so well and 
wisely are these talks planned that one feels there 
is no opportunity given for mere subtle casuistry 
or talking just for talk's sake or to show one's 
skill in argument. She begins by asking for an 
example of right and wrong. And then asks, "Does 
it require any virtue to play football well?" Again 
she says, "Mary is such a satisfactory child. She 
sits quiet for hours and always does exactly what 
she is told to do without asking why. Does such 
a person seem to you good? Why or why not?" 
A series of questions similar to these accompany 
each lesson, and notes are given to show the points 
to be brought out. Mrs. Cabot gives a few illustra- 
tions in another chapter to show the need of prepar- 
ation for becoming non-responsible. For instance: 
"A girl is easily absorbed in novel reading. If 
she has charge of a child she must put the child in 
absolute safety before beginning to read." Or, "A 
man who has been in violent mobs knows that he is 
apt to be carried away by the feeling of the mob, 



r>V':<A;. •;•;>?. ■ v, ■ft***'*:! 

Courtesy A. Flanagan Co., Chicago 


and do that which he greatly regrets. He is re- 
sponsible for letting hirnself join that mob." "The 
Power of Purpose" is a chapter taken up in a simi- 
lar way. "Conscience, Custom and Law" is another 
valuable chapter. This delightful volume is a mine 
of suggestion and illustration for teachers and for 
club meetings and discussions. Sunday school 
teachers will also find it of great service when prob- 
lems of conduct are being treated. Dr. William T. 
Harris' name as writer of the preface stamps it as 
of current gold. Henry Holt & Co., N. Y. 

Humphrey's Light and Shade Studies. There are 
twenty reproductions of charcoal drawings, embrac- 
ing studies of trees, moonlight on the water, sail- 
boats, wigwams, Japanese lanterns, gypsy kettle, 
goldenrod, pussy-willow, rabbits, birds, fish, etc. 
The value of these cards depends, as is true of all 
such "helps" upon the way in which they are used; 
a good teacher will obtain good results. The cards 
are to be copied either in monochrome or in color. 
The leaflet of suggestions would have the teacher 
call the child's attention to the difference in sky, 
water, ground, etc., at different times of day, and 
then point out how with colored crayons these ef- 
fects may be expressed. To aid the teacher sug- 
gestions are given for each card, and in the case of 
one landscape it tells how three different effects 
may be secured with the same picture; certain 
colors will suggest a sunny day; another selection 
will give a sunset effect, and still another, a cloudy 
day. The teacher who has had technical and nor- 
mal training in art will not need these cards, but 
the less experienced one will find them helpful if 
she remembers that they are not to take the place 
of studies from Mother Nature herself. A. Flana- 
gan Co., Chicago. Price 20 cents. 

Mother Goose Stories in Prose, by Laura Roun- 
tree Smith. This is a reader for first or second 
grade children, the text centering around the fa- 
miliar doings of Mother Goose characters. The 
sentences, although brief and crisp, are lively and 
bright and the clever use of the well-known chron- 
icles will maintain the child's interest from the 
beginning. A quiet humor is not lacking. A few 

of the drawings are definite and spirited, but ii 
the main, they do not improve the book. A. Plana 
gan Co., Chicago. 


A, Flanagan Co., Chicago 

Things Worth Doing, by Lina and Adelia B 
Beard. This is for girls what one before namet 

is for boys. It gives many suggestions for the mak 
ing of entirely unique and original toys which wil 
happily occupy the girls of the family and the boy 
will want to take a hand as well. Among othei 
things the child is told how to make models of th( 
seven wonders of the world. One division gives 
ideas for parties, shows, and entertainments. An 
other one describes the making of articles for gifi 
days and fairs. Here, too, is a chapter telling the 
little girl how she may camp out in her back yard 
A book replete with delightful surprises. Charleii 
Scribner's Sons, N. Y. City. 

Courtesy Manual Training Plagazine 


i?l)e ^Kindergarten- ;prtmar? ^Ztajasitte 

VOL. XX— JANUARY, 1908— NO. 5 



rHE Tuskegee Normal and Industrial 
Institute was founded in order to 
improve the condition of the mass- 
es of the Negro people in the 
South. In its effort to do some- 
ng in this direction it has the advantage 
a location in Alabama, in the country dis- 
cts, close to the people it is seeking to 

Jp to the time this school was established, 
id even to large extent, today, education 
s not touched in any real and tangible 
ty the great majority of the people in 
jiat is known as "The Black Belt." 
Anyone who knows conditions as they 
;re in the Black Belt twenty-five years 
j'o, and as they are today will understand 
at the learning of books was not what 
ese people needed most. Our first stu- 
nts needed to be taught how to sit at table 
id eat properly. They had to be made ac- 
lainted with the uses of a napkin, table- 
oth, knife and fork. 1 hey had to be taught 
e advantage of sleeping between sheets, 
id of using a tooth-brush. Large numbers 

them were at that time wholly ignorant 

the very elements of right living. 
These conditions made it imperative that 
e school should have its students for a 
ng period of time almost wholly under its 
ire and supervision. 

In order to teach right living it is indis- 
;nsible that the students should live right- 
. As we were very poor at that time it 
as necessary that teachers and students 
lould set to work themselves to create the 
editions for right living. This converted 
ie school at once, and of necessity, into an 
idustrial community. 

As a matter of fact, this necessity was an 
ivantage. There is no method by which 
people, or a group of individuals, can learn 
ie meaning and the advantage of a civiliza- 
on, than by reconstructing it out of the 
riginal elements, earth, air, water and fire. 

Starting in an abandoned church and a 
hen-house, with almost no property beyond 
a hoe and a blind mule, the school has 
grown up naturally and gradually, as a com- 
munity grows. 

We needed food for our tables; farming, 
therefore, was our first industry. With the 
need for shelter for our students, courses in 
house-building and carpentry were added. 
Out of these, brick-making and brick-ma- 
sonry naturally grew. The increasing de- 
mand for buildings made further specializa- 
tion in the industries necessary. Soon we 
found ourselves teaching tin-smithing, plas- 
tering, and painting. Classes in cooking 
were added, because we needed competent 
persons to prepare the food. Courses in 
laundering, sewing, dining-room work, and 
nurse training have been added, to meet the 
actual needs of the school community. The 
process of specialization has continued as 
the school increased in numbers, and as the 
more varied wants of a larger community 
created a demand, and instruction is now 
given in thirty-seven industries. 

In order to carry on thes various indus- 
tries economically, that we might care for 
the increasing number of students, it was 
necessary to devise and enforce a rigid sys- 
tem of discipline, but one at the same time 
that left the pupil the sense of freedom and 
responsibility, and did not deprive him of 
his sense of initiative. 

Students had to be taught, for instance, 
to take proper care of the tools that were in- 
trusted to them, to take proper care of the 
stock, to make their own beds properly, and 
to take a proper interest in the care of the 
grounds. The girls had to be taught to 
make their own dresses and to keep them 
always in proper order. There are an in- 
finite number of small things that enter into 
and make part of a life in a highly civilized 
community that one does not meet in a 
community in a lower grade of civilization. 



Very few of our students had ever lived 
in a community where so much and so many 
kinds of work were done as at Tuskegee. 
They had to be taught the value of time, of 
order and discipline. 

Naturally these things became very irk- 
some to a group of raw young men and wo- 
men just off the plantation. This feeling of 
discontent with the methods we felt neces- 
sary to employ was all the more lively in 
the early days, because the masses of the 
Negro people believed that education was 
something that had nothing to do with 
work, that an educated man was one who 
somehow lived by his wits. 

In order to make it possible to maintain 
the discipline of the school it was necessary 
to do something to change this sentiment, 
both inside the school and out of it. It was 
necessary to imbue our students with a 
sense of the dignity and moral value of 
labor, and it was necessary to convince the 
people outside the school that labor was 
made honorable and profitable as rapidly as 
intelligence and moral earnestness were ap- 
plied to it. It was necessary, in short, to 
the success on any large scale of the educa- 
tion that Tuskegee sought to give to the 
masses, that public opinion should be in- 
structed and educated. 

It was this gave birth to the annual Negro 
conferences and to the whole scheme of the 
extension work of the Tuskegee Institute, 
which has grown and increased until at the 
present time it is quite as important as the 
work performed on the grounds. 

We found there was no way in practise of 
giving the parents right ideas about educa- 
tion, and what was more important, of keep- 
ing up the connection between the home 
and the school so that the student would 
not be educated out of sympathy with his 
parents, except by giving the parents them- 
selves some sort of education. In order to 
reach the masses with the knowledge that 
they most needed we have worked out sev- 
eral methods of popular education, which 
seem to be peculiarly adapted to the needs 
of Negro farming communities. 

Among them we have (i) Mothers Meet- 
ings, conducted by Mrs. Washington; (2) 
visits of teachers and students to communi- 
ties distant from the school; (3) local Negro 
conferences, which meet once a month in 
various sections of the South ; (4) the an- 
nual Negro conference, which brings to- 
gether at Tuskegee Institute every year 
from 1,200 to 1,400 representatives from 

various sections of the South, to spend 
day in discussing the conditions and nee 
of the race; (5) the Workers conferen 
composed of officers and teachers of t 
leading schools for Negroes, which meets 
Tuskegee the day after the annual Neg 
conference ; (6) the County Farmers' Insj- 
tute, together with the Farmers' Wintjr 
Short Course in Agriculture, and the Cot- 
ty Fair held in the fall; (7) the Natioijl 
Negro Business League, which seeks to p 
for the race as a whole what the local bu 
ness leagues are doing for the communit 
in which they live. 

In addition to the work performl 
through these organizations, we give c 
co-operation, not only to the graduates w 
are teaching in small country schools, tit 
to a number of large institutions like te 
Institute at Snow Hill, Alabama, and tie 
Voorhees Industrial School, at Denmaj:, 
South Carolina, that are doing in a modifm 
way the kind of work that we are seekii^ 
to do at Tuskegee. 

As the work of the school has extendi 
and the organization has become comply 
the Tuskegee Institute has been able to 1- 
come not merely an industrial and trae 
school, but a Normal Institute in the t»e 
sense of the word. We not only teach n 
connection with the trades the ordimy 
academic branches, but we are graduay 
building up a class of advanced studeifl 
who, as teachers, are at once working w!h 
and studying the methods of the school|n 
all its departments. Tuskegee Instituted 
thus creating slowly a body of picked s;l- 

dents who are so familiar with the work 
the school and so imbued with its spirit, tl. 
they are able to go out into various pa 
of the South and to other parts of the wod 
to establish schools of the same general p' 
and with the same broad aims of the Tus! 
gee Institute, and in which all the methc 
of reaching and teaching the masses wh 
have been worked out there are reproduc 
and with the same broad aims as the Tusl 
gee, have grown to a size where they he 
been incorporated by the state authoriti 
One of our trustees, the Rev. R. C. Bedfol, 
gives a large part of his time to keeping 
touch, through correspondence and perso 
visits, with out graduates who are workig 
in these schools and elsewhere throughc 
the South. 

The central aim of the Tuskegee Institu;, 
I may say in conclusion, has been to g.e 
to the masses of the Negro people an $a- 



:aon that would introduce method, order 
ir high aims into every one of the ordinary 
ic vities of their lives. In order to accom- 
plh this result the industrial community 
jbjh its co-operation, economics and disci- 
phe, has been made the basis of all the 
training that is given. The effort has been 
ir! this industrial community to apply to 
e*xy task performed the highest integrity 
a i intelligence, and to use the particular 
t;k as a means of mental and moral disci- 

On the other hand, we have sought to 
Hd direct practical use in some portion of 
t; work of the community for everything 
t|it was learned. In short, the task has 
ten to do everything we teach, and to 
tich everything we do. 

To do the thing you are taught is at once 
t perform a useful service and demonstrate 
tat you know how to perform the thing 

rightly. To teach a thing is to define and 
set up an ideal of perfection which lends 
worth and dignity to your work. 

More important still in a small commun- 
ity, the student never becomes a mere work- 
man, nor yet a mere student. He is rather 
both these, and something additional, — a 
citizen, if I may so speak. He sees in the 
community the fruits of his own labor; he 
takes a pride in the buildings that he has 
helped to construct. He feels that he under- 
stands, also, through the daily meeting in 
the chapel and the talks and lectures that 
he hears there, something of the large pur- 
pose of the school itself, and learns gradu- 
ally that Tuskegee is not a mere place, but 
a spirit, and that to really belong there he 
must enter into and become a part of that 

Tuskegee, Alabama. 


Read by Miss Fitts as a part of her paper at the I. K. U. in April, 1907 


When baby does her baking 
She rolls the dough out thin, 
Then carefully she places it 
In a pan of shining tin. 
The oven door is opened, 
The pan is pushed far down, 
She does not take it out again 
Until the cake is brown. 

-(E. S.) 

If you would a cookie make, 
First some flour you must take, 
Then some butter, sugar, spice, 
And some milk to make it nice. 
Then pat-pat-pat-a-cake, 
And pop it into the oven to bake. 
-(C. C.) 

Pat-a-cake, pat-a-cake 
Baby, for me, 
Baker must bake it, 
We'll have it for tea. 
Pat-a-cake, pat-a-cake, 
In the hot oven 
Make it all round, 
The cake must be browned. 
-(L. L.) 

The Bird's Nest. 

Mother bird is sitting 
On her eggs so warm, 
Darling little mother-bird, 
Guarding them from harm. 

Father-bird is singing 
In the tree above, 
Watchful little father-bird, 
Singing of his love. 

— (D. F. M.) 
Hidden quietly away 
Where the summer zephyrs play, 
Is a tiny cradle nest, 
In which two eggs gently rest. 
Soon two little birds are seen 
Peeping out into the green. 
Mother-bird for food must go 
That the baby birds may grow, 
And the father guards from harm, 
That they may not take alarm. 
-(R. R.) 
Song for Bread-Making. 
Baby dear, Baby dear, 
Listen now and you shall hear, 
How you get nice bread to eat 
From a field of growing wheat. 

Rain and sun, sun and rain, 
Help to make the ripened grain-, 
This the miller grinds to flour, 
Working, toiling, hour by hour. 

Bread from flour, flour from grain, 
Grain from sun and soft, warm rain, 
Which our Father from above, 
Sends down with his peace and love. 

-(R. R.) 
(By students of Pratt Institute Depart- 
ment of Kindergartens, Class of 1908.) 




BOOKBINDING in the high school is 
the natural outgrowth of the art and 
manual training (or cardboard con- 
struction), course now offered in 
public schools of New York from 
the kindergarten through the eighth grade. 
Every effort is being made by the supervis- 
ors to introduce into the grades all the work 
that can be accomplished with the simple 
equipments in reach of the children, train- 
ing that can be carried on with the desk as 
a work bench. In addition to this, small 
supplementary classes have been formed in 
these grades under the immediate instruc- 
tion of the supervisors in which advanced 
work is being done, most creditable from 
both an art and construction standpoint. It 
is probable that still more satisfactory re- 
sults could be accomplished in these special 
classes by using to some extent parts of the 
equipment of the shops now in existence. 
This training in its present state and as it 
will still further be perfected will fit the pu- 
pils for a broad, strong four years course in 
bookbinding in the high school. "Until the 
instincts of construction and production are 
systematically laid hold of in the years of 
childhood and youth, until they are trained 
in social directions, enriched by historic in- 
terpretation, controlled and illuminated by 
scientific methods, we certainly are in no 
position to locate the source of economic 
evils, much less to deal with them effective- 
ly." It is the purpose of this sketch to show 
the educational value ofbookbinding in the 
elementary school and especially in the high 
school from a physiological, pedagogical, 
ethical, sociological and industrial stand- 

The physiological benefits of bookbinding 
begin in the pasting, folding and sewing in 
the kindergarten. The muscles are corre- 
lated first in board work, and as the child 
passes through the grades, in finer work. In 
the high school great delicacy of muscular 
control and movement can be gained by 
means of "forwarding" books and "finish- 
ing" them with original designs. In using 
the various parts of a bindery equipment 
most of the muscles of the body receive ex- 
ercise and therefore grow stronger. The 
work is so interesting that attention be- 
comes involuntary, concentration may be 

readily acquired, the nerves therefore ar 
not forced to an unwholesome tension an 
many of the results can be gained withoii 
calling on the upper brain. It is especiall! 
noticeable in bookbinding, that if for an ir 
stant the attention is distracted from th 
matter in hand, the hand refuses to wor 
accurately, the tool or knife will wande 
with the mind. The student discovers tha 
he must put himself both mentally an 
physically into his work to get satisfactor 

His mind has been trained from the kir 
dergarten in construction work and corre 
lated subjects. As early as the third grad 
children are taught something of the historj 
and manufacture of cotton, linen, and sillj 
To this knowledge may be gradually adde 1 
the processes of leather manufacture, pape 
making and printing. Throughout th 
course as opportunity offers, the knowledg 
of these processes and products should b 
correlated with bookbinding. In the hig 
school of study of French wdl open up orig 
inal sources from which the history of book 
binding, with its close relation to genera 
history, illuminating, printing and the his 
tory of art may be greatly augmented, Th 
knowledge of design and color should ir 
crease from year to year till in the hig 
school it reaches a comparative finish. 

Throughout the course, from beginnin 
to end, there is constant opportunity for ex 
ercise of judgment in selecting suitable ma 1 
terials, in determining dimensions and pre 
portions. Ideals of accuracy must early b 
formed as the pupils soon find that the per 
fection of their product depends upon th 
exactness of manipulation. The librariar 
by calling attention to articles dealing wit] 
bookmaking and decoration may supple 
ment the work of the teacher and aid in in 
creasing both knowledge and interest. Thu 
bookbinding may be one agent in the ac 
quisition not only of technical ability, bu 
of general culture. 

It recommends itself most strongly fron 
a moral standpoint. Right and wrong way 
of working are definitely marked out. 
wrong choice in the early stages of a bool 
like rumor gathers to itself adverse circum 
stances, so that the finished book show 
serious departure from the truth. There i 



o way of mending it except by going back 
the point from which the departure was 
lade. Absolute law rules every step of the 
irocess. One seldom makes unconscious 
mistakes in bookbinding. The choice is al- 
ways deliberate. Aside from the fact that 
he eye is carefully trained to recognize the 
[lightest discrepancy, practically every 
;tage in the growth of a book can be tested 
f.vith tools, so that in case of failure the 
Worker alone is responsible. Thus the stu- 
dent's finished work represents him, — repre- 
sents his individual resources. He keeps 
pis own tools in order and stands or falls 
bv the work that they do through him. The 
results are so definite that he is encouraged 
to practice honestv. The interest is so great 
ithat there is no tendency to shirk after the 
,pupil has a few times been punished by com- 
rparing a oossible defective result with the 
perfect model and knows that he alone is 
responsible for falling short of perfection. 
The teacher, by not countenancing poor 
work, can s^t the moral tone of a class, and 
arouse an amount of enthusiasm that makes 
the workinp- hours a time not dreaded, but 
gladlv looked forward to. The use of parts 
of a bookbinding equipment by groups of 
students who may have to patiently wait 
their turn, or change, to work which will 
not require the tools in question, is excellent 
training in courtesy and usefulness. 

Bookbinding is an excellent means of ac- 
quiring insight into social and industrial 
life, and sympathy for its complex trials and 
perplexities. In the lower grades in taking 
up the manufacture of the materials used 
in bookbinding, such as linen, cotton, and 
paper, something of the industrial life of the 
people engaged in the manufacture of these 
products whether at home or abroad, should 
be studied. Thus some idea may be gained 
of the large number of people engaged in 
producing the materials which make up a 
book and of the environment in which they 
work. It may be shown that the binding 
and decoration of books is carried on under 
most favorable conditions in the United 
'States and that in general the trade has 
wholesome surroundings, since each worker 
must have plenty of space and light. 

Arithmetic in the grades finds here a rich 
source from which to draw its concrete 
problems, involving quantitative and com- 
mercial aspects of bookbinding. Number 
work will have an added interest, since the 
pupils may employ their text books them- 

selves as illustrative material for their prob- 
lems. For example: An ordinary book- 
binder can sew so many arithmetics like 
these in a day, how long will it take him to 
sew enough books for the class? Or: If 
the materials for one arithmetic cost so 
much, how much would all the arithmetics 
of the class cost? The high school might 
deal with such problems as this: How many 
men in what number of binderies are em- 
ployed in New York? What are their wages 
compared with those in other trades? What 
is the annual output of books in New York 
and at what cost are they published? Or 
taken the number of men employed in gold 
beating, which would be more easily deter- 
mined, and compute the difference of cost of 
gold in the brick and in the finished sheets. 
The cost of binding books entirely by hand, 
partly by machine, and wholly by machine, 
together with the relative merits of books 
bound in these various ways may well be 

In passing through the grades the pupils 
may acquire a degree of technical skill and 
a foundation of knowledge that will enable 
them to enter into an understanding of the 
various industries to which their attention 
has been called, with great interest and sym- 
pathy. The mind and muscles may be suc- 
cessfully trained in the beginnings of book- 
binding and something learned of the corre- 
lated subjects, all of which will be, aside 
from the value gained at the time in which 
the studies are pursued, a preparation for 
the work of the high school. Then they may 
be offered a four years' course in hand bind- 
ing, which should be conducted in shops 
properly equipped for excellent work. The 
high school students are mature enough to 
make personal application of their knowl- 
edge of the correlated subjects, such as the 
dyeing of leather, gold beating, the manu- 
facture of linen, cotton, silk, of thread and 
paper, machine binding and printing in 
problems of commercial arithmetic and in- 
dustrial life. The history of bookbinding, 
of art and design, general history and litera- 
ture take their place with reference to their 
bearing on this technical subject. The study 
of bookbinding would thus open up a broad 
field of insight into the life of the working 
world and of knowledge and culture and 
would therefore be a desirable addition to 
the curriculum. 

The following is a model curriculum for 
a four vears' high school course in book- 



binding and its correlated subjects with an 
outline of the necessary equipment* for 
classes of twelve sudents. 


Time required : Forty-two lessons a year, 
two hours each. 


Portfolio with three flaps. 

Note book cover. 

Single sheets bound on pamphlet basis, adherent 

Old book covered. 

Cockerell flexible binding — half-bound. 

Sharpening different kinds of knives. 

No edge cutting. 

Courtesy Manual Training Magazine. 

Designed and Executed by Students in Trenton School of 
Industrial Art 


Ooze leather limp covered book, not resewn. 

Book with whipped sections, bound on tapes, hol- 
low back flat, full cloth. 

Book sewn on sunken cords, half-bound, hollow 
back, false corus. 

Sheet music — single sheets guarded into sections, 
sewn on tapes, flat adherent back. 

Edge cutting. 


Vellum book sewn on thongs (Italian) hand il- 

Book on raised cords, half-bound. 

Book on raised cords, full bound. 

Coloring edges. 

Gold tooling. 

Lettering and straight lines. 


Book sewn over cords, full bound. 
Book sewn over cords, full bound, double heaci 

Gold and blind tooling from original designs. 

These subjects are to be correlated wit 

bookbinding from the kindergarten throug 

the high school course. Special attentio 

should be called to some of them in the hig 

school from an industrial and commerci; 


History of Bookbinding. 

History of Art. 

General History. 






Paper and Boards. 


Glues and Pastes. 


Illuminating and Hand-lettering. 

Copyright Laws and Publishing. 

Bookbinding Plant. 


4 Hickok plow and press with stands. 

1 Hickok standing press. 

4 Letter presses. 

6 Hand presses. 
12 Sewing frames with keys. 
12 Paring stones. 

1 Grindstone. 
4 Oil stones. 
3 Tooling stones. 

3 Glue pots. 

2 Knocking down irons. 
Full equipment of boards and tins for pressi 

backing and cutting. 

4 pairs trindles. 
4 Large steel hammers. 
4 Small steel hammers. 
8 Press knives. 
4 Band nippers. 
6 Paste brushes. 

3 Glue brushes. 

4 Metal shears. 
In addition to this the necessary equipruentpf 

accessories and a set of small tools furnished : 7 

*The cost of getting up a plant for twelve puis 
is from $250 to $300. A set of small tools suitde 
for portfolio work and necessary for each pril 
would cost $2.50. 





The material for the following series of 
ldustrial action stories were gathered from 
tudents of the Summer School of the South 
t Knoxville, Tenn. The incidents regard- 
,ig Rice Culture are due to Miss Marion 
lenckel of Charleston, S.C., and of Oranges 
b Miss Margaret Somerville of Jackson- 
iille, Fla. 

Rice Culture 

When you see the kernels of rice all 
■opped out full and white on your dessert 
'late you may wonder what it is made of 
nd how it grows. Big brother or Aunt 
ane may tell you that it comes from China 
jir the East Indies. And so to be sure it 
loes, and you think immediately of the pic- 
ure of growing rice and coolies standing in 
vater or a quaint mill seen on a fan or 
Chinese screen. But rice can grow nearer 
tome than that, and in some of our South- 
ern states the children can see it growing 
jind tell you all about it in a game such as 
km have been telling about harvest. First, 
|et us talk about it and then perhaps we can 
olay it. 

Story of the Rice 

Way down in South Carolina and Georgia 
!n the low marsh lands where the sea used 
to come in, grew scattered wild rice, which 
die birds ate. The cultivating of this and 
making it grow in abundance for table use 
has made it one of the industries of our 

First, the fields are plowed and harrowed 
as for anv other planting. Then in regular 
spaces ditches are dug, through which to 
run water and flood the rice at a certain 
time in its growth. Alongside of every 
ditch is a high bank, the fields lying lower 
than the banks and the ditches lower than 
! the fields. As soon as the rice is sown, the 
water from a pond called the "back water" 
is let in upon it where it stands until it is 
six inches high. Then it is drawn off through 
the ditches to give the plants time to grow 
strong. When these are about two feet 
high the fields are flooded for a second time 
to help kill the weeds. Then the water is 
again drawn off and the grain left to "head" 
and ripen. This letting in the water is called 
"flooding the field" and is necessary to make 
the kernels full and perfect. When ripe the 
heads turn yellow, though the stems are yet 
green and stand four feet high above the 
ground and are ready to be mown. 

The rice is best cut with a sickle by hand 
and is then bound into sheaves and left in 
the field to dry, shocked in such a way that 
the stalks form a shed to protect the grain 
from rain and yet dry in the sun. The 
threshing is done by hand on the bean floor, 
using the old-fashioned flails. It is then put 
in bags and carried by boat to the rice mill, 
which is usually miles away down stream 
near the mouth of the river. Here it is 
pounded in mortars to loosen the chaff; it 
is then sifted or placed in barrels and carted 
to the market. This is how we get the 
clean, white rice which we love to eat with 
sugar and milk. Now let us see how many 
things we can show about it. 

These suggestions might be worked out 
in finger plays or rhythmically on the circle 
with the kindergarten children, ostensibly 
best with Southern children. With the older 
ones let them name the various things to be 
done and list on the board in the order of 
their development. The children will enjoy 
doing this if the subject of rice has been 
studied in the school. The seats and aisles 
make the suggestion of ditches and banks 
very vivid; they also help order the game. 

Action Story for Finger Play or Circle. 

First we'll ploug"h and rake the field 
Smooth the ground for harvest yield. 
Then dig the ditches long and deep, 
And pile the bank up high and steep; 
Now scatter seed from side to side, 
Across the field, out far and wide, 
Open the gates, pour water in 
To cover the shoots so tender and green. 
Upon the banks now let us walk 
And see how grows each tiny stalk. 
When these have grown up high, just so 
The water back to the pond must go. 
When water and sun have done their best 
Then comes our turn to do the rest. 
With sickle sharp, then, row on row, 
All around the field we mow. 
The sheaves now bind and shock the grain 
To save from storm and wind and rain; 
Then to the barn, not one will fail, 
To tnresh it out with swinging flail. 
Our bags we now will quickly fill, 
Then hasten to the busy mill. 
Here in the mortars shake and pound 
The husks from off the seed around; 
Then fans will blow the chaff away, 
And here is rice for lunch today. 

Schoolroom Game 

I. Rice Planting. 

1. Ploughing. — Let children tug, 
guide, push, turn corners, whoa, click, 
etc., good shoulder and back move- 



2. Digging. — Place foot on shovel, 
push, stoop, throw, etc., up and down 
through aisles. 

3. Sewing. — To right, left with both 
hands alternating, through aisles; free, 
broad shoulder movements ; arm swung 
outward, shoulder high. 

4 Opening Gates. — Pushing slowly 
and steadily downward — count — 1, 2,3; 
repeat four times. 

5. Walking on Banks. — -Through 
aisles, around the room, arms back of 
head, looking fiom side to side. 

6. Mowing with Sickle. — Stoop, 
give sharp clip with right arm, through 
one aisle; repeat with left arm. 

7. Binding. — Stoop, twist, throw; 

8. Threshing. — Two rows of chil- 
dren flail together, alternating down 
stroke. Good shoulder and back move- 

9. Fill Sacks. — Lift, carry on back 
to boat, bend under sense of weight. 

10. Milling. — Turning wheels, pound- 
ing in mortar, blowing or fanning chaff. 

Insist on good realistic work, making the 
movements strong, yet rhythmically reac- 
tionary and recreative. 

Story of Orange Culture. 

"When we are sitting cosy and warm at 
the breakfast table eating our delicious 
oranges with the snow drifting and blowing 
outside, you can scarcely believe that at 
that very minute there is a part of our coun- 
try wh;re the weather is warm and oranges 
are hanging ripe on the trees. If you will 
put vour finger on the lower part of your 
map hanging in the schoolroom you will 
find a Jong boot-shaped point called Florida, 
or Flower Land, as it was named by the 

Spaniards who first found it. So beautiful 
did this country seem to them with its 
bright colored birds and flowers and fruit 
that they called it the country of youth and 
thought if -> r ou drank of its clear flowing wa- 
ters you would always remain young. 

In Florida you will find Palm trees and 
bananas, queer bayonet trees with spiked 
leaves and blossoming accacias and mag- 
nolias. There the alligators sleep in the 
sand or warm waters, but the very most 
wonderful of all is the orange tree from 
which comes our delicious fruit. 

It is a fairy tree on which all at once show 
shiny green leaves, buds and flowers and 
tiny green oranges, with next size and next 
size and next size, until you find the large, 
splendid ones which we buy in the market. 
The trees are planted in large groves and 
sometimes when Jack Frost makes them an 
unexpected visit people light fires under the 
trees to drive him awav." 

This subject is very suggestive in color 
and form for decoration, occupation and 
constructive work or table plays. Also the 
incidents of growth and packing may serve 
to illustrate rhythms and games. 

Gathering and Packing Oranges. 

Trees in groves stand in long rows or at 
regular intervals in the groves. They are 
kept numed and are carefully attended, the 
fruit plucked when ripe by climbing a ladder 
and clipping off the fruit, placing in basket 
and carrying to packing- houses. 

Here the fruit is rolled in a long alleyi 
punctured with holes of different sizes, j 
where it falls through into boxes and in this, 
way assorting itself. 

The fruit is then rolled in tissue paper and] 
carefully packed by hand, nailed up and 



The Alligator sprawls around 
And spreads upon his toes, 

And when you think he's fast asleep 
He blinks along his nose, 

And there he lies just like a log 

Out in the sand and sun; 
Just try him if you think he is, 

It will not he such fun. 


Dame Palm tree stands 
And waves her fans 

And looks so tall and stately 
I am sure she would, 
(If she only could), 

Make us a bow sedately, 






[N the Sixth Year Book of the National 
Society for the Scientific Study of 
Education Mrs. Maria Krause Boelte 
sounds the highest note when she 
says : "To receive and to return love 
is to the child an essential condition 
f full growth." 

Since reading this new expression of the 
liild's great need of love, it has occurred to 
le that possibly some kindergartners do 
jot realize how much they lose if they do 
jot warm their hearts again and again by 
le lire of Mother-love. The Mothers' 
leetings and the visits in the home are for 
; our uplifting, dear kindergartner, and not 
'lone for mothers. You have a warm and 
wing heart and may possibly love more 
iteihgently in some ways than many a 
lother, yet the love of a mother for her 
hild can make her child a new one to you. 
t will individualize the child; it will set him 
ff from all others and you will love him 
lore than you did before you knew his 
lother. Try it and see. 

There may have been too much sentimen- 
ality in the kindergarten, but there can 
lever be too much love. In our many argu- 
aents and discussions of methods and de- 
ices, do we ever forget that love is the 
oundation of the kindergarten and its chief 
nifying power? 

So, too, Pestalozzi, Froebel's great pre- 
ecessor, wrote, "I am convinced that when 
child's heart has been touched, the conse- 
uences will be great for his development 
nd entire moral character." 
Perhaps in no better way can the strength, 
s well as the sweetness of love in the home, 
e presented than by a study of Pestalozzi's 
imple home story of "Leonard and Ger- 

"The love and patience," Pestalozzi writes, 
with which Gertrude bore with the dis- 
>rderly and untrained little ones was almost 
>ast belief." This was after she had invited 
.er neighbor's little neglected children to 
ain her family group. 

Again, speaking of his own work in the 
'rphan school at Stanz, Pestalozzi says, "I 
/as persuaded that my affection would 

change the state of my children just as 
quickly as the spring sun awakes to new life 
the earth that winter has benumbed. I was 
not deceiving myself; before the spring sun 
melted the snow of our mountains my chil- 
dren were hardly to be recognized. 
I wanted to prove by my experiment that if 
public education is to have any real value 
for humanity, it must imitate the means 
which make the merit of domestic educa- 
tion; for it is my opinion that if school 
teaching does not take into consideration 
the circumstances of family life, and every- 
thing else that bears on man's general edu- 
cation, it can only lead to an artificial and 
methodical dwarfing of humanity. 
In any good education, the mother must 
be able to judge daily, nay hourly, from the 
child's eyes, lips and face, of the slightest 
change in his soul. . . . The power of 
the educator, too, must be that of a father* 
quickened bv the general circumstances of 
domestic life. . . . Before all things I 
was bound to gain the confidence and the 
love of the children. I was sure if I suc- 
ceeded in this all the rest would come of 

Pestalozzi's writings and work prepared 
the way for the kindergarten, for Froebel 
studied and taught with Pestalozzi at Iver- 
dun, from 1807 to iSoo. It will be interest- 
ing to mothers to know of the lives of these 
great educational reformers and to find that 
both drew their inspiration from the home 
and the mothers of Germany. The most 
popular work of each of these men was 
written to enlist the helo of mothers in edu- 
cating the child. Therefore, I advise the 
addition of Pestalozzi's "Leonard and Ger- 
trude," and of Froebel's "Mother Play" and 
"Mother-song" to the books of the Mothers' 
library, which I trust many kindergartners 
have already in circulation. 

The story-form of "Leonard and Ger- 
trude" makes it comparatively easy reading. 
It will appeal to almost any mother. At a 
meeting of the Mothers' Circle, briefly out- 
line the story or appoint a mother to do so. 
Assign several paragraphs to other mothers 
to read aloud at the meeting. Request the 



secretary of the circle to write a list of all 
mothers who wish to read the book on a 
slip of paper with addresses. Paste it in the 
back of the book and direct the first one 
named to pass the book on to the second as 
soon as she has read it, the second to the 
third, etc. Place date of delivering the book 
after each name. The mother in whose 
hand the book remains at the date of the 
next meeting of the circle should bring it to 
the meeting and re-start it if others still 
wish to read it. 

At the second meeting practical questions 
suggested by the reading may well fill the 
hour. To encourage thoughtful reading, re- 
quest mothers to copy a paragraph with 
which they do not agree, or one which they 
have tried and proved valuable. 

The kindergartner should be prepared to 
show how educational reform has gone for- 
ward since the days of Pestalozzi, and that 

many of his hopes are now realized in tli 
introduction of manual training. Hi 
schemes for industrial education are onl 
beginning to be realized, but in Switzerlanc 
where he lived and taught, it is said tha 
there is not a pauper known. A beautifu 
statue of Pestalozzi with arms enfoldini 
several little children was erected som 
years ago in memory of this great, lovinj 
father of Swiss orphans, and, indeed, o 
every land. 


Chapter 8. A good mother's Saturday evening 

Chapter 10. Childish Character. 

Chapter 16. Domestic order and disorder. 

Chapter 17. Disturbance reigns throughout th 
village, except in Gertrude's house 

Chapter 23. One peaceful home. 

Chapter 25. Gertrude's method of instruction. 

Chapter 31. Organization of a new school. 

Chapter 32. A good school master. 




Jack Frost's Present. 

How Tommy had wished for a pair of 
skates! Now that they were really his, he 
eould hardly wait to try them on the brook 
at the foot of the hill; but it looked as 
though he might have to wait some time, 
for Jack Frost had let the brook get away 
from him lately. Tommy had seen it run- 
ning through the fields and under the road, 
hurrying fast so as not to be caught again, 
and carrying along with it broken pieces of 
ice that told the story of its having been 
caught ; now it was nearly free of these, and 
perhaps it thought itself free of Jack Frost 
as well, but he was only taking a vacation, 
and I can tell you that when Tommy looked 
at his new skates, he hoped the vacation 
would not be long. 

And it was not long, for on that very 
Christmas eve, after everyone in the farm- 
house was snug in bed, and the tree was 
left alone in the sitting room, who should 
come peeping into the windows but Jack 
Frost himself! 

He was not surprised to see his friend, the 
evergreen tree, in the house, for he had seen 
such things before; indeed, you could not 

tell him anything about Christmas, for hi 
and Santa Claus were the best of friends 
many a time had they dashed through th 
country together behind the swift reindeer 
and where had he been that very week bu 
to the North Pole to meet his jolly friend? 

So you will not be surprised to knov 
that he stopped to make some Christma 
pictures, — of stars and Christmas trees an< 
church steeples, — on the windows of th 
farmhouse, for the family to find the nex 
morning. When he came to Susie's win 
dow something almost took away hi: 
breath, for there lay Susie hugging fast ii 
her arms — could it be a new baby? Thei 
he remembered that he had seen something 
like it in Santa Claus' sleigh, and in anothe 
minute he guessed that it was a Christma 
doll. He wondered if Tommy, too, woulc 
have something new for him to see ; so h< 
hurried to the next window, and peeped in 
There lay Tommy dreaming of Santa Claus 
and on a chair right by his bed, where h< 
might put out his hand and touch them th< 
first thing in the morning, was a pair o 

Now I do not need to tell you what cam< 
into Jack Frost's head when he saw thos< 
skates. He did not wait another minute 
but went down the hill as fast as the wind 


mil chased the running brook until he all his pushing with his toes in the snow, 
;aught it; then he held it fast, and did not he could not go far on the level road De- 
leave it once during the night, for he meant yond. So he must tramp up the hill and 
'to give Somebody a good surprise. start one more— with plenty of time f 

When Tommy waked early in the morn- 
ing, the first thing that came into his head 
was that this was Christmas day; then he 
remembered his skates, and put out his 

hand to touch them. Whew! How cold b , reath wh / Ie th , c - v went rac,n - down over 

they felt! What could have happened to the sraooth track, across the bridge, and on 

them? He wondered if lack Frost had —on— on— on— until it seemed to Tommy 

come back from his vacation; it was still that he must be miles from home; though 

too dark to see the pictures on the window, whe " he turned around there was the farm 

so he could not be sure, but he lav there house in plain sight,— perhaps mother had 

or an- 
other slide before the big boys came back. 
Sometimes they made room for him on a 
double ripper, and then how he held his 

wishing very hard that it might be so 

seen him from the sitting room window 

At last he heard father's clock, and up he . Somebody must have seen them, anyway 

jumped with a "Wish you a merry Christ- 

for all of a sudden there was a sound of 

mas, and in the next breath: "Let's hurry sleigh bells, and out of the yard came the 
and look at the brook." Then he scampered Farmer wlt " two horses and a Ion- sleigh 
almost as fast as jack Frost himself, and lhat was b, g enough to hold them all-in- 
father was not far behind. deeec1 they knew by the twinkle in his eye 
You know what they found, for lack that that was why he was using it. So they 
Frost had been waiting there all night to k ' u l,,|l,mvs sk 'd and the big double rip- 

pers and the little pigstickers close by the 
fence, and all scrambled in behind the farm- 
XL er and started down the hill again. 
Some Slei°h Rides This time they did not stop on the bridge 

where Tommy's sled had stopped so many 

The hill by Tommy's house was a great lilll0Si nol - on beyond where the big double 

place for coasting; even the boys who lived ri ppers and little pigstickers could go— but 

at a distance were sure to come here with 

their sleds, for it was the longest hill anv- 

give Tommy his Christmas present. 

where around. They thought Tommy's 
father a very wise farmer, who knew the 
best place in the country for a farm. — am 

went on down the smooth road with the 
sleigh bells jingling a tune all the way, — 
and even when they came to a place where 
the road went up another hill, still the 

Tommy a very lucky boy, who had only to ,,,,rses carned the lon S sleigh on. After a 

step outside his gate, and there was a Ion- wll,,e the houses began to look strange, but 

hill with a shining brook at the bottom. th,s ,1 " 1 not tr " ul,le the b °- vs m the least ' 

Where the road crossed the brook there for the - v were sure that r ommy s father 
was a bridge of heavy planks, and beyond knew the xva - v everywhere and home again. 
the bridge a long level road. I wish" you J hc - v ,ml - v ke P t their e >" es °P en for a11 the 
could have been there one morning after new sights, and tlieir mouths open for cheer- 
Jack Frost had put the finishing touches on m S and shouting; they passed other boys 
it all, for you would have seen Tommy's coasting with all kinds of sleds and they 
sled, and big double rippers and little pig huighed to themselves to see how the horses 
stickers, all snooting down the hill, over the left the swiftest of them far behind. 
bridge, and off on the level road beyond— But after a while even their long sleigh 
until from the top of the hill the farthest had to stop; the farmer did an errand at a 
sleds looked like little black specks on the farm house by the road and then turned the 
snow, horses' heads toward home, so they all 

The farmer himself had made Tommy's should be in time for dinner, 
sled a long time ago out of wood from the The boys gave three cheers for their ride, 
woodlot, and it was as strong as could be ; and I can tell you that when they saw the 
but no matter how- good a start Tommy long road stretching far ahead of them they 
might get, the great' double rippers were were glad that this time they did not have 
sure to go whizzing past him. He could go to walk to the top of the hill and pull then- 
down the hill and over the bridge, but with sleds behind them. 





H ° 











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a, ^ 

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5 -0 

•3 < 







Questions for Kindergartners and Primary 

"Between the natural laws of child 
growth, and the actual work of kindergar- 
ten and grade there is a great gulf fixed," 
said a prominent educator not long ago. 

The gulf, however, is not so wide, nor so 
deep that it cannot be spanned. Kinder- 
gartners and teachers, will you not give an 
account of your experience — as suggested 
by the general scheme of the following 
questions — in bringing the practical work 
of kindergarten and primary school into 
Larmony with the child's natural tend- 
encies? A reply to a single question will 
stimulate to greater endeavor, and your an- 
swers will suggest new lines of work to 

The questions do not necessarily imply 
the views of the writer; they are intended 
to focus attention on certain phases of the 
problem, and to provoke discussion. Since 
the higher mental and moral qualities have 
their source in a robust physical develop- 
ment, the questions begin with physical 
growth and health. Such topics as the de- 
velopment of the senses, acquisition of lan- 
guage, muscular control, play, imagination, 
and reasoning will appear in future num- 
bers. To those who cultivate it this field is 
a fruitful one. Answers, suggestions, or 
questions bearing upon the work will be 
published from time to time in the Kinder- 
garten-Primary Magazine. They should be 
addressed to Miss Bertha Johnston, care of 
Kindergarten-Primary Magazine, 150 Nas- 
sau Street, New York City. 


A. Growth of the body. 

1. Do you keep a record of the height and 

weight of the children? 

2. How and when do you make such records? 

3. Of what value are they in your daily work? 

4. Have you observed a fairly constant rela- 

tion between size and weight and men- 
tal ability? 

5. What difference, if any, in the size and 
weight of boys and girls of the same 

B. Healthful bodily conditions. 

1. If you know the quality of food the chil- 
dren eat, can you trace its effect on 
growth? On mental ability? Reliable 
instances elsewhere? 

2. What relation exists between tnelr habits 

of rest and sleep, and physical and men- 
tal development? 

3. How have you brought about more health- 

ful conditions among the children? 

a. Are child study circles a good means? 

b. How can the teacher create ideals and 

form good habits by the use of: 

1. School "'parties" and lunches? 

2. A rest room, or regular rest period? 

3. The tending of pets? 

4. The care of a playhouse and of dolls? 

c. What means are best adopted to awak- 

ening an interest in the care of teeth, 
skin, hair, and nails. 

4. Is fatigue a serious menace to health un- 

der present school conditions? 

a. How do you recognize it? 

b. What characteristics of personality and 

manner in the teacher tend to fa- 
tigue young children? 

c. In general, how long can kindergarten 

and primary children be held to a 
given task without fatigue? 

d. What are the best means for preventing 


5. How can you tell the nervous condition of 

little children? 

a. Do you use definite tests, or judge by 

the general appearance and behavior? 

b. Have you ever helped to quiet twitching 

of a child's muscles, or to overcome 
the habit of making unconscious 
grimaces? How? 

6. Of what is mouth breathing in children an 


a. A bad habit merely? 

b. An unnatural physical condition? 

c. How may it be corrected? 

7. Are obstructions, or abnormal growths in 

the head and throat common among 

a. In what ways do they affect the health? 

b. How do they influence the child men- 


c. By what ordinary means can they prob- 

ably be discovered? 

d. What would you do in such a case? 

II. Development of the Senses. 

Child study has practically determined 
that in the development of the child's pow- 
ers the emphasis of growth is placed now 
on one set of functions, and now on an- 
other; there is a growing period for each, 



and a certain order in which they develop. 
The time to shape and enrich the child's life 
is during these nascent stages. But if the 
growing period passes, and the right im- 
pressions are not made, it is an opportunity 
gone never to return. For sense impres- 
sions and experiences the early years of the" 
child's life are worth all the rest put to- 

A. Sensory training in general. 

1. What relation do you find between de- 

fective sense organs and mental dull- 

2. How much time and emphasis should be 

placed upon sense education? 

a. Does Halleck overestimate its value in 

"The Education of the Central Nerv- 
ous System"? 

b. How far do you accept Miss Blow's 

statement that accentuating the ele- 
mentary sensations impedes the de- 
development of higher mental ac- 

c. How may the teacher adjust these op- 

posing view points in such a way as 
to give the child a rich and varied 
his soul organs?s" etaoinn shrdlus 
sense experience, and not to "bind- 
eyes, ears, hands, mouth and nose"?* 
ing his soul throughout life to his 

3. What should be the aim of training the 

senses in relation to 

a. Immediate welfare and pleasure? 

b. Future intelligent growth? 

4. What topics in the program lend them- 

selves especially to the education of the 
various senses? 

5. Of what value is mental recall? 

1. How may the gifts, occupations, con- 
structive work, plays, etc., be used to 
make more clear and definite the child's 
mental images? 

B. Hearing. 

1. How do you test the child's ability to 


2. Training the sense of hearing. 

a. With what sounds in nature are little 
children most familiar? 

1. How do you acquaint them with 

a. Calls of animals? 

b. Bird songs? 

c. Murmur of running water? etc. 

2. In what ways do you use the follow- 

ing means to direct the child's at- 
tention and awaken his aesthetic 

a. Stories; 

b. Instrumental music; 

c. Songs; 

d. Poems; 

e. Dramatization and imitation? 

3. Describe games which are successful in 

training in the ability to 
a. Recognize familiar sounds; 

*"Letters to a Mother," pp. 193-4. 

b. Discriminate differences in pitch; 

c. Locate sound; 

d. Discriminate quality of sound. 

C. Sight. 

1. What is the best way of testing the eye- 

sight of young children? 

a. How must it differ from the usual means 
used by oculists? 

2. Training of the sense of sight. 

a. Color. 

1. What exercises help to cure color 

blindness in children? 

2. How slight a variation from the stan- 

dard can they discriminate readily? 
a. Is it desirable to use more than one 
shade of each color? 

3. How soon should children be familiar- 

ized with the intermediate hues, 
such as red-orange, blue-violet, 

4. Is there any advantage in elaborate 

exercises to show how orange, 
green, and violet are derived? 

5. Is the child's taste best formed by al- 

lowing him to use crude colors, and 
color combinations, if he likes 
them, or by expecting him to adopt 
a cultivated adult standard of 
beauty? Why? 

b. What games help to develop 

1. Quickness of observation? 

2. Accuracy of observation? 

3. Ability to grasp an increasing number 

of objects, or details? 

D. Touch. 

1. To what extent do kindergarten and pri- 

mary children need to reinforce sight 
witn touch, to get clear concepts? 

2. What materials and phases of the program 

or course of study are best adopted to 
exercises for cultivating the sense of 

3. What plays and games do you use to de- 

velop this sense? 

E. Taste and smell. 

1. Is the cultivation of taste and smell as es- 

sential for intellectual growth, as the 
development of the other senses? 

2. iviay the development of the senses of taste 

and smell be a source of intellectual as 
well as sensuous enjoyment? 

a. What poets employ images of taste or 

3. What are the most simple and natural 

means of familiarizing children with 
various odors? 

4. What activities naturally demand the ex- 

ercise of the ability to test materials by 
the sense of smell or of taste? 

The Autobiography of Helen Kellar fur- 
nishes a remarkable illustration of the func- 
tion of the senses in furnishing material 
which is fundamental not only to intellec 
tual, but to ethical growth. 





Very little attention could be given to the winter 
conditions in nature during December because of 
the Christmas thought being so prominent. Now 
comes January with its sueets of snow and rivers 
Df ice; its edgings of icicles and its beautiful, fairy 
snowflake stars and flowers. Some beautiful effects 
ran be secured in drawing ^jis month by the use of 
ivhite chalk and black charcoal. Snow scenes, skat- 
ing ponds, sleighing parties, all suggested by slight 
:ouches of the charcoal and masses of white. 

This is the month when the children's thoughts 
ire naturally directed to the idea of time. This, too, 
iffords considerable employment in cutting, folding, 

attention be properly directed thereto. The skies 
are clear and dark, showing the twinkling of the 
stars and the phases ot the moon to advantage. 
These changes should be represented in the most 
beautiful mediums possible and the spirituality of 
the conditions must be kept before the children. 
me feelings inspired are mystery and awe, the 
work begun in transparencies can be continued in 
connection with the "Light Work" as appropriately 
as any time during the year and the desired feelings 
are produced in that work better than with any 
other. Still, a blue sky with stars and moon set 
off by black houses with twinkling lights here and 
there is not lacking in these feelings. This can be 

jmm^'~^~~~~ ili -^ 7 : — ^ 



Irawing, etc. Some of the time pieces ranging in 
ize from watches and clocks for the homes to town 
•locks in church steeples and public buildings are 
imong tne most realistic constructions of the year's 
vork and never fail to give intense pleasure to the 
:hildren. Who wouldn't possess a watch, one like 
ather's, if he could! 

January skies are particularly striking at night, 
t'his is a time when the still, quiet beauty of the 
leavens will reach the souls of the children, if their 

produced by combination drawing and cutting. In 
connection with the lights of God the devices of man 
for lighting houses and streets are studied; electric 
lights, street lights (gas and oil), table lamps, all 
figure in iiie work. These can be represented in 
drawings, by cutiings, and tearing, etc. 

The helpers who might appropriately figure in 
tnis month s work would be the street cleaner, the 
clock maker, and the lamp lighter. Some of them 
should not be given much time, but their labor is 
honest and the attention of the children should in 
some way be brought to them. 



The animal to be noticed this month might he 
the horse in connection with city life as the condi- 
tions of the streets and the difficulties under which 
he labors call attention to him and especial interest 
in him. Since birds figure more or less throughout 
i~e year the drawing work should include more 
than one scene where snow birds appear. One such 
picture might represent children feeding the birds 
in the snow. 

At a time when so little can be done in the line 
of walks and visits it is particularly fortunate that 
nature comes to our door with her hands full of 
good things. But thus is it ever, if we would but 
search out the "compensations" and give ourselves 
up to tae enjoyment of the blessings. 

Free Drawing. 

Street scene during and after a snowfall (men 
clearing the streets, people going through deep 

Sleighing party with horses, etc. 

Children coasting. 

Skating scene. 

Pictures of the sky as the children see it. 

Church with clock face. 

Alarm clock. 

Watch and chain. 

Window in clock store. 

Street cleaner's 

60 oK cover design 

five pointed 




Fold. av»d cot to show 


House covered with snow. 

Fields of snow with trees and fences. 
Country road covered with snow; here and there 
a house. 

Frozen river with skaters. 

Church covered with snow. 

Building hung with icicles. 

Geometric drawings of snowflakes. 

Clock face. 

Clock tower. 

* Night scene. 

Snow scene with snow birds. 

Fields of snow and a frozen river (hook cover). 

*The night scene should be drawn on a large blue 
sheet of paper. The moon and stars represented in 
the sky with yellow pencil. The buildings of dif- 
ferent heights and outlines drawn with black pencil 
and here and there a red and green light scattered 
through many more yellow lights, apparently shin- 
ing through windows or hanging high as signals. 



Lamp lighter at work. 

Street lighted by gas lamps. 

Street cleaner at work. 

Children feeding birds from a window (paste 
on shutters to open and shut.) 

Horse at work during winter carrying heavy 
loads through the snow, drawing wagons loaded 
with snow, etc. 

Illustrate story work. 

Practice Drawing. 

Electric light. 

Lamp post. 
Table lamp. 

Snow shoe. 
Snow shovel. 



16 9 

Crescent. Yellow paper. 

Half moon. 

Full moon. 

Lamp post. 

Table lamp. 

Illustrate story work. 

Drawing and Cutting. 

Child on skates. 
Child and hocky club. 
Sleigh and driver. 
Bob sleigh. 

Five pointed star (please draw in on designing 

Electric light. 

Watch and chain. 

Street cleaner. 

Street cleaner's broom, shovel and cart. 

Illustrate story work. 


C*av\d father's 










Door Oj- 


L— — JL TrousevS 

To construct the watch and chain referred to 
above draw an open faced watch and make a paper 
chain of fine strips of yellow paper. 

Folding and Cutting. 


Grandfather's clock. 
• v^lock on the shelf." 
Sleigh ball. 


Ladder (lamp lighter's.) 

Table lamps. 

To make the sleigh take a large square sheet of 
paper; fold the sixteen squares. Cut away the two 
middle squares on the front edge, leaving one 
square at either corner. Fold the back edge to the 
first fold running from side to side. Cut away as 
on front of sleigh only taking a strip half as wide 
and just the same length. 

Fold corner to diagonally opposite corners on 
back of paper. 

Fold right and left edges to the nearest fold to 
make the runners of the sleigh; paste and stand 
upright. Fasten a string through the front of run- 
ners and sleigh is complete. 

The parts of the Grandfather's Clock are first 
made and tuen pasted together thus: Take a paper 
circle two incnes in diameter at least; represent 
the figures and markings around the face of the 
clock by dashes; draw the hands. Now fold and 
cut the oft-used box form, but do not paste the 
corners yet. This is to be the body of the clock and 
should be a generous size. In the proper position 
at the top of the clock paste the face; from this 
paste a narrow strip of paper to represent the string 
of the pendulum; on the end of the strip paste a 
one-inch circle for the bottom of the pendulum. 
When these are quite dry the box corners should 
be pasted. If the clock will not stand alone a sup- 
port should be pasted on the back. 

A clock with a pointed top will be a change for 
"The Clock on tne Shelf." Fold one diameter run- 
ning from top to bottom of the clock; fold rignt 
and left edges to this diameter. Fold the two top 
corners to the diameter at the back of the clock. 
Cut these folds, leaving a peak top for the clock. 
At a proper distance from the peak draw a circle 
for the face of the clock; indicate the markings on 
the face. From the bottom of the face suspend a 
string on which is fastened a small sphere or 
cylinder. This clock can be greatly improved by 
pasting on a door made just the size and shape of 
the front of the clock between the two outside folds 
and the peak and bottom. Before fastening the 
door to the clock fold the two sides together and 
cut out holes for the clock face and pendulum 
weight to show through. If the clock is to have 
this door the face of the clock and the pendulum, 
arrangements should not be placed on the clock 
till the door is completed. This will show the exact 
place where they should be fastened. A broad mar- 
gin should be made around the door of the clock 
for a frame. 

Fold skate through the middle and cut out to 
show runner. 

Paper Tearing. 

Street cleaner's uniform of 




The children should mount these pieces on a good 
sized mounting paper and fill in with pencil the 
face, hards, feet, buttons, and tools for working. 




The Function of the Principles of Selection 
and Arrangement in Program Making. 

WE have set forth, in earlier dis- 
cussions, the theoretical basis 
and have had occasion to re- 
peatedly emphasize the spiri- 
of the Humanitarian Program, 
tual reference of the common 
problems of life and of education. Further, 
we have indicated that the experience con- 
tent of this program, which emphasizes the 
relationship to humanity as represented in 
the home and family life, and the relation- 
ship to nature as indissolubly linked with 
the development of each human being, must 
be viewed in the light of a third factor 
which gives to the process its characteristic 
of spirituality — the relationship to God. 

For purposes of clearness, the subject- 
matter of this conception of the program 
has been treated, first, in its relationship to 
humanity, and second, in its relationship to 
nature. Such a treatment must be under- 
stood as expedient only, since these fac- 
tors belong to one unitary process of ex- 
perience, and cannot be separated. 

Again, the principle of selection, or dif- 
ferentiation — for purposes of reflection — ■ 
has been considered apart from its neces- 
sary correlative, the principle of arrange- 
ment, or integration. 

Before proceeding to the discussion of the 
principle of arrangement and its function in 
program making, it may be well to intimate 
the ultimately unitary office of the princi- 
ple of selection, which functions through 
processes of differentiation. Paradoxical as 
this may seem, a moment's reflection will 
make it clear as an indisputable truth ; e. g. 
History arises through the exercise of the 
principle of selection. Within the totality 
of experience in the life of a race, there 
arise experiences which are of fundamental 
importance to the individual member, and 
to the corporate life of the whole. In the 
beginning of race life, these experiences 
were differentiated from the total experi- 
ence-continuum for emphasis through repe- 
tition. They were handed down by oral 
traditions; they were preserved in picture 
writing; down through the ages it is possi- 
ble to trace the various devices invented by 
mankind to preserve the record of import- 
ant events, until they culminated in the in- 

vention of printing. Again, these crucial 
events in the development of race life which 
were emphasized through repetition, stimu- 
lated the emotional life of the race, aroused 
its imagination, and liberated forces which 
gave to the world its art and its literature, j 
Dr. Woodbury writes: "Race life spiritual- 
ized is the formula of all great literature." 

In some such wise the various school 
studies have arisen, and have become the 
ways and means, not only of preserving ex- 
perience, but of transmitting it for the en- 
richment and interpretation of the experi- 
ence of each succeeding generation. Thus 
the principle of selection, beginning its func- 
tioning in differentiation, becomes the inte- 
gration, progression, and interpretation of 
each selected experience. 

Here we may profitably recall the state- 
ment made in the introduction to these dis- 
cussions, viz. : that the history of civiliza- 
tion reveals the great humanitarian princi- 
ple as the basis for the kindergarten pro- 
gram. In the illustration cited above, this 
principle, persistently working through the 
selective power of race mind, demonstrates 
its ability to hold fast that which is good 
for itself and for posterity. The principle 
of selection, even while functioning as the 
agent of special integration, progression 
and interpretation of various phases of hu- 
man experience, still retains its differentiat- 
ing character, since it has only rudimentary 
power to reinforce and interrelate the ex- 
periences it has selected. The reinforcing 
and interrelating of these experiences is ac- 
complished mainly through the functioning 
of the correlative principle of arrangement, 
as the agent of both special and general uni- 
fication of experience. 

Leaving this principle of arrangement for 
later development, let us return to the posi- 
tion that education is a spiritually deter- 
mined process which functions through a 
system of relationships, and indicate a little 
more fully how the experience content of 
the kindergarten program substantiates this 

Frobel writes : "Education consists in 
leading man as a thinking, intelligent being 
growing into self-consciousness, to a pure, 
unsullied, conscious, and free representa- 
tion of the inner law of Divine Unity, and in 
teaching him ways and means thereto."* 
♦"Education of Man," p. 2. 



If it be assumed that the aims and pur- 
poses of life and of education are identical, 
and that the ideal goal of their combined 
striving is none other than the conscious 
unification of each individual life with the 
Divine life, it follows that the ways and 
means to this achievement are of primary 
importance. Recognizing that in the last 
analysis the problem is essentially spiritual, 
it is clear that the goal cannot be won by 
direct approach, nor in isolation can the in- 
dividual win his birthright of freedom. 
Through communion and kinship with hu- 
man life, and through communion with the 
spirit of truth and beauty manifest in na- 
ture, the way lies open to communion and 
unification of the individual life with the 
Divine Life. By conscious unification of 
this three fold relationship, there is created 
a province of experience within which the 
individual, representing and expressing this 
unitary life, may live, a free soul. 

It is the high office of the kindergarten 
to select and arrange ways and means to 
"life's unification (Lebenseinigung)." The 
work of the kindergarten under the human- 
itarian conception of the program, is based 
upon the recognition that the processes 
which make for the control and unification 
of experience, have begun their functioning 
in pre-kindergarten days; but these pro- 
cesses are, in the main, rudimentary and 
unconscious, having been exercised in rela- 
tion to an unordered and miscellaneous ex- 
perience that has been subjected to little 
evaluation. With the advent of the child 
into kindergarten, these primary processes 
of control and unification of experience are 
continued; but their exercise is now di- 
rected; and, under guidance, they function 
to gain control over a carefully selected and 
arranged body of experience which contains 
essential worths and truths for childhood. 
Subjecting these selected experiences and 
their sources to a final analysis, they are 
found to be the very foundation of human 
development, and are the embodiment for 
childhood of the best that the race has won. 
Thus, with the kindergarten begins that ed- 
ucation which Dr. Butler defines as "the 
conscious adjustment of the individual to 
the best inheritances of the race." The aim 
and purpose of every selected process and 
experience is the conscious unification of 
race life with the Divine Life. This is to 
be accomplished, not through the direct 
method of instruction, but, by the indirect 
method of training, which seeks, as the out- 

come of its inspiration and guidance, the 
nurture of the soul. The education that be- 
gins in the kindergarten is the education by 

Profound consideration incited Froebel 
to write: "Do with the child nothing unre- 
lated, else he easily becomes uneducated." 
The maxim, "Unrelated, uneducated," does 
not rest upon theoretical foundations only; 
nor is the work of developing power to 
grasp relationships left until the child 
reaches the plane of instruction. Play ac- 
tivities afford opportunities for developing 
the power of perceiving relationships. In 
Froebel's "Mother Play," with its typical 
experiences there is suggested a general 
methodology of dealing with the play re- 
sponses of childhood to the end of estab- 
lishing the habit of seeking essential rela- 
tionships within any given experience. 

Thus, the program for the kindergarten 
involves a study of essential relationships. 
Thus, are selected from the experiences of 
pre-kindergarten days those which embody 
the richest human relationships. Thus, also, 
are selected those aspects of nature which 
can be most readily interpreted in terms of 
appreciation, aesthetics and beauty. Here, 
again, the nature and need of the child can 
be our guide, since it is nature as the "in- 
exhaustible source of delight and inspira- 
tion" that determines selection — the nature 
that stimulates the social feelings, and re- 
quires the companionship of kindred souls 
for its appreciation ; nature which embodies 
elements that cannot be expressed in scien- 
tific formulations — elements that quicken in 
the human soul the capacities for com- 
munion with the Divine Life. In the in- 
terest of clearness, it may be necessary to 
speak of the human reference and of the 
nature reference of the kindergarten pro- 
gram, but no real dualism is predicated. 
Man apart from the human relationships in 
which his life develops is unthinkable ; na- 
ture apart from the significance humanity 
has found within it, is meaningless ; and in 
the relationship of both to the Divine Life 
lies the meaning of the life of man and the 
world of nature. 

We have now to trace the further func- 
tioning of the principle of selection. Hav- 
ing found the sources from which to select 
the experience content of the kindergarten 
program, it is not enough to emphasize 
them by presentative and representative ex- 
ercises; they must be enriched and corre- 
lated. Art, literature, and music constitute 



the sources of ideal enrichment of the ex- 
perience content of the program. The race, 
in passing along these experience-ways, has 
left its record of every vital human interest, 
in art, song, and story. These records are 
the child's birthright — his patrimony, of 
which education has been made the steward. 
These inherited riches, education may 
hoard and withhold to the impoverishment 
of childhood ; it may spend lavishly and 
recklessly; or, it may so conserve and ad- 
minister these inherited riches that at each 
stage of development, the unfolding nature 
and needs of the human being may be met. 
This is peculiarly true in the selection of 
stories as ideal enrichment of experience. 
In the story which presents the known ex- 
perience in ideal form, the child may leave 
the field of personal experience and enter 
the store house of race experience, from 
which he may return with a measure for his 
own life and spirit. The movement which 
began in the concrete experience of the 
child's own world, has gone out into the 
related unknown, and returned, freighted 
with an increase of joy in a world, the en- 
riched content of which expands heart and 
soul, strengthens the mind, and unfolds life 
in power and freedom.* Those who are 
consciously working under the third, or hu- 
manitarian conception of the program and 
are also conscious of their stewardship, ask 
of each selected experience and the various 
modes of enrichment, Are they simple ? Are 
they timely? Are they true to the nature 
and needs of this group of children? It is 
a common failing of the kindergarten that 
many of the stories told are far beyond the 
possibility of comprehension by children 
under six years of age. Stories such as 
"The Fisherman's Hut," "Little - Prince 
Harweda," "David and Goliath," "St. 
George and the Dragon," "The Invisible 
Giant," belong by right to a later stage of 
development. If these stories embody es- 
sential truths, and are entitled to a place in 
the development of moral and literary con- 
sciousness, then let us seek their embodi- 
ment in forms adapted to the kindergarten 
stage development, rather than adapt and 
abridge these stories which wait upon a 
later stage of development for apprecia- 
tion. In "Moral Education," Edward How- 
ard Griggs repeatedly deplores the habit of 
"fixing up" stories and legends. 

*For fuller development see "The Evolution of 
the Kindergarten Program," in Part II of the "Sixth 
Year Book of the National Society for the Scientific 
Study of Education." 

The characteristics of truth, simplicity, 
and timeliness which guide in the selection 
of stories as ideal enrichment of the pro- 
gram, are also binding in the realms of art 
and music. In the third conception of the 
program, the education materials of the 
kindergarten are interpreted from the 
point of view of their function in the devel 
oping life of the child. The so-called gifts 
and occupations are regarded as means and 
never as ends in themselves. There is a 
distinct tendency to regard them all as oc- 
cupations since, in the hands of little chil 
dren, they are the means of expression and 
of gaining some rudimentary control over 
many forms of human experience. As 
means of furthering the processes of social 
control they are fundamental ; and their 
structural elements of form, number, posi 
tion, and direction are held in strict subor 
dination to the human and nature experi- 
ence within which these formal factors take 
their rise. These, then, are the agencies 
which the kindergartner selects as the ways 
and means of leading the child — growing 
into self-consciousness — to the life of con- 
trol of a unitary experience which embraces 
his relationship to humanity, to nature and 
to God. 

Turning now to the principle of arrange- 
ment as the necessary correlative of the 
principle of selection, it may be noted that 
its primary office is integration. From the 
structural point of view, its office is to se- 
cure within the circle of selected experi- 
ence, unity, progression, inter-relation, and 
reinforcement. By means of arrangement 
and organization, each selected experience, 
with its related resources of art, music, lit- 
erature, and educative materials, must be so 
arranged as to secure within itself progres- 
sion, inter-relation, and reinforcement; and 
at the same time interrelate and reinforce 
the total experience — content of the pro 

At this point a momentous question 
emerges. What shall determine the char- 
acter of progression in the program? We 
had occasion to touch upon this point in 
the development of the practical aims oi 
education in Section V of this series: "How 
harmonize the ideals and ideas of the adult 
world view with the world view of child- 
hood ? Is it possible to give to mature and 
relatively conscious ideals, continuous and 
progressive expression in kindergarten?' 
The third conception of the program re- 
quires that the element of progression shall 



have psychological determinants. It is the 
nature of the child to fashion its life upon 
whatever its world holds. It is the child's 
need for guidance that gives to education 
sanctions for selecting and arranging, from 
the child's world, those experiences that are 
the best inheritance, not only of the child, 
but also of the race, and are such as can be 
interrelated, and also reinforced from the 
treasure stores of the race. This program 
does not assume the prerogative of substi- 
tuting a relatively complete world view for 
the partial and rudimentary world view of 
the child. Its aim is, rather, to guide in 
utilizing and organizing whatever elements 
the child possesses of a given valid experi- 
ence. Given the appreciative basis in the 
child's own experience, the kindergartner 
may, by artistic arrangement of influence 
and suggestion, impart the riches of the 
adult consciousness in a degree commensur- 
ate with the needs of childhood. 

The attitude towards progression and 
continuity constitutes a fundamental differ- 
ence between the second and third concep- 
tions of the kindergarten program. Pro- 
gression in the second is logical ; in the 
third it is psychological. The second fol- 
lows an objective sequence of type experi- 
ences selected from Froebel's Mother Plav ; 
and also the logical sequence of the gifts 
and occupations. Reflecting upon this pro- 
cedure, the question arises : Is there not 
grave danger in following an objective se- 
quence of experience, that the psychologi- 
cal, or apperceptive sequence of the child's 
own development become obscured or sub- 
merged? Or, from another point of view: 
May not these selections follow a quasi- 
subjective sequence of child development — 
a sequence, the germinal points of which 
arise in artificial budding points of experi- 
ence induced by the kindergartner; e. g., the 
visit of a carrier pigeon to the kindergar- 
ten; making a "light bird" on the wall; the 
picture of "The Knights and the Good 
Child" ; peeping through pin holes. From 
the psychological point of view, the value 
of these experiences which require these 
immediately arranged points of departure, 
may be questioned. Have they genuine 
root in the total life of the child? Are they 
not externally conditioned rather than in- 
wardly initiated? From the psychological 
point of view, may they not illustrate the 
truth that "sense in vain presents what or- 
ganized experience is not prepared to re- 
ceive ?" 

Progression in the third conception of the 
program is psychological; but this does not 
preclude the functioning of the logical fac- 
tor in the organization of experience. The 
psychological and logical factors are, rather, 
terminal aspects of one process of growth. 
The child has been the relatively uncon- 
scious discoverer of the experiences with 
which the program deals ; but these experi- 
ences have been none the less psychologi- 
cally discovered. Through the selecting, 
organizing, enriching, and correcting agen- 
cies and activities of the kindergarten, the 
element of system enters and begins its 
regulative function. The kindergarten is 
working under the guidance of logic in edu- 
cation, which requires that all education 
must be relative to the society in which it 
is given. And, again, in the self-activity of 
the individual, initiating the measures of 
control of experience, psychology and logic 
meet on common ground. Kindergarten 
procedure, from the psychological point of 
view, is far more passive and following than 
categorical and prescriptive ; since "to fol- 
low the latter mode of education, is to lose 
the pure, the sure, and steady progression 
of mankind." In its guiding and protecting 
office, the kindergarten seeks to deepen the 
channels of the living springs of thought 
and feeling already opened in the mind and 
hearts of children. 

Returning to the principle of arrange- 
ment, let us now trace a program for a 
given period of time, and for a particular 
group of children. The first step in the ac- 
tual making of a program must be taken 
backward in time, in order to ascertain the 
influences that have been steadily formative 
in the life of this group of children. This 
retrospective work is an absolute necessity 
to intelligent program making. On enter- 
ing a new field, the first desideratum is an 
extensive study of the environment in which 
the children live. A memoranda should be 
made of every positive and every negative 
factor. Every instance of normal animal 
life should be especially noted; e. g., where 
the sparrows build their nests; where there 
are chickens, pigeons, or rabbits. If a park 
is near, locate the places where cocoons may 
usually be found ; e. g., on young alanthus 
trees. If near a river, note the time when 
one may best watch the sea-gulls flying. 
Notice every tree and shrub, flower or vege- 
table garden, no matter how small. No kin- 
dergartner is in possession of her field until 
a complete inventory of the external condi- 



tions of the work has been made. Studies 
have been made of sections in crowded cities 
that seemed teeming with only negative in- 
fluences, but which have yielded rich re- 
turns of positive experience for kindergart- 
ner and children. The negative factors 
must also be noted as having already ex- 
erted an influence, the overcoming of which 
constitutes a unique problem. 

The second step is taken in getting pos- 
session of the internal conditions of the 
school and kindergarten. Note especially 
the general atmosphere of the school — its 
"psychic climate," which appeals to feeling 
and yet defies description. Note the atti- 
tude of the children toward each other and 
toward the teachers, and the attitude of 
both toward the principal. These steps 
need not in the beginning take much time. 

The third step — the intensive study of 
the environment, requires time, tact, and 
patience. To enter the homes of the chil- 
dren and study the human relationships that 
have been most constantly formative in 
their lives, is a labor of love that brings to 
those who really enter upon it, rich reward 
of insight into the nature and needs of each 
child. Mothers' meetings and parents' 
meetings are a help in this intensive work, 
but with these the efforts to connect the 
school life with the home life too often 
ceases. Helpful as these meetings may be, 
they can never yield such returns as the 
personal visit to each home represented in 
the kindergarten. Extensive and intensive 
knowledge of the formative influences in 
the life of the group and in the life of the 
individual child, makes possible the unifica- 
tion of kindergarten life with the life that 
has been; and is necessary, if the positive 
experiences of the pre-kindergarten life are 
to be linked with the positive and formative 
influences of the kindergarten. It is char- 
acteristic of this preparatory work that it 
is never finished. Year by year each en- 
vironment will yield to those who have eyes 
to see, the possibilities of richer and wider 
relationships with the world of nature and 
the world of man. To help the children to 
find truth, goodness, and beauty within the 
circle of immediate experience, and then to 
extend the boundaries of that experience by 
the riches and resources of the kindergart- 
ner's wider environment, is service of high 
order. It is such service as this that pene- 
trates the life of the kindergarten with a 
fine religious and spiritual influence that no 
power, save the lack of it in the kindergart- 

ner herself, can exclude. Religious instruc- 
tion may cease to be a part of the work of 
secular education ; but wherever there are 
spiritually enlightened teachers, religious 
influences will not pass unhonored from the 

Let us now apply the principles of selec- 
tion and arrangement in the organization of 
a program for a given period : e. g., one 
week. The problem consists in bringing 
into organic relationship the elements in- 
volved, and incorporating them in a schem- 
atic plan which will present the period as a 
unit — a scheme, whereby one may see at a 
glance the total plan and be able to detect 
wherein it is strong or weak. The diagra- 
matic form lends itself to these ends. The 
following outline will make clear my mean- 
ing and may prove suggestive : 

This plan pre-supposes that the prepara- 
tory steps have been taken, and that the 
kindergartner has intimate knowledge of 
the nature and needs of the children. The 
first point to note is the experience content 
of the period under consideration, which 
should be viewed in its relationship to pre- 
ceding experience. It is essential to formu- 
late this connection; and further, it is neces- 
sary to select the points within the given 
experience, which, sooner or later, should 
be emphasized. For convenience, they may 
be numbered ; but in following the apper- 
ceptive order of approach, the children may 
begin at any point, or with one not noted by 
the kindergartner. This need not compli- 
cate the procedure in the least; since, where 
the preparatory work has been well done, 
within the circle of this experience, the kin- 
dergartner may move with absolute poise 
and freedom; she is prepared for every 
emergency ; and every valid contribution to 
the experience by the children is accepted 
at its full value. 

The experience content of the program 
with all its sources of enrichment should 
now be studied ; and for this the kindergart- 
ner inventories the possibilities of first hand 
experience that the environment holds, and 
also searches out the riches of songs, stories 
and pictures. These may be arranged under 
their respective headings, and from these 
the kindergartner may finally select the 
means for the actual and ideal enrichment 
of the chosen experience. All this selective 
work is done under the guidance of the gen- 
eral ideal, or purpose of the whole program; 
but there are immediate aims and purposes 
relative to the given experience, to be real- 












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ized by both teacher and children. The 
practice of formulating aims and seeking to 
realize them will gradually eliminate the 
element of vagueness and consequent inde- 
terminateness of practice. 

The experience and the presentative re- 
sources having been determined, the selec- 
tion and arrangement of the representative 
elements in rythms, plays, games, and educa- 
tion materials should be considered. These, 
in turn, are arranged in their respective po- 
sitions in the diagram. 

Every outline should contain the refer- 
ence to nature. Irrespective of the selec- 
tion of experience which may or may not 
have immediate reference to nature, there 
always remain those constant phases of 
nature which appeal for emphasis, and 
which lay the foundations for the apprecia- 
tion of progression and continuity that point 
ever onward and upward. In the constant 
and changing aspects of nature lies the kin- 
dergartner's opportunity to implant the 
ideal that continuity is neither mere static 
repetition nor aimless change ; but, rather, 
the practice of purpose, which, in nature, 
steadily reveals the presence of an unseen 
spiritual power. 

There now remains the task of differen- 

tiating and integrating these presentative 
and representative elements into the daily 
plan with its morning talks, presentation of 
songs, pictures, stories and plays, and the 
selection of expressive mediums in the gifts 
and occupations. Finally, the summary of 
the week should faithfully record successes 
and failures. Here one must be fearless in 
recognizing both ; one must be willing to be 
taught by failure as well as by successes. 

Thus, through selection and arrangement 
the elements of a given subject are set in 
order in accordance with the humanitarian 
principle which dominates the third con- 
ception of the program. Its leading refer- 
ence lies in the human relationship which 
can in no way be separated from the rela- 
tionship to nature. One may not set down 
in diagramatic form elements and agencies 
that represent the relationship to God. Yet 
it is none the less present. The spiritual 
element lies within each phase of human ex- 
perience and functions in the development 
of the life of each human being through 
subtle influences that elude description. It 
lies within the power of the kindergartner 
to accentuate these influences by interpret- 
ing experience in terms of truth, beauty, and 

Courtesy, Little Brown, & Co., Boston. 

From Playtime, a Primer, by Clara Murray. 






Winter Subjects 

I. Observe a snowstorm. 

How do the flakes fall? Do they ily like 
birds, sail like kites, or dance ? W here do 
they light? Make a blanket lor the ground, 
cover the trees. Use as discovered in their 
lirst lesson : snow protects seeds and plants ; 
we bank it about the house to keep out the 
cold. Alter these observations, the children 
, will spontaneously play they are snowliakes. 

II. The children shovel away snow, and 
observe a snow plow. L,et little groups go 

: out and clear the snow off porch or walk. 
As an occupation aside from the suitable use 
of the kindergarten blocks and play 111 the 
sand, the children can easily construct top 
shovels by cutting up strawberry boxes. A 
twig can be added for a handle by splitting 
it slightly at one end. Into this slit a square 
piece of the wood can be inserted. 

III. A snowball game out of doors. 

a. Make a snow man, tunnels, and the 
like. b. Have a snow battle, an equal num- 
ber of children taking part on either side. 

IV. Observation and use of different 
kinds of sleds, hand sleds, toboggans, bob- 
sleds, cutters. L,et the children then make 
a sled of wood, if possible, and use it. 

V. Visit or make a pond. 

a. To make a pond, run water in the yard 
and let it freeze. The children then become 
aware of the cause of the formation of ice. 
b. Allow the children to skate and slide. 

VI. Observation of ice cutting and the 
storing away of the same. 

If possible, visit a pond, lake, or any place 
where they are cutting ice, and then an ice- 

VII. The use of ice to make ice-cream. 
This experience can be carried out either 

in the home or in the kindergarten. If a 
freezer cannot be obtained, the cream may 
be turned into a small tin pail with a cover, 
which can be revolved within another larger 
one filled with ice and salt. In this case, 
care must be taken that no salt falls in when 
the cover is removed. While the ingredi- 
ents are being prepared by several children, 
the ice can be put into a bag and pounded by 
others, while still others wash the freezer 
and make everything ready to receive the 

Snow and Ice. 

VIII. Observation of the action of the 
sun on ice and snow. 

(The only way to continue this subject is 
to wait for a thawing time, so that the chil- 
dren can make their own discoveries.) 

I. Walk to a creek, or note flow of water 
in a street. Observe the increased height 
and flow of water as result of the thaw, its 
effect on small bridges, the overflow of 
water in fields, and the like. 

. Bring a pan full of snow into kinder- 

Compare the melted snow with hydrant 
water, and after having observed the differ- 
ence between the two, let the children use 
this water and have a lesson in washing the 

The Snow Image. 

(Adapted from Hawthorne.)* 

Once there was a little violet, not a little 
blue violet growing in the held and bloom- 
ing only in the summer, but a flower that 
blossomed in the winter as well. She had 
a mother and father like yours, and was 
such a modest, beautiful little girl, that peo- 
ple called her Violet. Her little brother 
made everyone think of sunshine and big 
rosy flowers, so they named him Peony. 

One cold winter's day, after it had snowed 
deep snow, the good mother of these chil- 
dren bundled them well in their thick coats, 
scarfs, caps, and mittens, and let them go 
out into the garden to play. 

Their only play place was the front yard, 
for they lived in the city. There were two 
pear trees in the garden, and these were 
loaded with snow, with long icicles for fruit. 

With a mother kiss on each cheek to 
scare away Jack Frost, away the two chil- 
dren went with a hop, skip, and a jump, that 
brought them right into the midst of a large 
snow drift. Out came Violet like a little 
white lady, and Peony after her, with his 
round rosy face redder than ever. What 
fun they had ! They liked it as well as the 
snow birds themselves. 

"Why, Peony," said Violet, after they had 
been snowballing one another, "you look 
just like a little snow man. Let us make 
one, not a snow man, but a little girl, who 



shall be our sister and run about the gar- 
den and play with us. Wouldn't it be nice ?" 

"Oh, yes!" cried Peony, as plainly as he 
could speak, for he was only a little boy. 
"That will be nice, and mamma shall see 
it." ~~ 

"Of course," said Violet, "only she must 
come out doors to see her, for little snow 
sister wouldn't like to be near the fire." 

At once the children set to work to make 
a little live snow girl, who should really be 
able to play with them. The mother, who 
sat sewing at the window, heard what they 
said, smiled, and wondered how they could 
ever do that, and yet she loved her children 
so much that she thought that if any chil- 
dren ever could do it, it would be Violet 
and Peony. "Then, too," said the mother, 
"the snow that has just fallen from Heaven 
is so white and beautiful, how do I know 
but some angel children may come down to 
play with my Violet and Peony, and without 
their knowing it, help them to make the 
little snow sister?" The mother was very 
busy darning stockings, and yet again and 
again, and yet other agains, she could not 
help turning her head to see how they got 
on with their snow image. 

Violet was the leader, and while her own 
little fingers worked away, told Peony what 
to do. 

"Peony, Peony," cried Violet, "bring me 
that soft feathery snow from the branches 
of the pear tree, I must make sister's ring- 
lets and put a wreath in her hair." 

"Here is the snow, Violet, take care you 
do not let it blow away!" 

"Oh, isn't she pretty?" said Violet, "and 
now I must have some bits of icicle to make 
her eyes shine. What a nice little playmate 
she will be for us ! Shan't you love her, 

"Oh, yes," said Peony, "and I will hug 
her, and she shall sit down close to me and 
drink of my warm milk." 

"Oh, no, Peony, that will not do at all. 
Snow people eat icicles, you must not give 
her anything warm to drink. Oh, look here, 
Peony, a light has been shining on her 
cheeks out of that rosy cloud, and the color 
does not go away." 

"Oh, beautiful," said little Peony, "and 
just see her hair too; it is like gold." 

"Of course, that, too, comes from the 
clouds, but her lips must be redder. Just 
kiss her, Peony, that will make them red." 

Then the mother heard a smack as if both 
children were kissing the snow image on its 

frozen mouth. Just then there came a breath 
of pure west wind, sweeping through the 
garden and rattling the parlor windows. It 
sounded so wintry cold that mother was 
going to tap on the window pane for them 
to come in, when both children cried out to 
her in one voice, "Mamma, Mamma! we 
have finished our little snow sister and she 
is running about the garden with us." 

"Dear Mamma," cried Violet, "look out 
and see what a sweet playmate we have." 

So the mother laid her work down again. 
The sun had gone down, and yet the sky 
was quite bright, so that she could see ev- 
erything very well. Sure enough, there 
was a small figure of a girl, all dressed in 
white, with rosy cheeks and golden hair, 
playing about the garden with two children. 
A stranger, though she was, they seemed to 
know one another, and were like little 
friends who had always played together. 
The mother wondered if it could really be 
true, or if, perhaps, she were after all one 
of the neighbor's children. "Yes, it must 
be so," thought the mother, and she went 
to the door to invite the runaway in, for it 
was now fast getting cold. 

But, after opening the door, did she see 
a real child, or a snow-child, being blown 
about by the wind? She hardly knew 
whether to speak to her or not. She had 
never seen any child like her before. Then 
besides, she was dressed in white, and what 
mother would have sent a little girl out 
dressed like that on a cold winter's day? 
It made her feel cold to look at the little 
feet dressed only in a thin pair of white 
slippers. And yet, the little child did not 
seem to mind the cold, but danced so lightly 
over the snow that the tips of her toes 
hardly left a mark. Violet could but just 
keep up with her, while Peony's short legs 
made him follow behind. The longer the 
mother watched them the more she won- 
dered how a little girl could look so much 
like a flying snowdrift, or how a snowdrift 
could look so very like a little girl. 

She called Violet, and whispered, "What 
is this child's name? Does she live near 

"Why, Mamma," answered Violet, laugh- 
ing, "this is our little snow sister whom we 
have just been making." 

"Yes," cried Peony, running to his mother, 
"this is our snow child. Is it not a nice 
'ittle child?" 

At this instant a flock of snowbirds came 
flitting through the air. Of course, they 



did not come near Violet or Peony, but 
flew at once to the little white child, rlutter- 
ing eagerly about her head, and alighting 
upon her shoulders. 

These little birds were old Winter's grand 
children, who had come to see her, and she 
held out her hands to them. They all tried 
to alight on her ten small fingers and 
thumbs, crowding one another 011 with 
much fluttering 01 their wings. One bird 
even put its bill to her lips. How happy 
they were ! 

Just then the father came home wrapped 
up to his ears in Ins great warm coat, with 
the thickest of caps and gloves to keep out 
the cold. He was pleased to see his wife 
and children, but surprised to see them out 
that wintry evening after sunset. 

"What little girl is that?" asked he. 
"What is her motner thinking of to iet her 
go out in such cold weather as this in a 
little white dress and slippers?" 

"Why, father," said Violet, "this is our 
little snow sister, we made her this after- 
noon, because we wanted another play- 

"Yes, papa," said little Peony, "isn't she 
pretty, and she gave me such a cold kiss." 

"Oh, children," laughed the father, "how 

could anyone make a live figure of snow? 
Come, wife, this little stranger must not 
stay out in the cold any longer. We will 
bring her in, and give her warm bread and 

The good father then started after the 
iittle white child, but Violet and Peony each 
seized their father's hand and cried: "Oh, 
father, our little snow girl can only live in 
the cold i Do not make her come into a 
hot room!" 

"No, father," said Peony, "don't bring her 

"Vv ell, then," said the father, "may I not 
just be polite, and invite her?" and before 
anyone could say more, Mr. Dindsey went 
toward the snow child. The birds were all 
off in a moment, but the little maiden ran 
backwards, shaking her head as if to say, 
"Don't touch me!" and she led him into 
the deepest snow. 

"Well, 1 won't then, little snow maiden!" 
and with a good night they all went into 
the house. 

The little snow child then gleamed and 
sparkled, and it seemed as if a light were 
'round about her. Perhaps she became a 
star in the night, for the next morning the 
little snow sister was nowhere to be seen. 

A perusal of the article on Industrial 
Educacion will show that it is^the period 
between 14 and 16 years which presents to 
-ducatorsaprooiem not s yet soived. Leslie 
VV. Miller, principal of the Pennsylvania 
Museum and School of Industrial Art,which 
comprises the two departments of the 
(School of Applied Art and the Philadelphia 
Textile School, speaks as follows : 

"Industrial education is easily first among 
the vital questions which educators are 
called upon to face and there is no doubt in 
my mind that a good deal ought to be done 
in the grammar grades and something in the 
primary grades of the public school to ad- 
just and adapt the mind of the pupil to a dis- 
tinct vocational appeal than it is made later 
on. The vocational appeal itself, however, 
is something that can easily be overdone in 
the elementary work and I am one of those 
who are frankly opposed to any more over- 
loading of the elementary courses with fads 
whether industrial or other. I would, how- 
ever, like to see a fairly well equipped shop 
made a part of every school — every single 
school of whatever grade — and would not 
take it too serious in connection with either 

discipline or study, but treat it rather as 
part of the provision for healthy recreation. 
1 would have it oart of a scheme by which 
the schools should be always open — having 
holidays and all — and be quite as much in 
evidence as social centers as places for syste- 
matic instruction. For the period that in- 
tervenes between the school age and profit- 
able employment — that is, between fourteen 
and sixteen years, I would have continua- 
tion day schools with two year courses, (and 
am distinctly opposed to longer work), un- 
mistakably vocational in character, each 
school being devoted to a particular trade 
or group of trades so clearly related that the 
connection should be perfectly obvious. 
Then I would make every effort to organize 
such co-operation with employing manufac- 
turers as would insure the acceptance by 
them, as apprentices, of those who gradu- 
ated in good standing from these continua- 
tion trade schools. We need trade schools 
of a higher grade than these model estab- 
lishments in which very high standards of 
design and execution shall be set, but that 
is another story and I am not at all clear 
that it is a public school question at all. 



Making Ice Cream. 

(See Page 177) 




Words by Mary A. Proudfoot. 

Music by Lydia F. Stevens. 



,S *1 N - 

Who - oo, who - oo, hear the wind blow ! Lit - tie Jack Frost is here, ho - ho, The 






*. g- 

north wind, too, with a hul - la - ba - loo, Makes ev - er - y door creak, oo oo. 


IIS — g 



» -i 



V V 

V V 


1 1 


P -1 

* *1 1 

-«— — 

^— q- 





Moderate . 




Crunch - y crunch goes snow on the walk. 

Just as if snow-flakes could re-al - ly talk, 


-k — \- 

• i 



_ / 



Is that Jack's voice so frost-y and cold? It can't be a fair-ies', so husk-y and bold! 


In our December number we printed "The Fireman," from "A Baker's Dozen for 
City Children," the new book of songs by Isabel Valentine and Lileon Claxton. These 
songs were primarily designed for the use of teachers in cities, but teachers in smaller 
towns have found them most valuable in that they depict activities of city life of in- 
terest to every child. 

The following "Appendix," by the authors of the songs, explains some of the many 
ways in which they may be utilized : 

Introduction— It seems almost needless to say that the teachers of city children have long felt 
the lack of songs distinctively related to city life. In recognition of this want our collection is ot- 
tered to the public. 

Songs as Games— It will be seen that most of these songs may also be dramatized. In such cases 
allow the children to first sing the songs, then play the game with the piano accompaniment. This 
is desirable because physical activity during singing is bad for the children's vocal organs and causes 
careless and indefinite tone work. To illustrate — The Fireman. 

Tone Work— Special attention has been given to tone work throughout the songs. A variety ot 
tones calling for different vocalization has been introduced. For instance, "Miew, miew, pur- 
purr," in the Cat Song. 

Repetition— (a) Children love repetition. This instinct is satisfied in many of these songs. l.PJ 
Children memorize more readily when phrases are repeated. 

Enunciation— Thought has been given to the need of careful enunciation by children. Practicf 
in this direction is offered repeatedly. 

Listening Periods— (a) The musical education of children requires the ability to listen quietly tc 
instrumental music. (b) Listening to music is ear training. (c) By these periods the attentioi 
of the children is called to the fact that instrumental music expresses thought. As in The Conductor 


"A Baker's Dozen for City Children" may be obtained from the Kindergarten 
Magazine Company. Price, postage prepaid, fifty-six cents. 





In November, 1906, was organized in 
'ooper Union the Society for the Promo- 
ion of Industrial Education. This meeting 
nd the organization of such a society is 
ignificant of the awakening of the business 
lan to some points in which our education 
as been inefficient. From the office and the 
ounting-house have come complaints as to 
•enmanship and ciphering and spelling, 
-low, from the workshop arises criticism re- 
arding the lack of technical skill, of power 
>f initiative, capacity of leadership. 

In the November number of the Kinder- 
garten-Primary Magazine we devoted some 
iages to a consideration of manual training, 
ust as the kindergarten has little by little 
iroved its claims as an indispensable inte- 
gral part of the public school system, so 
iranual training is winning acknowledge- 
uent of its importance as a factor in edu- 
ation and general culture. 

But industrial education, or education for 
. vocation is a different thing, although 
>ased upon manual training as the most fit- 
ing foundation. 

When men at the head of important in- 
lustrial enterprises find the success of their 
nills, their factories, their shops, handi- 
apped or destruction threatened because 
hey cannot find able or competent foremen 
)r operators to carry on the details of their 
)usiness, or to second their own well- 
banned projects, the business world natur- 
ally becomes alarmed and begins to study 
:auses. When these same far-sighted men 
jind that countries with fewer natural re- 
sources, less inventive and intelligent work- 
ers, are making continually new markets for 
'ihemselves in different parts of the world, 
ts well as at home, and are successfully com- 
peting against us, with our unlimited nat- 
iral advantages, our widespread educa- 
tional opportunities, and ready adaptability 
:o new conditions; when such is the case, 
t is time that we began to study our own 
leficiencies and to learn lessons which other 
lations may teach us. 

Granted that what is needed are men 
'.rained to systematic efficiency; men who 
pan carry responsibility; who can use the 
machines now in the market and when new 
inventions come can adapt and adopt and 
rse them with ready skill and sense ; granted 
that such are the needs, what are the means 
to this end? 

That seems to be the sphinx's question 

which is put to us today. We hear it on 
every side. 

"Industrial education" is the answer that 
is in the air, but just what form or forms 
such training shall take is and will for some 
time to come, be a matter of investigation, 
observation and experiment. We will doubt- 
less have to feel our way for some time to 

Three different trade journals recently 
had articles on that subject, each represent- 
ing a different trade. This fact alone indi- 
cates the direction of the trade wind. 

"Carpentry and Building" had an edi- 
torial speaking of the recent Massachusetts 
Commission on Industrial Education, which 
is instructed to establish schools after first 
looking over the field in order to discover 
the requirements to make them truly ef- 
ficient. After examining 2,000 boys seek- 
ing employment this Commission found that 
900 of these would have remained longer at 
school if opportunity had been given for 
industrial education. Out of 1,000 employ- 
ers who had been interviewed almost all 
agreed that a boy was comparatively value- 
less as an industrial factor before he was 16 
but that the years between 14 and 16 might 
well be given up to preliminary instruction 
as a preparation for the trades. 

This same journal cited the effort of Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, to solve the problem 
in giving definite instruction in evening 
schools along the lines of domestic science, 
dress-making for girls, and mechanical 
drawing, freehand drawing, and pattern- 
making for boys. 

It stated that oft expressed fact, that our 
present system of industry gives no oppor- 
tunity for training the all-around workman 
as did the old time apprentice system, and 
hence our foreman and superintendent must 
be imported. 

Another journal, the "Iron Age," in its 
issue of Nov. 28, had an article on Indus- 
trial Education, speaking specially of the 
"Cleveland plan," which is not yet in op- 
eration. In that city the Y. M. C. A. will 
establish a school for teaching the mechani- 
cal and electrical trades if it can secure, 
which is probable, the co-operation of the 
local manufacturers. It plans to give the 
men in the school shop instruction under 
the supervision of practical men from one 
of the shops. The student shop is to be 
equipped with lathes, planers, etc., and the 
proprietors of the shops are to be asked to 
give or loan tools and money. The instruc- 

1 84 


tion will be in the evening. The courses are 
supposed to supplement the apprentice sys- 

The same article gave a few paragraphs 
also to the so-called Albany method. Al- 
bany, it says, is the first city to plan indus- 
trial education in the elementary schools 
with an eye for preparing for the trades. 
The plan here is to establish several ele- 
mentary industrial schools with an indus- 
trial High School to crown the system. 
Manual training has had place in that city 
foi some time, but this new plan has in 
view the more far-reaching idea of manual 
training for vocational purposes. 


1 he Engineering Magazine for December 
contains another timely article which treats 
this subject from a different standpoint. 
George Frederic Stratton speaks upon "A 
Rising Industrial Problem; the New Ap- 
prenticeship," by which he means the at- 
tempts of the employers to solve the prob- 
lem by establishing apprentice courses in 
connection with their works. According to 
the writer, some of these leading manufac- 
turers' associations "have formulated condi- 
tions for apprenticeship contracts upon 
broad and comprehensive lines for the use 
of their members. The conditions and re- 
quirements have been met, studied, and 
with the same common-sense progressive- 
ness which so eminently distinguishes 
American captains of industry." The sys- 
tem of the New York Central Railroad 
Company is named with special approval. 

It starts a boy as an ordinary shop apprentice, on 
four-years term; but as he develops his abilities and 
characteristics, he obtains the opportunity to switch 
off onto other departments, providing he shows in- 
dications of becoming more valuable in those de- 
partments than in the shops. Thus the shop ap- 
prentice, in two or three years, may be transferred 
to the drafting-room, to the engineering depart- 
ment, or to some division superintendent's depart- 

A certain amount of night study in various 
branches is insisted upon; literature and the best 
of illustrated lectures are continually furnished, and 
the young men are also transferred, when willing, 
from one of the company's shops to another, thus 
affording them varied and valuable experiences. 

Complete card records covering the entire course 
are kept and filed in the Superintendent of Ap- 
prentices' office, and every year the following 
searching list of questions regarding each boy is 
answered by the foreman or department superin- 
tendent, and sent to the apprentice superintendent: 
1. Does he work overtime on drawings or prob- 
Is he the type of boy we wish to have in ourl^j 

Is his attitude toward his employer good? 
Does he spend his time well outside of shop 
hours ? 




5. Have you (or has the shop instructor) suc- 
ceeded in gaining his confidence — that is, 
would he come to you first in trouble of 
any kind? 


Each year two or three of the best of the ap- 
prentices are selected for a two-years' technical 
course in the line for which they show the greatest! 
promise, and as the expenses are paid by the com-j 
pany, the incentive to excel and to obtain the sehol-! 
arship with its opening into fields of higher possi-j 
bilities is very great. 

Reasons are given why systems tried iii 
other places are failures. They fail, as they, 
deserve to, in those cases where the com-] 
pany apparently has only its own success] 
in mind with little or no regard to fairness 
toward its employees. 

The article then proceeds to speak of tha 
attitude of manufacturer and trades unior 
toward the manual-training classes of tha 
public schools. Among industrial manager:] 
we are told, there seems to be considerable! 
diversity of opinion as to their value. A few] 
quotations must suffice as examples. 

The president of a Machine Tool Com 

pany, Cincinnati, says : 

" I think it of just as great importance tha 
hands and brain should be educated technically ail 
any other. Any man forfeits a great deal of pleas| 
ure and usefulness in this life when his education 
lacks a constructive course. I do not favor evening 
schools of any description, while I realize they an' 
an absolute necessity and splendid results are obj 
tained from them. I have always held that it i: 
just as necessary to good health and good result! 
that a certain amount of time be given to recrea 
tion as to work, study and sleep." 

Henry Hess, Hess-Bright Manufacturing 

Company, Philadelphia, Pa. : 

"I favor preparatory trade school work unde; 
public school auspices, but at present in this coun 
try these schools usually run to fads. What I havj 
seen of the work turned out and 'pointed to witli 
pride' by the amateurs who run them, is of a mos 
abominably slouchy character which not only fail 
of its first object but also has a decidedly deleteri| 
ous influence on the scholars, in giving them th| 
idea that careful and conscientious work is noj 
material. I do not favor trade schools under thj 
auspices of manufacturing concerns as a substitut 
for the other kind." 

Here are strong words from Richard Mol 

denke, secretary American Foundrymen' 

Association, Watchung, N. J. : 

"I believe that the only hope we have to kee 
this nation in the front, industrially, is to push ir 
dustrial education with might and main — and nc 
wait very long before beginning. All trades shoul 
be taught. The trade school should teach its stu 
dents the principles of the respective trades i 
question, together with enough practical manipulE 
tion to make the student self-supporting from th 
start, after leaving the school. It should also giv 
him a general education, so as not to get the stt 
dent into grooves." 

Organized labor was for some time pre 
judiced against the trade school, but tha 


MR.ECAT the university mr.b. at the shop 

Courtesy University of Cincinnati. 

A "Pair" of co-operative Students. Showing the plan of operation, one being at the shop 
While the other is at the University. 

Courtesy University of Cincinnati. 

Group of Buildings of the University of Cincinnati. 

B — Class in Drawing, School of Industrial Art, Philadelphia. 











Courtesy Ttiskewec Jnstitnti 


Cuurtes.v Leslie W. ?liller, Principal. j 
Class in Interior Decoration, School Industrial Art, Philadelphia. 

: i:s: 




ntagonism is lessening as far as the intro- 

uction into the public school system is con- 

idered, but there appears to be a general 

nd decided opposition to the trade school 

ri conjunction with private enterprises. 

John F. Tobin, general president, Boot 

nd Shoe Workers' Union, Boston, says: 

"I am in favor of public education conducted at 
tie public expense, wherein an opportunity is given 
a the practical workings of any given trade. . . . 
t is frequently said that trade unionists are op- 
osed to industrial education, but this is not true, 
'he opposition which appears amongst trade union- 
sts is because they have in mind the particular 
rivate enterprises that have been conducted solely 
or profit." 

The reason for this opposition is thus ex- 

iressed by one earnest union man, speaking 

if the apprenticeship system in vogue in 

ertain locomotive works : 

"Look here!" he exclaimed, "every one has a 
aotive, and the motive of those big corporations 
s to obtain, first, a supply of young men, under 
ontract, for four years at rascally low pay, and 
econdly, to build up a large class of workers so as 
have a choice — and also reduce wages." 

A woman, Emma Stehagen, secretary 

Somen's Trade Union League, Chicago, 

11., thus expresses her views of the matter: 

"I am in favor of industrial education if carried 
in in the proper manner, by which I mean, under 
he auspices of the public schools and giving prac- 
ical teaching. The trades union movement stands 
or the uplifting of the worker, and I believe an in- 
lustrial education is one of the aids of trade un- 
onists. If scLools are conducted by manufacturing 
:oncerns . . . they are to be deprecated." 

She, too, fears the pressure of the big cor- 

Mr. Stratton's investigations seem to dis- 
prove the claim that the unions limit the 
lumber of apprentices unjustly: 

The union leaders emphatically assert that in al- 
aost every trade the number of apprentices does 
lot nearly reach the number permitted by the union 
"ules. And their assertion seems to be borne out 
Jy some very surprising and quite authentic fig- 

Mr. Stratton concludes thus hopefully: 

"This I know; that, whatever their outward ex- 
iressions of opinion may be, there is among union 
nen a deep, underlying feeling that it is better for 
:he embryo mechanic to be trained in the shops 
ind, in a measure, under the influence of the un- 
ions, than in outside schools of any kind. When- 
ever they become convinced of the absolute good 
iaith of the employers who are introducing the new 
ipprentice systems — when they see that the boys 
ire being trained into the very best mechanics they 
ire capable of becoming, instead of being used, at 
low wages, as producers — then, I believe, the unions 
will look with full favor upon the shop apprentice, 
although lk, may be expected, of course, that they 
will always attempt to place and enforce restric- 
tions upon the number employed." 

The National Society for the Promotion 
of Industrial Education, above referred to, 

has now published four bulletins of great 
value to all who wish to follow up this mat- 
ter and to know its present status in the 
minds of managers, workmen, educators, 

No. 1 is the Proceedings of that most in- 
teresting organization meeting. 2. A valu- 
able bibliography on Industrial Education. 

3. A symposium on Industrial Education. 

4. Industrial Education for Women. 

No. 3 comprises a circular letter sent out 
by the officers to some 300 managers and 
representatives of organized labor, asking 
for a frank expression of opinion concern- 
ing the value of trade schools and for rec- 
ommendations regarding industrial educa- 
tion. The replies are published in full and 
are not only of great interest but of great 
value in illuminating the present problem. 
It is pleasant to see that a spirit of fair play 
characterizes the papers. Nearly all of the 
writers feel the need of such schools. Many 
of the manufacturers approve of having 
them connected with the works, but in the 
main the labor organizations are opposed 
to the trade school in conjunction with cor- 
porations. These they distrust. They fear 
lest unjust advantage be taken to decrease 
wages by creating a surplus of workmen; 
and that such schools may tend to eventu- 
ally kill democracy by keeping the workmen 
in certain grades, as it were, and preventing 
the ambitious from rising. 

But nearly all of the labor representatives 
approve of trade schools, if under the super- 
vision of the State as a part of the public 
school system, although some frankly state 
that they see no good at all in such schools. 

The October 5 number of "Charities and 
the Commons" devotes nearly all of its 
pages to a consideration of this great move- 
ment under editorship of Mary Morton Ke- 
hew, president of the Woman's Educational 
and Industrial Union of Boston. Susan M. 
Kingsbury contributes a paper asking 
"What is Ahead for the Untrained Child in 
Industry?" It is an analysis of the indus- 
trial situation as regards children between 
the ages of 14 and 16, the positive dislike 
of books which comes at the stage of de- 
velopment when it is the tendency of the 
child to do and not to study, and the in- 
effectiveness of the school to meet that na- 
tural demand of the child, with his desire 
to follow "all the other boys" into work or 
to earn enough monev "to dress as well as 
the other girls who are at work." 

The employers do not want these un- 

1 88 


skilled children. They "cannot bother to 
teach them," and although the small weekly 
wage looks alluring to the child who dis- 
likes school once he has entered the 
world of wages as an unskilled worker he 
rarely has opportunity to acquire the skill 
to lift him above this condition. The entire- 
tragic story is illustrated by heart-stirring 
anecdotes and by more prosaic but equally 
telling charts and diagrams. 

Ralph Albertson writes of the "Decay of 
Apprenticeship and Corporation Schools," 
due to the introduction of machinery and 
the ever-increasing subdivision of labor. 
Pictures illustrate in graphical manner the 
almost incredible number of workers re- 
quired to make one garment. 

Paul H. Hanus speaks of "Industrial Ed- 
ucation in Massachusetts," and Charles F. 
Warner tells of "Industrial Training in the 
Public Schools" ; a strong plea, indeed, for 
the more general inclusion of such educa- 
tion in our public school systems, in the four 
forms of a larger amount of practical work 
in the elementary schools ; more manual 
training high schools ; evening trade schools 
and trade schools for the training of ap- 
prentices in the modern sense of that word. 

Charles R. Richards contributes a paper 
on "Private Trade Schools for Boys," point- 
ing out the distinction between the short 
course and the long course trade schools, 
and other tvoes, none of which, however, 
endeavor to turn out the fully competent 
journeyman, but simoly to start him well 
on his way, with hope of better things be- 
yond. The short course may be anywhere 
from three months to ten months in length. 

Prof. Richards says : 

"The great demand for mechanics in the build- 
ing trades undoubtedly often leads to a too rapid 
advancement of the graduate of the short-course 
trade school and to his too early recognition as a 
journeyman. That this reacts unfavorably upon 
the school, the union and the individual can hardly 
be questioned, and that the best good of the em- 
ployer, the labor organization and the beginner, 
would be gained by a common agreement which ac- 
corded a liberal recognition to the school training, 
but which at the same time required a definite and 
considerable period before journeymen's wages ob- 
tained, would seem to be one of the clear lessons 
of the present situation." 

Mary Schenck Woolman gives several 
pages to a study of Private Trade Schools 
for Girls; of these the Manhattan Trade 
School and the Boston Trade School for 
Girls are shining examples. The entire ar- 
ticle must be read in order to fully grasp 
the possibilities in these schools for over- 
coming evil by good, in giving capacity to 

master one's environment. Requirements 
for admission, cost, etc., are given in exact 

Florence M. Marshall writes upon the 
"Public School and the Girl Wage-Earner," 
showing the inadequacy of the present cur- 
riculum to meet the needs of child and the 
community in which she must earn her liv- 1 
ing. Graphically told stories indicate the I 
sacrifices made by faithful parents to en- 
able their children to learn a trade which 
will give them a better stand in the battle 
of life. They do not want their children to 
run on the streets; they do not want them 
to go to work too early, but the school fails 
to attract ; it seems to offer little of real 
value as far as the child can see, and the! 
temptations to go to work and earn a little 
money are great. 

Robert A. Woods, an experienced settle-, 
ment worker, views the question from the 
"Social Workers' Standpoint," and Alfred] 
G. Bookwalter writes on "Continuation 
Work — Education for the Industrial Work- 
er," an argument for the establishment of 
schools affording opportunities for further 
study and improvement, to those ambitions 
to make up for deficient early training and 
to secure further technical training that 
"will lead to advancement and increasing 
earning power." 

What Is Being Done. 

The Engineering Magazine for Novem-I 
ber contains an address by Herman! 
Schneider, delivered at the annual meeting! 
of the Society for the Promotion of Engi- 
neering Education, which points one way ; 
out of the maze. 

The fact that there is such a society is 
another indication of the trend of thought 
and of necessity. 

The paper referred to describes a plan j 
now being tried by the University of Cin- 
cinnati for training students so that they 
may fulfill the demands made upon them by 
the industrial world, of which they expect 
to be a part. The writer calls the study 
plan suggested a "co-operative course." 
The co-operating parties are the students, 
the university and a business firm, who sign 
a contract in triplicate. According to its 
terms, the students taking the course work 
alternate weeks in the engineering college 
of the University and at the manufacturing 
shops of the city. Each class is divided into 
two sections, one being at the University, 
while the other is at the shops. Thus, the 









lops "are always full-manned," the manu- 
icturers suffering no loss and practically 
o inconvenience. 

The course covers six years. The dean 
f the college and the professor of electri- 
:al, chemical or mechanical engineering, as 
he case may be, confer with the manufac- 
,urer in planning the shop work, so that the 
oung men get a logically and carefully 
lanned shop and business training. The 
Ian secures a desirable amount of physical 
xercise, an understanding in part of the 
ibor problems of the day, a sympathy with 
he perplexities of the workman and of the 
lanager, and a practical knowledge of men. 

A fine example of what the public school 
;iay do in this direction is found in the 
technical High School, Springfield, Mass., 
lthough here the aim in all departments is 
ducational, broad and practical, not nar- 
owly vocational. 

The Technical High School is an inde- 
lendent public high school free to all prop- 
erly qualified boys and girls who hold a 
egal residence in Springfield. Its curricu- 
lum is designed to combine and correlate 
>ractical training with a full course of aca- 
lemic studies. Strong courses in English 
anguage and literature, mathematics, 
cience, history, French, German, and Latin 
ire offered; but the distinctive feature is 
he recognition of the principle that the ac- 
ivities of home life or of an industrial or 
msiness career should properly begin in 
■chool. Everv boy in the technical division 
)f the school is required to take four years 
)f mechanical drawing together with free- 
land drawing and design, and four vears 
)f varied practice in the use* of hand and 
nachine tools in order to secure the educa- 
ional advantages of manual and technical 
raining. No attempt, however, is made to 
each either the mechanical or the building 
rades as such. The courses of instruction 
offered to the girls in the technical division 
lave been laid out on the same broad and 
iberal lines as those for the boys. While 
he value of the literary studies that have 
:ome to be recognized as belonging to hisrb 
;chool courses is by no means overlooked, 
it the same time the cultural value of prac- 
:ical and scientific work rightlv directed 
:oward utilitarian ends is appreciated. A 
?ood general education is also given in the 
commercial department in addition to spe- 
cial training in commercial branches. 

There are three courses, a college pre- 

paratory, a general scientific course, and a 
commercial course. 

The program makes liberal provision for 
general education not only in the character 
of the subjects chosen, but 'also in the time 
allotted to these subjects and in the corre- 
lation of the work of the various depart- 
ments of the school. Four years of work 
are given to the five main groups of liberal 
studies, viz. : language, literature, mathema- 
tics, science, and history, while the drawing, 
the bench work, the machine tool work, the 
practical work in the department of house- 
hold arts and in the commercial depart- 
ment, which are distinctive features of the 
curriculum, form a considerable part of 
each year's program. The general aim is 
to give each student a certain mastery of 
the five main lines of study and at the same 
time an appreciation of the part which the 
modern shop and drafting room play in the 
manufacturing industries, a training in the 
methods emploved in commercial life, and 
a scientific and practical knowledge of 
household arts and economics. While the 
main object of the program is to equip the 
graduates of the school for intelligent liv- 
ing and for useful citizenship, it also gives 
a training which may be quicklv turned to 
practical account and it affords an unusually 
strong preparation for those who wish to 
enter higher schools for study of the engi- 
neering professions. 


Columbus, Ga., largely through the in- 
fluence of G. Gunbv Tordan, has manual and 
industrial training established as an integral 
part of its public school system more com- 
pletely than any other town in America. 
The kindergarten is its foundation ; this de- 
velops into manual training in the element- 
arv grades, with a primary Industrial 
School, and this is crowned by a Secondary 
♦Industrial School. "In the senior year the 
students work in some industrial establish- 
ment in this city, a portion of the time, us- 
ing the same hours and being under the 
same environments and regulations as the 
operatives of any other industrial estab- 
lishment." This is the only Secondary In- 
dustrial School maintained by a munici- 

The industrial needs of the Negro as well 
as of the white child have complete recog- 
nition in this fine scheme. 

The citizens of Milwaukee have voted to 
include in the school system the Milwaukee 
(Continued on page 195) 




Never before has the Educational Press of Ger- 
many teemed with so many articles of the highest 
interest to the pedagogical profession in general 
and to American teachers in particular, as during 
the preceding months; even journals exclusively 
devoted to specifically German education, present 
this time numerous essays that treat subjects of 
wider application. This being so, we may be per- 
mitted to bestow this time our main attention to 
the Educational Press of Germany, although even 
under self-imposed limitation we can hardly hope 
to do more than render a very superficial survey of 
even this portion of the educational field. 

The "Correspondenz-Blatt," published by Dr. H. 
Grotz and Rector O. Jaeger at Stuttgart, presents 
among many valuable articles, one that would seem 
to appeal to the special interest of American teachers 
It bears the superscription "The artistic decoration 
of the walls of the school room," and has for its 
author the well-known German pedagogue, Dr. W. 
Rist. The article contains a great number of valu- 
able suggestions — all the more valuable, as the 
means suggested therein are not difficult to be pro- 
cured and as they would greatly tend towards the 
improvement of the school room as well as of the 
scholars themselves. 

In the "Humanistische Gymnasium" we find one 
more highly important contribution to the History 
of Education and in particular to the knowledge of 
that critical period when humanitarianism super- 
seded scholasticism, in an article on "Petrus 
Ramus as Reformator of Science," by M. Guggen- 
heim, which highly interesting essay sheds a great 
deal of new light upon the epoch of Melanchthon, 
Erasmus, Renchlin, Comenius and Francis Bacon. 
The author shows, conclusively, how Peter Ramus 
throughout his entire sphere of pedagogical activ- 
ity advocated in the most strenuous manner a 
broader and more humane construction of that mis- 
conceived Aristotelian philosophy, that had until his 
time kept the minds in so tight and irrational a 

The "Monatsschrift fur Hoehere Schulen" 
abounds in praiseworthy articles on a great variety 
of educational topics, among which we particularly 
note two, viz.: "Jugendt und and Jugend-Erzi- 
chung," by Dr. W. Meumunn, and "A Proposal for 
a synoptic review of all branches of education for 
a systematic organization of all educational insti- 
tutes." Both articles, involving momentous edu- 
cational problems, well deserve the closest atten- 
tion of the entire pedagogical profession. 

"Puedagogische Studien" likewise furnish us 
with a series of commendable articles, among which 
we particularly enumerate one by Dr. William 
Ginsler, entitled "Erzichung und Welt" (Education 
and World), and another by R. Wittig on "The 
Activity of the Hand." While the former is of an 
emphatically philosophic nature, the latter is es- 
sentially practical; it would, however, be very dif- 
ficult to decide to which of the two the prize of 
excellence should be given, as both would seem 
equally profuse in timely and far-reaching sugges- 

The "Monatschrift fuer deutsche Sprache and 
Paedagogic" includes two articles of special inter- 
est for American teachers, as both treat subjects 
applicable to pedagogues of this country. Professor 
Reeder treats in one of them the various "Difficul- 
ties of the German language for English-speaking 
scholars" at the same time pointing out the best 
ways for overcoming these difficult points, while 
Mr. H. Woldeman describes in another essay "The 
present condition of German Instruction in the 
American Schools." Among other more general 
articles contained in the same number of that valu- 
able magazine we note one by Dr. Hailmann on 
"Schule und Leben'" (School and Life), and an- 

other by Dr. Heller on "Education and Sentimen- 

That excellent magazine, "Zcitschrift fuer Kin- 
derforschung" is particularly recommended to the 
perusal of progressive pedagogues, as every one ofi 
the articles which it furnishes in its present num- 
ber would seem of the greatest interest to all friends 
of children's education. We can give here only the 
titles of some of its essays: "Digital aptitude and 
Digital Arithmetic for Unintelligent Children," by 
Prof. H. Nolte, and "Art turned nto Cruelty for 
Children," by J. Triefer. 

In the "Zeitschrift fuer Paedagogische Psychol- 
ogy," in which Germany's greatest scientists are 
wont to publish their best thoughts, we find a most 
precious material exhibited for the ripest consid- 
eration and the deepest contemplation of all inter- 
ested in that science. The mere enumeration of j 
the titles of the essays here presented will suffice to! 
prove this, viz.: "The Time of Reaction in thej 
Child's Development," by Dr. Fuerstnhorn; "Chil-j 
aren's Study and Pedagogy," by Prof. Elberfeld;* 
"Report of the First congress of the Society for' 
the .Psychological Study of Children." 

Having two months ago called the attention ofj 
our readers to the Institution of the German Con-j 
tinuation schools, we may be permitted to state 
that this new feature of educational development 
is now represented by a weekly, bearing that name 
and published at Leipzig. The great multitude ol| 
the reports which the first numbers of that organ! 
furnish conclusively prove how great a favor these 
institutions have met with in all manufacturing 
towns of Germany an^ -ow many of the best edu- 
cators help to promote these institutions by theii 
advice and co-operation. We shall not fail to fur- 
nish in the future interesting extracts from thai 

In "Neue Bahnen," a pedagogical journal here-| 
tofore frequently referred to, we notice this timej 
an article of specifically practical interest, by Ottc, 
Treuber, treating the "Manufacture of School Ap-I 
paratuses by the Scholars Themselves," with manf| 
fold suggestions how the progress of the scholan| 
may considerably be advanced by this employment; 

"Maumann's Zeitschrift fuer Experimented Paej 
dagogik" has also in its latest issue preserved thai 
high standard of excellence which has character! 
ized all of its former numbers. We find in its las 
edition a very suggestive article by K. Eckhardt; 
entitled "Visual Images of Memory in the Pursui 1 
of Arithmetic," and furthermore a treatise, by Li 
b: Goebellesen, on several of the greatest problem: 
in the development of children's mental capacity 

"Lehrproben und Lehrgaenge," published by Dr 
Fries and Dr. Menge, does also not lag behind it 
well-established grade of merit in its recent num 
ber. It contains among other articles of value on' 
by Prof. D. Budde on "Lathmann as a Shinin! 
Light of Pedagogy," and another by Dr. H. Lick 01 
"The German Lied (Song), as an Educationa 

The Charity Organization Society of New Yorl 
City celebrated its twenty-fifth anniversary by 
conference on the betterment of living condition 
which met at Carnegie Hall, November 19-21. Rob 
ert De Forest, president of the society, was in th 
chair. Gov. Hughes spoke some vital words, an 
Dr. Emil Muensterberg, president of the depart 
ment of Public Charities, Berlin, addressed th 
meeting, having come from abroad in large par 
at this time to attend the convention. Edward 1 
Devine, general secretary of the society, closed th 
meeting with words expressing a true sense c 
brotherhood with the humblest and stated that th 
two great dangers with which strong men mus 
deal in the near future were those that accompanie 
congestion in our great cities and overwork. 

Will other cities take warning? 












The International Kindergarten Convention for 
.90S will meet in New Orleans, La., the week be- 
ginning March 30. 

The New Orleans Local Committee is organized. 
The names will be given in a later number. 

The Executive Committee is working on the pro- 
gram and data will be given in our February num- 

The Report of the Fourteenth Convention is 
ready to go to print. 

The Department of Superintendence of the Na- 
tional Educational Association will be held in Wash- 
ington, D. C, February 25, 26, 27, 190S. 

The New Willard Hotel will be the headquarters. 
;The prospect is excellent for the largest meeting 

I of the Department yet held. 
It is officially announced that the next meeting 
of the main body of the N. E. A. will be held in 

Cleveland, Ohio. 


a beautiful Thanksgiving celebration was that 

:given by the Ethical Culture School. New York 

jbity, when the senior class presented the "Mask of 

fuemeter," by Robert Bridges, the music of which 

lis written by W. H. Hadow. The young maidens 

sustained their parts beautifully and one cannot 

but think that the studying and making a part of 

themselves an exquisite, dignified, poetical play of 

1 this kind must establish in them all those virtues 

'and graces which we naturally attribute to the 

ideal maiden. Such a study of the Mother love of 

■■ Demeter will surely help the young people to a 

1 more perfect relationship with their own parents. 

An inspiring occasion was the opening, Novem- 
I her, under the auspices of the New York Kinder- 
1 garten Association, of the fine new kindergarten 
, building on West Forty-second street, New York. 
I It is the gift of John D. Archbold, in memory of 
I his daughter, Mrs. Frances Dana Walcott. 

The building is most complete in every detail. 
There are convenient offices for those in charge and 
three large kindergarten rooms, each accommodat- 
ing fifty children. Goldfish tanks, herbariums, and 
potted plants give the charm of growing and living 
! things to the room. The lockers and toilet rooms 
I are arranged with reference to the needs of the 
child, hooks and wash-basins being low enough to 
be within reach of little people. 

But most attractive of all the attractive appur- 
tenances of the building is the room garden. Here 
are a number of garden beds, approximately 7x9 
feet, and raised about three feet above the roof- 
floor, so that they must be reached by a ladder. In 
summer the children will be able to plant and weed 
and care for real garden truck or flowers as safely 
as if on the ground many feet below. Ivy twined 
around the posts and columns makes the place 
beautiful now. What it will be when the happy 
children are gardening there we can well imagine. 
The remainder of the roof will be open to games 
and other active exercises. 

In the charming auditorium Dr. Nicholas Mur- 
ray Butler, W. Hamilton Mabie and other officers 
of the association spoke the inspiring words with 
which this beautiful building, housing so many 
beautiful activities, was dedicated, and Mrs. Riggs 
(Kate Douglas Wiggin), with much feeling, ^read 
passages from her popular book, "Marm Lisa." 

"The Kindergarten in Georgia." — At the request 
of Mrs. Lipscomb, president of the State Federation 
of Clubs of Georgia, Mrs. Nellie Peters Black has 
been gathering information for report and publica- 
tion from the various women's clubs of the state in 
regard to the growth of the kindergarten move- 
ment in that state. To the forty letters of inquiry 
sent out she received nineteen replies, all of which 
indicate a growing interest in this phase of educa- 

Mrs. White of the Athens Woman's Club reports 
two kindergartens under its patronage, the first es- 
tablished by it six years ago. They include sev- 
enty-five pupils, and are now maintained by the 
city, with the assistance of the club. The kinder- 
gartens are both in factory districts. According to 
the report of the supervisor of kindergartens, Miss 
Edwina Wood of Columbus, that city is the banner 
town of the state in matters educational. There 
are two kindergartens supported by the Free Kin- 
dergarten Association and by the city. One hun- 
dred and twenty-five children are enrolled. In 19 04 
the public school system adopted the kindergartens 
into the first grades. There are now seven such 
schools seating 2S0 children. The Eagle and the 
Phenix Mills have built well-equipped schools, em- 
ploying five teachers with an enrollment of 100 
pupils. These schools are under the personal su- 
pervision of Mr. Gunby Jordan, to whose enthusiasm 
is also largely due the introduction of the system 
into the public schools. A third kindergarten is 
supported by the Perkins Hosiery and the Topsy 
Hosiery companies. This makes a total of twelve 
kindergartens. In the latter two teachers are em- 
ployed, having thirty children under their care. 
We learn that Columbus has also two finely- 
equipped industrial schools, one primary and the 
other secondary. 

Macon has two kindergartens (but no report was 
sent in), and Dalton is said to have a free kinder- 
garten in the mill district, under care of the Lesche 
Club. A committee of women maintain a kinder- 
garten in Rome and Valdosta supports one private 

The Atlanta Free Kindergarten Association began 
work twelve years ago and more than 5,000 chil- 
dren have enjoyed uie privileges it has conferred. 
We are told that the city council points with pride 
to the great reduction in the number of loafing, 
wayward children in the streets, which they attri- 
bute to the influence of the kindergarten. There 
are now seven schools with enrollment of forty-nine. 
The city gives $7 5 a month toward the support of 
these; "the Exposition Cotton Mill maintains one, 
the Atlanta Woolen Mills is responsible for an- 
other. A lady connected with All Saints Episcopal 
church gives $50 toward the maintenance of a 
third, and the vestry of this church gives $10 more. 
There is also a membership of fifty-five persons 
each pledged to give $5 a year. The Atlanta Jew- 
ish Council of Women gives towards the work, as 
do the Atlanta City Federation and the Atlanta 
Woman's Club. The Needlewoman's Guild also 
contributes in the way of clothing. 

Miss Willette Allen maintains a private kinder- 
garten in Atlanta in addition to her very success- 
ful training school. 

There are private kindergartens in the Methodist 
Orphans' Home, Decatur, the Sheltering Arms, At- 
lanta, and the Methodist Settlement work near the 
Elsas May Mills, Atlanta. 

The Carre Dyer Club, Acworth, and the Chero- 
kee Club of Cartersville, are anticipating the intro- 
duction of kindergartens in the near future. 




"Moni the Goat Boy and Other Stories." trans- 
lated from the German of Johanna Spyri by Edith 
F. Kunz. Johanna Spyri will be remembered as 
the author of the favorite Swiss story of Heidi. 
These short tales breathe a simple, sweet, trusting 
piety in a style foreign to most American stories. 
Charming, indeed, are the pictures of mountain life 
and mountain characters which the author presents 
so sympathetically in her various boys and girls. 
Children will learn to love me individual goats and 
kids which the herdboy loves so devotedly and will 
be sympathetic partakers in the trials and tribula- 
tions and simple joys of these far-awaj- children. 
Most of the stories are in one way or another wit- 
nesses of the redeeming power of love in training 
a little child. Ginn & Co., Boston. 

"The Bible as Good Reading," by Albert J. Bev- 
eridge. This is a remarkable little volume of less 
than one hundred pages, but for which we prophesy 
many an edition. We are told that Senator Bev- 
eridge spent some youthful seasons in a logging 
camp and here, with no other print at hand, he 
read and reread the Bible not only to himself, but 
to others who were his more or less unsophisticated 
companions. In this way he learned to know thor- 
oughly the grand old book. Chapter I, particularly, 
tells how he came to read aloud to his friends after 
he had discovered for himself that "there is more 
good reading in the Bible than in all the volumes of 
fiction, poetry and philosophy put together. So 
when I get tired of every thing else and want some- 
thing really good to read, something that is charged 
full of energy and human emotions, of cunning 
thought and everything that arrests the attention 
and thrills or soothes or uplifts you, according to 
your mood, I find it in the Bible. It is safe to say 
that this small book will lead hundreds who have 
perhaps relegated the Bible to the limbo of "un- 
readable literature" once more to pick it up deter- 
mined to become acquainted with its rare charm, 
its wonderful life lessons, its poetry, its passion, its 
history, its wisdom. Senator Beveridge's simple, 
terse, modern, up-to-date English strikes home in 
each vigorous sentence. It holds attraction for the 
young man of business totally unacquainted with 
uie Bible, as well as for the scholar and student 
and preacher who knows it well. Henry Altemus 
Co ... Philadelphia. 50 cents. 

"Days Before History," by H. R. Hall. This is a 
most readable little book for either adults or chil- 
dren, although written primarily for the latter. In 
an easy, familiar style a group of wide-awake boys 
are told by a delightful uncle something of the life 
and activities of prehistoric man. With the uncle, 
the boys investigate one of the old pit homes and 
are led from one point to another to understand in 
a measure how these early people lived; how they 
built their homes, secured their food, made their 
utensils of basketry and clay, fashioned their arrow- 
heads, etc., etc. A glimpse is given also into the 
homes of the lake-dwellers of England and of Swit- 
zerland. There are illustrations showing flint 
scrapers, bone needles, axes and other implements. 
The story centers around the life history and ad- 
ventures of a youthful British savage, Tig. The 
writer has been unusually fortunate in maintaining 
a style which, while unconstrained and conversa- 
tional, suggests nothing of the patronizing or the 
didactic. The preface, by J. J. Findlay, professor 
in the University of Manchester, England, tells us 
that, uie life of Tig and Gofa is a true picture of the 
life of the early Aryans. He suggests that to realize 
its best effect in character, the child be given scope 
to act over these experiences in his own play. 
Thomas Y. Crowell Co., New York. 

"The Handy Book of Synonyms." A practical 
desk guide to words in daily use, giving their defini- 
tions and parallel meaning. Its small and conven- 

ient size will make it a favorite desk companion tt 
business men, casual letter-writers and indeed al 
who aim to write with precision and force, bu 
might be daunted by a suggested search througl 
the unabridged dictionary with words obsolete o 
useless. This book contains just what is wanted ii 
small compass. Type, though small, is clear an; 
open. Thomas W. Crowell & Co., New York. Prici 
40 cents. 

"Right-at-Hand Stories" for dictation. and repro 
duction in the school room. For entertainment ani 
inspiration in the home. Collected and edited b; 
Rosa L. Sawin and Frank H. Palmer. The storie 
are all short, few being longer than two pages i: 
length. They are as a. rule drawn from incident 
in real life and are alive with vivid, human interesl 
they convey many an interesting bit of informatio 
or contain an incentive to generous action or hig 
resolve. Nor is the element of humor lackini 
Teachers will be able to use the book in a variet 
of ways and as a reference book for anecdotes wit 
which to point a moral, parents will also find it c 
interest and value. We are told that special pair 
uas been taken to have the punctuation correct, br 
on page 12 we observe that the apostrophe ! 
omitted from the possessive of the word "grocer's 
The Palmer Co., Boston. 

"Millie and Ollie," by Mrs. Humphrey Ward. Th 
is a new and revised edition, printed in Americ; 
of a charming story written some twenty-seve 
years ago by the author of Robert Elsmere. Lac 
Rose's Daughter, and other well known novel 
The scene of this story is laid in the romantic Lai 
Country of England. We are told the doings of tw 
little children on the rainy and the sunny days 
their happy summer holiday and are intr 
duced inio a happy family group. Doubleday, Pa; 
& Co., New York. 20 cents net. 

"Theodora,' by Katherine Pyle and Laura Spe 
cer Portor. The story of a little girl's year in 
school kept by an Episcopalian sisterhood. Tl 
spirit of the story is charming and other litt 
eight-year-olds as well as their older sisters w 
enjoy reading of Theodora's experiences and doul 
less "many an only child of wealthy parents w 
sympathize with the little girl's wish to adopt h 
room-mate as a little sister. Little, Brown & O 
Boston. Illustrated. 

"A Book of Joys, the Story of a New Engla: 
Summer," by Lucy Fitch Perkins. This is one 
the rare gift books of the season. Kindergartne 
know Mrs. Perkins as the artist who gave them t 
charming Mother Goose panels, those sources ' 
continual joy to the little people. High school st 
dents know her through her beautiful decoratif 
triptvches depicting scenes in the lists of Ki 
Arthur and Ivanhoe, but she is not so well kno^ 
as a writer. Those acquainted with her sunny d 
position and her rarely fine and quick wit will ( 
pect to find these qualities expressed in the be 
and thev will not be disappointed. It is a lovi 
idyl, easy and flowing in style, with delightful i 
scriptions of scenery, and acute and witty en 
acterizations of people and things. For exanir 
after stating that one may expect to find more in 
vidualitv in country than in city people she quo 
a neighbor as saying. "My sister and me am t 
more alike than if we wasn't us! She's just as t 
ferent as I be the other way." From childhood 
have loved "good mother hen," whose Sunday cac 
seemed different on that day, and always peculia 
characteristic of Sabbath peace and calm. Theret 
we quite agree with our author in her chap 
called "^ Solitary Sunday," in which she descn 
the beautiful Sabbath May morning and jne'de- 
allv speaks of the important part contributed^ 
her jov bv the motherly biddies and the lusty en 
ing cock.' "Bird songs and pleasant barnyard nri»< 
mingle so sweetly in my happy ear, that this men 



g I could even find room in my heaven for less 
heral birds than those admitted in poetry to be 
. for Paradise. So hospitable is my mental state 
deed, that i think I should like a few barnyard 
wis there, fowls that never need minister to car- 
il appetites nor be looked upon as subjects for 
ilinary art, but peaceful biddies which might be 
lowed to wander unmolested, leading their downy 
•oods through by paths of the Elysian fields." Mrs. 
irkins is pained at the attitude of the staunch 
ew Englander toward those who have been so 
;nighted or unfortunate as to become Westerners, 
le describes one little lady thus: "She was the 
.stilled essence of 'Old Family.' It was a Sunday 
ce every day in ihe week, and in looking upon it 
le's sins of inelegant English, of occasional col- 
quilaisms, not to mention worse things, loomed 
rge in the foreground of consciousness. "To fortify 
srself to meet this important personage she makes 
n inward appeal to my ancestry.' . . . 'Don't 
; downcast! You can dig up graveyards with 
lybody,' I sternly quoted to myself. Your an- 
stors came over in the Mayflower just as much 
i her's did, perhaps more You were trained in 
.fancy to leave out your r's and use a broad a, and 
>u can still do it if you give your mind to it. . . 
will do my best 'said myself to me." The short- 
imings of Chicago form the basis of the hostesses 
mversation during this afternoon call and our 
ithor continues: "I had sins enough of my own 
> answer for without being held responsible for 
le aggregate shortcomings of Chicago and I cast 
i imploring look at Cousin Henrietta to urge a 
rmination of our call before our hostess should 
'quire about the stockyards or any other of my 
dden vices." "A Little Maid" flits through the 
iges giving the touch that childhood alone can 
ve and "Adam" occasionally appears, a necessary 
.ctor in this New England Eden, as in every Ar- 
in, and the last few chapters center around a 
"ide-elect and the bridegroom, giving opportunity 
ir many charming expressions of beautiful phil- 
»phy, as well as many sage conclusions upon life 
ad its various experiences, mingled with sudden 
id unexpected sayings of a quizzical nature in 
hlch often profound wisdom is embedded. This 
,ads up to a description of an ideal wedding in the 
pen. Someone uses the word "iridescent" in de- 
ribing the book and we accept the term. The re- 
irring unexpected changes from grave to gay, in 
le gentleness and ease with which one slips into 
le other suggest the lovely changes on the surface 
' the opal rather than the sharp flashes of the dia- 
mond. We close with a characteristic paragraph: 
111 other blessings come with the vision that sees 
te end of it all and perceives the immense value of 
ie means to that end. Even the everlasting ef- 
>rt of the human race 'to catch up with its dinner' 
Tves the highest immaterial ends: courage, fidel- 
7, and a thousand fine spiritual qualities are born 
■ the struggle. In this view all life becomes full 
:' significance, and all work worth while. The 
ng perspective casts doubts upon some forms of 
lccess, and sets small value upon many things 
hich look desirable from the more short-sighted 
Jint of view, and it draws a sharp distinction be- 
veen work, real creative work, and 'operations,' 
it those who have the vision, and keep it, are after 
1 the favored ones of earth." There are five il- 
strations in color by Mrs. Perkins. Paper and 
inting are unexceptional. It is indeed a book 
joys. A. C. McClur g & Co ., Chicago. $1.75 net. 

Mrs. Ida M. Locke is having a class "In Stories 
id Story-Telling," with the Froebel League, New 
ork. The course consists of a progressive series 
' stories and aims to acquaint those interested in 
lildren's literature with the best sources of sup- 
y In both ancient and modern thought and with 
. Mrs. Locke will furnish a suggestive list for 
tildren of various ages. 


"The Southern Workman" is always full of good 
things, but the December number is particularly 
so. The frontispiece is a charming picture of a 
group of three, father, mother and son, the latter a 
fine looking young negro in uniform reading the 
"sweet story of old." An editorial "A Crucial Test 
of the Indian," tells of what an important part the 
Indian had in helping with the work of turning 
the course of the Colorado River when that river 
was flooding the Salton sink. The ease and rapidity 
with which men, women and children could be 
moved from place to place as the work progressed 
was a matter of congratulation; moreover they 
were patient, good-natured, and honest and showed 
both bravery and skill in the boats in diflicult situa- 
tions. Strange, how blind we are to the natural 
human resources which are right at hand had we 
but eyes to see. Emma M. Soch, in the same journal 
describes the gardening for girls at Hampton In- 
stitute, and Richard R. Wright, Jr., tells of Home 
Ownership and Savings Among the Negroes of 
Philadelphia; a most encouraging story. Booker 
T. Washington's chapel talk to the Hampton stu- 
dents, October 13, upon the "Privilege of Service" 
is given. His wisdom, and great, broad-minded 
sanity is illustrated in the words of warning to his 
youthful listeners, against allowing hate or bitter- 
ness toward another race to grow in their hearts. 
To be useful in the world," he says, "to exert the 
most lasting and deepest influence one must always 
be calm, cheerful and self-controlled in action. Such 
p°ople exert the greatest influence in life and will 
help most in the solution of the problems in which 
we are most interested." 

The World's Work. "American Healing Round 
the World" is the title of a fascinating article, by 
E. A. Forbes, misr'onary-physician. It tells of "a 
ministery to suffering in all lands." Our splendid 
missionary doctors And their way into the depths of 
China and Korea, the remotenesses of Africa, the 
East Indies, and indeed all known and unknown 
parts of the world, and as the writer says "do more 
to disarm oriental prejudice than the entire diplo- 
matic service." Many pictures show the good work 
being done not only by the Americans in their own 
persons, but extended in the work of the many na- 
tives whom they instruct and inspire to follow 
their example. It is a splendid story of heroic dar- 
ing and faith and fortitude, in which women as 
well as men are engaged. As the author says, it is 
to be regretted that our local medical journals sel- 
dom if ever make mention in their pages of the 
heroic brother physicians in distant climes. 

A Japanese speaks in the same magazine upon 
China's awakening, as ssen by a Japanese, Togo, 
M. Kanda. We would like to see a reply from a 

George Turnbull tells of the English Historic 
Pageants, which occupied this summer and indeed 
many months back, the minds and activities of our 
cousins across the sea. Magnificent pageants were 
held at St. Albans, Manchester, and other English 
towns, the preparations for which involved the 
writing of parts, often by local "talent," the study- 
ing and practicing of song and acting, the making 
of the suitable garments, armor, etc. The scenes 
represented were usually those connected with the 
history of the particular locality in which the 
pageant took place. Those interested in this move- 
ment believe that there is great educational value 
in pageants not only to those who witness them, 
but especially to those who take part. 

In the December number of the Century is an 
editorial from which we quote on "Trying to Spoil 
the American Girl." "The importance of the young 
woman in American society is out of all proportion 
to her achievements, and naturally,, where such im- 
portance is the rule, the social tone, however "gay," 



is unintellectual and devoid of the mellowness 
which makes the formal intercourse of human be- 
ings an institution. Instead of being taught in 
childhood that her business is to serve, and that 
her only chance of happiness is in service, she is 
virtually taught that everything must be done for 
her. The rewards of a woman's existence — love, re- 
spect, deference — are thus placed at the wrong end 
of life. To begin with, the sense of values is lost 
by the profusion of Christmas, Easter and birthday 
presents showered upon her every year. As Whately 
said of literary style, "He who accentuates every- 
thing, accentuates nothing." 

In such extravagance the beauty of simplicity 
disappears, and beside the luxury of such a girl- 
hood the gifts of nature and of common human life 
lose their preciousness. A glorious sunset, the 
nightly miracle of stars, the treasures of noble 
poetry — the neritage of human kind — what are 
these to most debutantes compared with a spectacle 
of colored lights at the theatre — to speak, for in- 
stance, of the approximation of the life of girls to 
that of their elders in dress and entertainments, 
which is but a part of the lavish and unappreciated 
idolatry that attends from cradle to altar — none 
the less a monstrous folly that it is committed in 
the name of parental love." 

There are other good things. Roger Boutet de 
Monvel, son of the celebrated French artist, has 
written delightfully of "A Visit to the Paris Con- 
servatoire," a sketch illustrated by Andre Cas- 
taigne. Oliver Locker-Lampson, who, as a child, 
knew and loved Kate Greenaway, has set down his 
memories and written a sympathetic appreciation 
of this "friend of children." "The Reminiscences 
of Lady Randolph Churchill" in this issue are rich 
in whimsical humor, as the writer recalls her early 
experiences in London society and her first visit 
to stately Blenheim. In keeping with the holiday 
season are clever short stories by Elizabeth Shaw 
Oliver, Howard Brubaker, Robert Haven Schauffler, 
"Daniel Steele" and Mary Buell Wood. "The Shut- 
tle," by Mrs. Burnett, closes with thrilling scenes, 
and Elizabeth Robins' "Come and Find Me" de- 
velops increasingly tense dramatic interest. 

The Outlook, December 7, is of special interest 
because of an article, the first of a series, by Ernest 
Hamlin Abbott "On the Training of Parents"; the 
title of the first paper is "Spasm and Habit." We 
quote one sample paragraph, trusting that it may 
lead to a reading of the series. "This practice of 
regularity in the physical care of children will lay 
the foundation, not only of health and content- 
ment, but also of moral discipline. When we have 
eliminated the opportunities for collision with our 
children at meal times and bed time, we are well 
on our way toward eliminating government by col- 
lision altogether. The quiet exercise of authority 
involved in carrying out a simple regimen of diet 
and of rest will almost automatically extend to 
other matters." ... It all depends on what we 
want our children to be, whether we employ the 
method of spasm or the method of self-restraint." It 
contains good material for parent's meetings, 

Ernest Poole in the same number tells about 
Chicago's Public Playgrounds, which prove that all 
of the wonderful American boldness, efficiency and 
capacity for organization is not spent merely for 
money-making, "but for such objects as babies and 
children and future American mothers, for human 
happiness, health, and growth." 

The Educational Review for December contains 
an article by Ella Lyman Cabot called "An Experi- 
ment in Teaching Ethics," which gives in a few 
pages the gist of her fascinating book on "Teaching 
Ethics," reviewed in our December number. All 
teachers and parents will find the article most il- 

In the same number Frederic Burk contributes a 

paper which he calls "The Withered Heart of the 
Schools." It is a diagnosis of the case of the 
teacher stricken with the disease which he calls 
'the dry rot," and also a study of the woman who 
is immune. Most charming is his characterization 
of the latter. Have the paper read aloud at your 
next teachers' meeting; as an inspiration and a 
warning expressed in an unusually captivating 

Tne "Systematic Training of Feeling" is treated 
by Charles Hugh Johnston and Frank Rollins, in 
tne same number, discusses "Industrial Education 
and (Julture." 

The Atlantic Monthly has a paper by A. Minnie 
Herts upon "The Children s Educational Theatre." 
it was Miss Herts who, lour years ago, undertook 
to oigamze the Entertainment Department of the 
Educational Alliance, Mew York, animated by the 
uesne "to supply the children in the neighborhood 
with entertainment of better class than the Alliance 
and other neighborhood amusement places had 01- 
reied." xne article states convincingly the educa- 
tional results, mental and moral, accruing both to 
actors and to child audiences through the study 
and presentation of good plays. "Those who come 
animated merely with the desire to study parts re- 
main to be brought into intimate acquaintance with 
a variety of characters represented in dramatic fic- 
ton, thereby widening their circle of human con- 
tact, as would be otherwise impossible in their re- 
stricted lives. Under wise direction they study in 
ideal characters motives, possibilities and purposes 
active in human nature. Indirectly our work se- 
cures the discipline of self-restraint, of devotion to 
duty, 01 promptness, of efficiency, and the rights of 

Among the plays given and acted by the children 
of this crowded East Side neighborhood are: "The 
Tempest," "As You Like it, " "ingomar," "Little 
Lord Fauntleroy," "Snow-White," "The Prince and 
the Pauper." The innuences tor good are incalcul- 
able, which directly and indirectly this play-acting 
exerts upon the children. 

Something each day — a smile 

Is not much to give; 
And the little gifts of life 

Make sweet the days we live. 

The world has weary hearts 
That we can bless and cheer; 

And a smile for every day 
Makes sunshine all the year. 

Last night, though Mother tucked me up 

And kissed me for good-night, 
I could not go to sleep because 

It was so very light. 
The moon looked through the window pane, 

And made the whole room white. 
I thought about my new tin pail, 

And Dolly's broken head, 
And then I heard the sweetest song, 

And lay quite still in bed, 
And listened, for the sweetest songs 

AreAngels, mother said. 
Was it an Angel? Could it be? 

I peeped out just to see, 
And all I saw was one brown bird 

Upon the white rose tree. 
It was an Angel mother thinks, 

If Id had eyes to see! 





(Continued from page 189) 

ilchool of Trades, opened two years ago by 
he Merchants' and Manufacturers' Associa- 

Of a somewhat different order, but on an 
Hied topic, we find in the Engineering 
lecord for Nov. 23 a spicy editorial, "Back- 
lash in Engineering Education," a hit at 
/hat the writer considers unnecessary 
/aste in hours and methods in the schools. 
If boys parsed more sentences and painted 
ewer pansies, learned more history and less 
um-and-nicotine physiology, they would 
ome up as engineering freshmen with less 
leed of apologies." 

Doubtless methods of teaching mathema- 
ics may, as the article suggests, be made 
nore practical while still retaining their 
lisciplinary character, but if the bov be 
aught to paint pansies at the psychologic 
noment and in the pedagogic way he will 
issuredly be the better engineering fresh- 

What Germany Is Doing. 
: Apropos of the growing interest in this 
subject is the monograph by Albert A. 
?nowden on the "Industrial Improvement 
schools of Wuerttemberg, Germany," 
bund in the Teachers' College Record of 
November. 1907, this year. Between the 
;ame covers is a brief description of the 
Dther industrial and commercial schools of 
:he kingdom, and an outline of the activities 
Df the Wuerttemburg Central Bureau for 
[ndustrv and Commerce. The chapters 
reat of: 1. The place of vocational train- 
ng in the Kingdom. 2. The Rise of Vo- 
:ational Schools. 3. The Reorganization 
)f the Industrial Improvement School. The 
rontispiece shows a picture of the hand- 
some, dignified building which forms the 
iome of the Industrial Museum of Stutt- 

We are told that whereas a few years ago 
he country which had few natural re- 
sources was overcrowded as far as popula- 
ionwasconcerned. Through able statesman- 
nanship, a broad vocational training, with- 
n the reach of all who desire it is provided : 
he tide of immigration has been checked, 
he population has increased rapidly, the 
vhole land shows evidences of general pros- 
)erity, "and there is more room than ever 

We learn from this magazine that state 
lid in financing industrial schools is now 
'eceived in France, Austria, Hungary, Bel- 

gium, England, the German states. Switzer- 
land, and Italy, so important do those 
countries regard such training. 

At first, such training, in Wuerttemburg 
was given on Sundays. In 1739 the order 
was thus set forth : "All young people must 
attend the Sunday and holiday schools un- 
til the time of their marriage, so that they 
will neither so easily forget what they have 
learned in school, nor spend the leisure of 
Sundays or holidavs in a sinful manner." 

Austria, Vienna, Prague, early estab- 
lished (eighteenth century), schools for 
technical drawing. Prague founded a lace- 
making school. The various sporadic ef- 
forts in such directions are traced, but the 
first movement toward a general introduc- 
tion of such education in Wuerttemburg 
was in 18 18. 

The detailed history of this industrial 
movement is most interesting, involved as 
it is with the changing conditions of the 
early part of the nineteenth century, espe- 
cially the troublesome local customs duties 
which separated town from town. 

Evening schools followed the Sunday 
schools as need developed: at first attend- 
ance being optional, but later becoming 
compulsory. It is this compulsory feature 
which is of interest to us of the "states." 
The "parental" compulsion would be impos- 
sible in this country, certainly at present, 
if not always. But it certainly accomplishes 
some excellent ends. 

In the so-called industrial improvement 
schools the instruction is given in the day 
hours. "The schools attract older working- 
men as well as apprentices." One man fifty- 
two years old enrolled for his thirtieth half 
year. Some had been attending for ten or 
more years. 

The latest law — to be in full operation in 
1909 — compels all local cities having for a 
period of three successive years at least 
forty youths under eighteen years of age 
engaged in industrial or commercial pur- 
suits, to establish an industrial or commer- 
cial school. This term is given the widest 
possible scope in Wuerttemburg and takes 
into account not only the factory hand and 
the counting-house assistant, but the day- 
laborer, the grocer's clerk, and the errand 
boy. The law provides for the compulsory 
attendance of all young workmen. 
The chief objective point of the law is to 
furnish opportunity for instruction during 
the work-days, instead of evenings, Sun- 
days or holidays as before. The minimum 



number of hours is to be 280. The schools 
are to be organized more strictly than ever 
along vocational lines and instructors care- 
fully prepared by a long course of training 
are to be put in charge everywhere. The 
courses will extend through a term of three 

The percentage of illiteracy in Wuert- 
temburg is practically nil. "Out of 11,000 
recruits for the army examined in Wuert- 
temburg each year only three on the aver- 
age are found to be illiterate. These are in- 
variably from other German states." 

Wuerttemburg, however, is not satisfied 
with results and has been recently reorgan- 
izing her Industrial Improvement Schools. 
This change is embodied in the law above 
referred to, and to which we can give no 
further space at present. The article, how- 
ever, closes with an enthusiastic descrip- 
tion of the State Industrial Museum at 
Stuttgart, which "is a rare illustration of 
what a live and vital institution a museum 
can be." In addition to fine exhibits of 
things manufactured, are directories from 
all over the world, catalogs, art models, a 
fine library, and a chemical laboratory in 
which experts are constantly employed 
making experiments on raw materials for 
Wuerttemburg industries. 

Germany has, however, been wise enough 
to postpone a fully specialized training until 
the child has been given a good foundation 
of all-around cultural training, which will 
prevent his being narrowed down into a 
mere machine. Brains and character are 
necessary to a nation's life as well as mere 
mechanical skill. 

The monograph gives all necessary and 
interesting details as to courses of instruc- 
tion, both for students and for teachers, 
with hours and subjects taught, and gives 
as well an idea of salaries paid and tuition 
asked, and results obtained both good and 
bad. All American manufacturers and 
teachers will be interested. 

Gustaf Larsen, the great sloyd teacher, 
suggests, in "Education," iqo6, that the 
present manual training high schools be 
converted into vocational schools for chil- 
dren over seventeen years of age and that 
a manual training laboratory be placed in 
every high school building. 

In the October "School Review," Charles 
R. Richards writes upon "The Relation of 
Manual Training to Industrial Education." 
He feels that the greatest value found in 

manual training rests not so much in th 
skill to be acquired as in "the mental quick 
ening and broadening of outlook." "Can 
we expect to meet and satisfy this eage 
craving for information and achievemen 
except by the broadest opening up of th< 
real world outside of school and the reflec 
tion in the school of facts bigger with mean 
ing than the mere handicraft itself?" Wha 
is needed more than skill, he argues, is in 
dustrial intelligence. 

Statistics seem to prove that most chil 
dren, in Massachusetts at least, leave schoo 
not because of pecuniary need, but becausi 
the work of the school is not sufficiently at 
tractive to hold them, and because they an 
ambitious to engage in the activities of th' 
real world. 

Mr. Richards asks therefore: "Is it no; 
pretty nearly true that in the chance 
making our constructive work more a re 
flection of the actual industrial world lie: 
the sole hope of increasing the holdim 
power of the schools in these uppe 

He feels that to do this it is on instruc 
tion that is based primarilv upon the stimn 
latins: power of ideas rather than upon th< 
development of skill that we must rely. 

Naturallv, the manufacturers and th< 
workmen feel that the most efficient teache? 
of industrial education is the man who 
knows practicallv the shop end of the busi 
ness. as well as the theoretical side, anc 
unhapnv experience has often establishec 
them in this belief. The ordinary class 
room teacher has not alwavs succeeded it 
turning out of his manual training mill chil 
dren competent to do good shop work, nev 
ertheless, lest we fet sunk in commercial 
ism we need to remind ourselves with Prof 
Richards, that "the primarv and funda 
mental influences in industrial education 
whether it be a question of developine sym 
pathv for industrial careers, of stimulating 
industrial intelligence or broadening th< 
social outlook, rest in the hands of us whc 
are concerned with the art and manna 
training in the public schools, "and the mair 
thines to be sdven the student are, in th« 
words of the Massachusetts report: 

"The power to see beyond the task which occu 
pies the hands for the moment to the operation: 
which have preceded and to those which will follow 
it. power to take in the whole process, knowledgf 
of materials, ideas of cost, ideas of organization 
business sense and a conscience which recognize! 










3I)£ TKinfcergarUn- Jp r * mar ? ^tlaga^ine 

VOL. XX— FEBRUARY, 1908-NO. 6 

What Should the Public do for the Care and Training of 

Children Before They are Admitted to the Public 

School, Counting the Kindergarten as a 

Public School? 

Ada Van Stone Harris 

rHE struggle between socialism 
and individualism is as old as 
society. It is one of those whole- 
some and inevitable battles essen- 
al to individual and social health, that 
in never be settled, but must always re- 
lit in continually varying compromises. 
The basis of compromise must always 
e the necessities of society. The state 
iust do for the individual what is best 
>r its own perpetuity. 
There is an inherited belief, amounting 
Imost to a superstition, that the state's 
bligation in the nurture and preparation 
f her future citizens begins when they 
in first attend school. It is generally 
elieved that to open the doors of a pub- 
c institution to the children at four or 
x, and when they are eight to go into 
leir homes and compel them to come 
ut and go to school, is a perfectly safe 
nd proper exercise of governmental 
'Ower; but that to go into the home 
itherto care for the children or to take 
lem out before they have arrived at this 
ge would be rank socialism. 
I In a free state the one unvarying es- 
:ntial condition of continued life is a 
jealthy, intelligent, and virtuous citizen- 
[hip. Whatever intrusion into the sacred- 
ess of the individual and family is nec- 
ssary to secure this is not only justifiable 
ut is necessary. 

. In early times among us the family 
3uld easily supply the necessary nurture 
nd training until such time as the minds 
f children required the sort of intellect- 
al culture furnished by the ordinary 

But times have changed; the urbanz- 
ig of population has destroyed these 
anditions for very large numbers of 

families. Hence more and more now the 
state must exert its authority to secure 
to its people the conditions essential to 
good citizenship. 

Imaginary lines must disappear, and 
the state must in self-protection take 
charge of its young whenever families in 
large numbers fail to meet the demand, 
whether at the age of six, five, four, or 
in the cradle. 

Hence there are certain positions that 
are frankly assumed thruout this paper — 
That education is the primary business 
of the state; that the child is born im- 
mediately into the state as he is into the 
family; that the concern of the commun- 
ity in the child is as urgent as that of his 
kin; that the power and duty of the state 
to train the child into citizenship is co-ex- 
tensive with the needs of each individual 
child; and that solidity of interests 
makes the welfare of each the business 
of the whole. 

Those who do not admit the proposi- 
tion of democracy would doubtless dis- 
pute its corollary of free and compulsory 
education, with all its implications. But 
in the confidence that my assumptions 
are those of a majority at least of this 
audience, I have felt that it would be a 
waste of time to discuss principles on 
which we are agreed and have laid the 
stress of this paper on the practical ap- 
plication of these principles. 

I have further limited the paper to a 
dicussion of those methods suited to act- 
ual present-day conditions 

To discuss upon what spheres of action 
the state should enter in a properly con- 
stituted community is one thing; to face 
our incoherent, struggling, abnormal soci- 
al organization as it affects the child 

1 98 


and to discuss what must be done here 
and now under the present conditions is 
quite another. 

The present discussion is sketched on 
the background of crowded tenements, 
child and mother labor, alien popula- 
toins, poverty, ignorance, disease, intem- 
perance and unchastity, which conspire 
to form the terribly dwarfing and de- 
forming environment of millions of child- 
ren in this land of liberty, in the year of 
our Lord 1907. 

What the ideal home in an ideal state 
ought to do for the normal child is a 
theme upon which angels might delight 
to write. Meanwhile as we hew our way 
thru the "dark forest of this tangled pres- 
ent," let us look facts squarely in the 
face and see what must be done in the 
broader activities of state and commun- 
ity to give each child that square deal 
which is his right. 

Permit me then very briefly to discuss 
some of the things that should be done 
for the child by the public before he is 
admitted to the rublic schools. 

First, by carefully drawn and drastic 
legislation the housing of the people in 
our great and growing cities should be 
radically better . 

Visit the ghetto of the overcrowded 
East Side, New York. The procession 
along the highway reveals not only the 
apparently prosperous business man, 
but the immigrant fresh from the foreign 
shore, ignorant of our language and 
customs. Here we see the lame and the 
lazy, the shiftless ne'er-do-wells, and the 
unfortunate generally, living in cellars 
and crowded tenements; entire families 
in one or two rooms, among most 
unwholesome surroundings, the families, 
both of whose parents or whose sole 
supporting members are compelled to go 
out during the day, leaving the children 
without proper care. As the tenement- 
house problem stands today, in most of 
our larger cities the occupants suffer ser- 
ious handicaps in their struggle for exis- 
tence and a place among men. It is vain 
to attempt to educate children devitaliz- 
ed in these crowded, dark, unsanitary 
tenements. Room to play in, air to 
breathe, must be secured to the children 
of the nation that would not invite its 
own decay. 

It is true that much has already been 
done by philanthropic organizations, and 

especially by the city, thru the oversight 
of tenements and providing parks and 
playgrounds. But vastly more is needed. 

The way to secure these primitive] 
rights is for our legislators to find out; 
the force that sets them on the path of 
constructive legislation is ours to create. 

Unless government compels the owners 
of tenement houses to keep them in 
good sanitary condition, to provide air, 
light, water, toilet accommodations, that 
are adequate and decent, the unfortun- 
ate tenants will go without them. 

Unless government keeps the streets 
of these districts clean, the children will] 
play in the filth, for the street is their 
principal playground; and unless govern- 
ment segregates those affected with con-j 
tagious diseases, they will stay in the! 
same rooms and the same beds with the 
well children, and spread the contagion. 
But government must do more than this. 
It must compete with ignorance, weak 
ness, indifference, superstition, inherited 
and imparted habits and prejudices, all 
hostile to health and morality. 

One of the most manifest needs is, 
first, instruction in the laws of hygiene 
as applied to the simplest problems of 
living. Much instruction can and must 
be given in the schools to fit the men 
and women, the fathers and mothers, of 
the next generation for a more whole- 
some living. But that is for the future. 
The immediate need is the instruction ofj 
parents. Those who have never actually) 
visited the houses of the tenement dis-i 
tricts can have no conception of the, 
possibilities of ignorance and prejudice^ 
that exist. 

This instruction may be given in var-| 
ious ways; thru lectures, by association! 
with the people, in settlements possibly- 
tho better in the way of business or oi 
some activity, as that of the teachers; 
and especially may the instruction be 
given thru the mother's club and par- 
ents' meetings in connection with the 
schools. These offer perhaps the best 
centers for instruction to be given to par 
ents, and should be much commoner and 
more general than they are. 

The duty of the community does not 
end however, with the assurance ol 
decent housing conditions. Add to the 
house the playground, the bath, th< 
gymnasium, the park, the library, anc 
you have the minimum which a real!} 



itelligent community must do in the 
ssuring of an environment to its child- 
en that shall make a firm foundation 
n which to build educationai progress. 
1 Turning from environment to the child 
'e find that, second, it is the duty of the 
ublic to protect infant life by proper 

When a child is born blind, or deaf, or 
eformed, a serious burden is imposed 
pon the state. Modern medical science 
as shown that a large proportion of 
iese handicaps of birth are due to 
renatal causes or to conditions in very 
arly fancy. For example, blindness is 
iduced in many infants by lack of pro- 
er cleansing and care of the eyes. All 
roperly educated physicians and nurses 
nderstand the simple and easily applied 
anitary treatment that will prevent the 
evelopment of the inflammation which 
esults in either total blindness or per- 
manently impaired eyesight. But the 
ast majority of the foreign-born among 
he poor employ a midwife during con- 
inement. Many of these women have 
lad no training whatever, and only 
he most rudimentary ideas of cleanli- 
less. In many European countries there 
ire laws providing for the instruction, 
raining, licensing, and rigid inspection 
if midwives. In this country, with our 
growing foreign population there is a 
growing need of such legal regulation of 
he practice of midwifery as shall protect 
>oth child and mother. The state must 
:ee to it that the needed instruction is 
riven. One of the most needed govern- 
nent agencies in the cities is an adequate 
:orps of physicians and nurses, under 
he direction of the health bureau, to 
asit the houses of those who need it, to 
:ounsel with the mothers and fathers, to 
:ake charge of cases of illness, to defend 
:he ignorant against quack doctors and 
inscrupulous and ignorant midwives, 
:o enforce segregation of the ill from the 
■veil, and in general to see to it that 
lygienic conditions are maintained. As 
epresentatives of the government they 
:ould and should secure in the homes 
;uch conditions that infants may be born 
ight, nursed right, fed, bathed, clothed, 
ind exercised right, and may thus have 
i square deal at the outset of their lives. 

The very great extension of the prac- 
ice of maintaining a trained nurse in the 
)ublic schools is also desirable. A nurse 

attached to each school could perform an 
educative function in the homes of the 
pupils whose value cannot be overesti- 
mated. New ideas about cleanliness, 
ventilation, and feeding could also be 
given by her to the overburdened moth- 
ers of the tenements that would richly 
repay the community in better-fed and 
stronger children. 

I cannot leave this phase of the subject 
without alluding to the duty which the 
public owes in the protection of the 

We protect our cattle and horses from 
deterioration of stock by care of the 
mother. We allow the mothers of men 
to be oppressed by greed, ignorance, and 
poverty during their pregnancy, and then 
the public pays the bill in the care of 
their deformed, feeble, epileptic, or idio- 
tic children. There are already count- 
ries enlightened enough to forbid certain 
forms of toil to the pregnant woman. 
Self-protection will bring society at 
large to recognize the danger to the 
race in refusing the protection of the law 
to the helpless victims of our commercial 

But poor old father Dermas cannot rest 
when he has protected the birth of the 
child — bless you, there's the food question 
staring us in the face. 

That it is poorly dealt with up to the 
present time is evidenced by the fact that 
some 50 per cent, of the babies that steer 
safely thru the perils of birth become dis- 
couraged and quit within the first five 
years. It is idle to rail about what ought 
to be. "It is a condition, not a theory, 
that confronts us." as President Cleveland 
said; the condition being that millions of 
people are crowded together in large cit- 
ies; and that these modern cliff-dwellers 
are absolutely dependent upon their food 
and drink being brought to them from 
the far-away country; and in the bringing 
there are many things besides milk that 
suffer conversion into something sadly, 
fatally strange. The community must 
secure for the child clean, pure milk first 
and foremost. To educate milk producers 
to elementary notions of cleanliness, to 
facilitate the distribution of milk, to safe- 
guard it at every step of its path from the 
cow to the child, is one of the most im- 
portant tasks of public education and leg- 
islation. The national pure food law is 
only the beginning of what must be done 



in the way of legislation, both federal and 
state, to safeguard the health of the 

There is no department of public re- 
sponsibility for the child not yet of school 
age more directly connected with his suc- 
cessful accomplishment of his school tasks 
than this vigilant guarding of the food 
supplies. Most authorities agree that 
maenutrition is at the bottom of much of 
the "naughtiness," "stupidity," and "in- 
corrigibility" of school children. Wise 
legislation to prevent the sale of injurious 
or impure foods, coupled with instruction 
in the selection and preparation of food 
will do much to eliminate the child who 
can't keep up. 

The health bureau of many cities, not- 
ably my own city, has done much to aid 
the community in the simplest princi- 
ples of the feeding, bathing, and exercise 
of young children thru the distribution 
of a pamphlet on How to Take. Care of 

As we leave the problems of infancy 
and approach those of the two or three 
years lying between the baby and the 
school child, the complexity of the prob- 
lem and the diversity of view in regard 
to the proper solution increases. 

On the one hand, psychological science 
is making clear as never before the fund- 
amental importance of these years in 
equipping the child for normal self-reali- 
zation, and of guarding against permane- 
ntly atrophying the higher powers of the 
nature. On the other hand, the patient 
first-hand investigation of sociologists is 
demonstracing that under our present 
industrial conditions there are great 
masses of our population utterly unable 
to provide for their children the whole- 
some activities and environment essential 
to develop them into efficient and useful 
citizens. It is idle to argue as an ex- 
cuse for the public inaction that these 
conditions might be changed in time. 
They ought to be and they will be; but 
sociological changes come slowly; and 
meanwhile there are generations of chil- 
dren yet to come who must have their 
rights secured by co-operation or by pub- 
lic action, if at all. Many of the func- 
tions best performed b> the home must be 
undertaken by the community in behalf 
of the home of the future. To expect 
mothers who must toil all da)' to eke 
out the family income, or who are shut 

into the cramped quarters of a tern 
ment, to supply the nurture that thei 
children must have is to expect the im 
possible. Hence for a portion of ou 
people, and that not a small one, th 
public must do a great educational wor 
in preparation for actual school life, o 
else be foolishly attempting to build it 
educational structure on the sand. 

The question is sometimes raised, wha 
is properly the school age ? And some ar 
seriously asking if it is not too early or to< 
late, if the kindergarten offers the best forr 
of training for children under six, and i 
when the age of six is reached, reading an 
arithmetic offer profitable employment 
This is a many-sided problem. It is no 
merely an inquiry into the proper employ 
ment of the time of children from earl 
infancy. It is a very different problem i: 
the large city or the manufacturing cente 
and in the village or the rural district. I: 
the country a child can be left out of schoc 
until he is eight or more, and still have hi 
mind and body kept profitably busy. H 
can be educated as Rousseau would hav 
educated him, through contact with natur 
and through doing things with his hands 
Much of the best work that the town chif 
does in the kindergarten the country chih 
does better through the simple use of th 
tools everywhere about him, in natural ac 
tivities. Though it must be said of hiir 
that if he is healthy, a few hours a day in 
good school, after he reaches the age of six 
will at least do him no harm. A poor schoc 
in which he is improperly employed upoi 
the empty forms of knowledge may do hani 
in the country as well as in the city. 

In the congested town life, if a child is lefi 
to his own devices until he is seven or eight; 
the range of suitable activities is so smal 
that he is likely to come to school at eigh 
a victim of arrested development, but ai 
adept in evil. It is quite possible to mak 
criminals of those children in those year 
before the age of eight. As was suggests 
at the beginning, the state must take charg 
of the training and nurture of large num 
bers of its children from the very outsel 
What kind of training it shall give them a 
each stage of growth is a question for ex 
perts. The only expert capable of final de 
cision is that rare combination, the doctoi 
teacher, the specialist in both physiolog 
and psychology. 

I think there can be no doubt that th 


20 1 

r,er years, say up to four, should be whol- 
fee from control — except such as is nec- 
sy to secure physical and moral well- 
it at the time. The occupation should 

lay — free and spontaneous. Children 
did play, and eat, and sleep, and be hap- 
Jn clean, wholesome surroundings with 
udance of fresh air and sunshine. 
Tie limits of this paper prevent any but 
ebriefest mention of the manifold activi- 
: : to be entered upon by the community 

ehalf of the child. Since the greatest 

National factor of the first six years of a 

Jl's life is play, he must have play- 

(jinds, amply accessible, fully equipped. 

since these children of the city streets 

t be taught to play freely — spontane- 
imaginatively, and socially — these 
Igrounds must be presided over by wise, 
let-spirited, and well-trained teachers 
I will play with the children and through 
I lead them into a free and joyous social 

here came into one of our playgrounds 
summer a boy aged seven, but looking 
>ld as his grandfather, wearing overalls 
suspenders. He was leading his little 
er Mary by the hand and wheeling a 
y carriage which contained a rickety 
v of one and one-half years. The father 
mother were day laborers, leavinghome at 
en o'clock in the morning. Mary, aged 
ee was a little "tuf," and was only happy 
en hitting everything in sight ! She was 
ed and abetted in this by the other chil- 
li, who laughed at all of her perform- 
es until the teacher who was in charge 
:he playground suggested that they were 
ting Mary and not helping her to grow 
and be a better child. The teacher ap- 
led to the children on their altruistic side, 
il finally they agreed it was not kind, 
1 hence they would no longer encourage 
ry in what seemed her natural tend- 
ies. Ere the summer closed these bad 
)its died a natural death. Little brother, 
h his parental care, brought for baby's 
ch on the first day a large piece of cake 
h white frosting. The teacher explained 
t baby ought to grow and could not on 
i cake. The next day a large greasy 
ighnut appeared. On the third day the 
cher achieved her object. John came 
h a bottle of milk, Approaching the 

teacher with a beaming countenance he 
said, "Baby will grow now, won't she, 
teacher!' If the playground had existed for 
no other reason than to have driven the vic- 
ious tendencies from Mary and to have 
given the baby proper nutrition — it paid. It 
must be trained supervision to accomplish 
such results. 

Outdoor playgrounds, and for stormy 
weather adequate covered spaces or play- 
rooms indoors, are absolutely essential for 
babies, for older children, for growing boys 
and girls; playgrounds equipped for quiet 
games, for noisy games, for athletic con- 
tests, for all proper amusements, are part of 
the investment for the future that cities 
must make. To the playgrounds should be 
added recreation centers, where fathers and 
mothers can go with their children. Chi- 
cago's park houses are models of suggestion 
and inspiration as to what can be done for 
. a community in this respect. And there 
must be parks, accessible and inviting, where 
children may roll and frolic in the grass, 
zoological gardens, where the child may 
make acquaintance with furry and feathered 
friends, personally conducted excursions to 
woods and field, and little garden patches 
where baby Adams may grub in the friendly 
earth. Transportation to these children's 
paradises should be furnished free if need 
be from the public treasury. 

In conclusion : these are a few of the obli- 
gations of the state toward her children 
born of the poor, the ignorant, the helpless; 
the care of mothers before, during, and after 
the birth of children, instruction of parents 
in the duties of parenthood, such supervision 
of the home as is imperatively needed, legal 
control of tenement houses, doctors, and 
nurses trained — sympathetic and possessing 
authority — supervision of food supplies, 
then fresh air, cleanliness, and room for play 
in healthful and moral surroundings. These 
and more the state must provide, abandon- 
ing all foolish notions of its limitations, when 
its life is at stake. For the life of the state 
is a sane, healthy, and moral citizenship, and 
the quality of citizenship is determined dur- 
ing the helpless years spent by the baby in 
the cradle and by the toddler at his play. 

If the state is to be saved it must heed the 
cry of the children. 










■— i 





1— 4 





Children train us into trainers better than 

11 trainers. — Richter. 

Jean Paul Richter in the preface to his 
vork on "The Doctrine of Education" ex- 
Jains its title, Levana, in these words: 

"May Levana, the motherly goddess who 
vas formerly entreated to give a father's 
leart to fathers, hear the prayer which the 
itle of this book addresses to her. . . . 

The education of most fathers is but a 
ystem of rules to keep the child at a re- 
pectful distance from them, and to form the 
:hild more with regard to their quiet than 
lis powers. 

But I would ask men of business what ed- 
ication of souls rewards more delightfully 
ind more immediately than that of the inno- 
:ent, who resemble rosewood, which im- 
parts its odor, even while being carved and 
;haped ? . . . 

The words that the father speaks to his 
rhildren in the privacy of home are not 
leard by the world; but, as in whispering 
jalleries, they are clearly heard at the end 
md by posterity." 

Richter closes his preface by saying: "It 
vould be my greatest reward if, at the end 
)f twenty years, some reader as many years 
)ld, should return thanks to me that the 
>ook which he is then reading was read by 
lis parents." 

This writer of genius recognizes that 
'children train us trainers better than all 
rainers," yet, says he, "books are occasion- 
illy reminders." 

Hence, once more as we are midway in 
he school year, let me urge upon all kinder- 
partners who have not already started a 
'Mothers' Reading Circle" to do so forth- 
vith, and furthermore let me urge that the 
athers be invited to read too. Having a li- 
>rary and circulating books helpful to par- 
ents, will accomplish more than we can 

We can best entice fathers, perhaps, by 
idding to our library at once Miss Emily 
D oulsson's new book, "Father and Baby 
D lay," published by the Century Company. 

Miss Poulsson needs no introduction to 
;indergartners. Her "Introduction to the 

Mother Play" helped many of us to use 
more intelligently Froebel's "Mother Plays" 
and emphasized what Froebel himself 
taught — that his book "aims to interpret the 
mother's own instinctive words and deeds." 
In her preface Miss Poulsson acknowledges 
that "Fathers themselves have unconscious- 
ly supplied the material for her new book 
and that she "now returns to the home, the 
plays which have often been enjoyed therein 
by father and baby." 

In offering fathers these charming verses, 
' Miss Poulsson reminds them "that rhythm 
and rhyme are like wheels by which the bur- 
den of meaning is carried more smoothly 
and readily into the baby's mind than it 
would be by unordered words." 

This new book is full of the most active 
of all home plays, for father's love is apt to 
express itself in less quiet ways than "finger 
plays," and we find him tossing, romping 
and carrying the little one "pick-a-back, and 
even sending him without ceremony into 
tumble-town." Echoes from the busy noisy 
world enter into father's play. 

"Funny Fishes," "Two White Ducks," and 
"Chasing Speck-o-dirt," will surely become 
famous nursery classics and save many a 
cross word and many a baby's tear. These 
three songs are one of Miss Poulsson's hap- 
piest thoughts to help mother and baby pre- 
pare for "Father's home coming." making 
it an event in the day as it is in so many 
happy homes. 

W'ith all the fun and noise and frolic, quiet 
shadow nictures on the wall and a lullaby 
for fathers are not forgotten, for, 

"When the night darkens the blue of the sky 
And bright in their places the stars gleam on high, 
Tis then to the baby come visitors three 

Come, Gappo, and Nidnod and good Slumberee." 

I think it would be well worth while that 
an hour given to interesting mothers in 
this new work of Miss Poulsson's and in her 
Finger Plays, too, if they have not already 
been presented. It is true that we have been 
considering mainly in this series of articles, 
old-time books, but present day books may 
be more appropriately considered in some 



cases. Hence we have paused to consider 
this one, so unique is its character in con- 
nection with Richter's words to fathers. 

The preface and a few of the explanatory- 
pages scattered through "Father Play" 
should be read (note especially pages 38, 
46, 54, 62, and 68.) 

A few suggestions should also be given 
a mothers' meeting about examining the 
pictures and reading the verses to the chil- 
dren as stories about other children. Very 
few fathers or mothers could be induced to 
purposely commit the rhymes to memory. 
The rhymes will sink gradually into the 
memory, by reading them as stories to the 
children, until acting them out comes spon- 

The book and its stories must suggest 
nlay rather than force it, for forced play is 
no play at all, hence let us warn over-zeal- 
ous mothers not to be discouraged if father 
does not apply Miss Poulsson's suggestions 
at once. Speak a word about one of the 
fundamental principles of the kindergarten, 
"growth from within." Weeds grow too 
ranidly. The oak grows slowly. Speak of 
courage to wait. 

Professor Baldwin writes in "Social and 
Ethical Interpretations" of the keenness of 
the child mind in distinguishing the various 

characteristics of the adult minds aborr 
him. The proverbial gentleness and pa 
tience of mother is off-set by the natura 
vigor and firmness of father. This need no 
signify that mother's virtues do not includi 
strength and firmness, nor that father's nee 
essarily lack gentleness and patience— J 
not at all — and yet nature forces one virtue! 
to the front in mother and another in father 
The child feels the difference and need; 
both lessons. 

Day by day, mothers should learn frorr.i 
fathers, as well as fathers from mothers, thq 
different wavs of gaining wise control "oveii 
wayward childhood." 

Are these books in your Mothers' Circulating 

The Book of the Child, How — Dutton Co. 

Morning Glow, Gilsen — Harpers. 

The Luxury of Children, Martin — Harpers. 

Children's Rights, Wiggin — Houghton, Mifflin Co 

The Golden Age, Kenneth Grahame. 

Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm, Wiggin — Hough- 
ton, Mifflin Co. 

Children's Ways, Sully. 

Dickens as an Educator, Hughes — D. Appleton. 

Childhood, Birney — Stokes. 

The Story of a Child, Loti — Houghton, Mifflin Co 

Silent Teachers, Harrison — Chicago Kindergarten 

Study of Children, Washburne — Household Eco- 
nomics Library. 

Father and Baby Play, Poulsson — Century Co. 

Little Jane and Me, M. E. — Houghton, Mifflin Co. 



The kindergarten has held a strong at- 
traction for me for some time and as oppor- 
tunity afforded I have made a point of visit- 
ing them. Somehow there was always a 
feeling of disappointment in regard to the 
decoration of the room. Pictures were 
pleasing, but not of the kind one can look 
upon day after day and still see in them 
something grand, ennobling and uplifting — 
one look was enough. 

A short time ago, however, I stepped 
into a kindergarten in a remote quarter of 
the city, where none but the poorest classes, 
and those mostly foreigners, are found and 
I could not but feel that the teacher there 
was a thorough kindergartner. It was the 
week before Christmas and there were sea- 
sonable pictures and decorations and the 
little gifts the children had made for home 
folks were displayed, but it was the regular 
decorations that impressed me very deeply. 

These decorations were not elaborate. 

but I went directly the next morning to pay 
that room a second visit. A large copy of 
Rosa Bonheur's "Lion at Rest," in brown, 
and one of the "Horse Fair," in delicate 
color, were mounted and put up unframed; 
one good Madonna and small pictures of 
the Boy Christ and the Good Shepherd were 
others that stayed in my memory. Besides 
these there were many children's pictures, 
all very attractive and some very amusing; 
but the lasting impression was made by 
those first mentioned. 

No one but those who have been deprived 
of the ennobling influence of good pictures 
in their childhood can realize what is being 
done for these children — how much life, 
strength, hope and determination may grow 
out of the association with these real works 
of art. Then why not give them the best? 
It is no more expensive and money cannot 
measure the value of good influence and 
high ideals. 





Valentine's Day. 


: For weeks before Valentine's day Tommy 
'tnd Susie were at work at the little table 
n the corner of the sitting room with paste 
tnd paint and scissors, as well as other 
reasures that mother had saved for them, 
—colored pictures of flowers and birds from 
ast year's* calendar, and beautiful paper lace 
:rom boxes of soap, which must have been 
put there especially for Valentines. 

It is a good thing that the table was in 
a far corner of the room, for there were 
wonderful secrets going on there that even 
mother must not see ; indeed. Tommy and 
Susie had sometimes to tell each other to 
turn their heads around, for the way the 
pictures were pasted on the paper, and the 
way the lace went around the edge, and the 
way "I love you" was printed on the back 
page must not be seen by everyone. 

At last they were finished, and each Val- 
entine was in an envelope of its own ; then 
mother had to come and write the names on 
the outside of some of them, but one name 
had to be saved for father to write when 
mother was busy in the kitchen, for she 
must never guess whose name that was. 

On the day before Valentine's day Tom- 
my and Susie drove down with their father 
to the post office, and they themselves 
mailed every Valentine, so that there might 
■be no mistake. Of course they stopped to 
look at each one before it went into the hole 
for letters, for they must be sure there was 
a name on the back and a stamp on the cor- 
ner of each one. Then, after they were 
safely in, there was nothing more to do but 
■to drive home again and wonder and won- 
•der how grandma and the boys and girls 
and father and mother would like them. 

At last it was Valentine's day, and father 
came from the post office with his pockets 

bulging with mail. There were big envel- 
opes and little ones, plain ones and fancy 
ones, and no one was left out. 

When they were opened each one was so 
beautiful that no one could choose the pret- 
tiest; father and mother thought theirs were 
best of all, and the baby squealed and 
clapped his hands over his, but Tommy and 
Susie were sure nothing was ever so pretty 
as theirs, for each one opened and shut and 
had words like songs in them. 

They sang them over all day long: 

If flowers could speak, 
Then these would say: 
I love you now 
And will alway. 

I write this verse 

To say to you: 

I love you well; 

I truly do. 

Even the baby tried to join in when he 
heard them singing : 

"Will you be mine, Sweet Valentine?" 

So that the house was full of singing and 
fun all day long. 

After supper, when Tommy came home 
from carrying the milk to the old lady, and 
started to hang up his overcoat, he felt 
something big in the pocket, and when he 
opened the white paper there was a big 
sugar cookie shaped like a heart with can- 
dies around the edge ! He hurried to show 
it to the others, and mother found this verse 
on the paper covering: 
"Who made you this, with love and a kiss. 

"Tell me, will you, Tommy W. ?" 

It was funny how it came to be in that 
pocket. Who could have put it there? 
Even after he went to bed Tommy kept say- 
ing over and over: 

"Tell me, wil you, Tommy W. ?" 

Who could it be ? . 




New Orleans is undoubtedly the most in- 
teresting and unique city in the whole 
United States, not only on account of its 
balmy, sunny climate, but also for its cos- 
mopolitanism, its delightfully quaint old 
French houses, its narrow streets with shops 
and signs everywhere. In fact some one 
has most aptly said, "It resembles some old 
city of France planted on American soil," 
surrounded by a modern and most up to 
date American city with its sky scrapers, 
large hotels and great rush of business. 
There are any number of interesting points 
in the city situated on the banks of the 
Father of the Waters. 

Perhaps one of the most interesting fea- 
tures of the city, and one which strangers 
should not fail to visit is the "French Mar- 
ket." Here all nationalities and colors 
gather to either dispose of their goods or 
buy, as meat, fish, dry goods, boots, shoes, 
tinware and household articles are sold ev- 
ery day of the week. 

The French Market comprises five dis- 
tinct and separate markets, which are 
known as the fruit and vegetable, the meat, 
the bazaar and the fish markets. Between 
the markets are small open spaces, which 
are usually occupied by Indians, and ped- 
dlers of fruit, tinware and notions. Sunday 
however, is the. day on which the market is 
seen in all its splendors. The crowd com- 
mences to gather early, until, about ten 
o'clock, it is so dense, that one can scarcely 
move. As the population of New Orleans 
is greatly mixed, many nationalities are 
seen in the French Market, and the way 
French, English and Spanish words mingle 
renders the Babel extremely confusing. 
At the head of the market are the sev- 
eral coffee stands, which are much frequent- 
ed by strangers and at which a good cup of 
hot coffee or chocolate can be had for the 
small sum of five cents. Strolling down 
from the market we come to the United 
States mint, which has a capacity of turn- 
ing out $5,000,000 per month. The process 
of making money is most interesting, and 
is one of the sights of the city. A polite 
official is always in attendance to show the 
visitors over the several departments. 
Sauntering up Rue Royale, which was the 
main street of the old city, will give the tour- 
ist many quaint and interesting views. 

Down this street, as on Chartres, will b 
found any number of interesting antiqu 
and bric-a-brac stores, where relics, once th' 
property of the most prominent persons < 
ante-bellum days can be found. Here ca 
be bought rich old-fashioned carved furn 
ture, jewelry, crockery and bric-a-brac c 
the rarest kind. From here we wander iht 
Conti street to get a glimpse of the old bo 
tie man, made famous by Eugene Fieli 
Leaving this delightful old place we come t 
the "French Opera House," erected after 
design by the celebrated architect, Gallie 
and where each winter for a period of tfrre 
months are enjoyed the grand operas. Tr 
fashionable nights are Tuesday and Satu 
days, when the big horse-shoe-shaped aud 
torium, lighted with electricity and fille 
with ladies and gentlemen in full evenin 
dress, presents a brilliant picture seldoi 
seen elsewhere. 

Nowhere else in this great United Statt 
can be found the peddlers and Indians whic 
are to be seen making the rounds of tl 
city and stationed at the various market 
The latter are to be found in the market 
where they sit, silent as statues, keeping 
strict watch on their baskets of herbs ar 
plants, their laurel and bay leaves, used I 
the Creole cooks to season soups and dishe 
They also sell "File" (gumbo), a sort 1 
green powder, used to make the celebratt 
gumbo. Beside them we find their litt 
papooses, strapped to planks, as is their cu 
torn. We also find the negro women, wi 
gaudy "Tignon," selling their praline 
sugar cakes made of pecans or peanut 
"Callas," and a number of other eatable 
In the streets is to be seen all kinds ai 
varieties of peddlers. 

Another point of great interest is tl 
Navy Yard and dock, which is located ( 
the other side of the river, about a mile ai 
a half below Algiers, and has the secoi 
largest floating dock in the world moored 
front of the yard. It is constructed of ste 
and cost $810,000. The big dock is 
worth a visit and when near, its huge pr 
portions are more appreciated than from 
distance. It is considered one of the mo 
ern wonders in naval architecture and the 
is nothing else like it afloat. Among t 
great institutions is the "Charity Hospita 
which as its name implies is a "charity he. 









pital" Any one sick or injured is admitted 
free of charge, nursed and fed until able to 
leave. Its doors are open night and day, 
the year round, to the afflicted of all classes, 
color and nationalities. One of the most im- 
portant branches of the hospital is its "am- 
bulance service." At a telephone call, night 
or day, an ambulance, fully equipped with 
temporary means of relief and accompanied 
by two medical students, dashes off to any 
part of the city to bring the patient to the 
hospital. Two handsome buildings face the 
avenue and are used by the outdoor clinics. 
In the grounds is the magnificent Milliken 
Hospital, which is used exclusively for chil- 
dren. Another institution of which New 
Orleans is proud is the "Touro Infirmary," 
which was founded by the Jews, but is pat- 
ronized by all sects on account of its excel- 
lent care and attention given to the patients. 
Canal street is one of, if not the most im- 
portant business thoroughfare, and is guard- 
ed by monuments erected in honor of those 
brave and true men who gave their lives for 
the city. These are the 14th of September 
and the Fireman's Monuments. 

On this street is the custom house, 11 
which is the "Marble Hall," considered t< 
be one of the handsomest rooms i n the 
world. It is remarkable for the fact tha 
nothing but marble and iron has been usee 
in its construction. 

At the farther end of the city are to b< 
found the United States Barracks, officiall 
known as Jackson Barracks. They consis 
of a series of brick barracks and officers 
quarters, built after the old style houses 
with a large courtyard or esplanade in the 
center, the whole being enclosed by thicl 
brick walls. At the four corners are towers 
with embrasures for guns, and the walls an 
pierced for musket firing. The barrack 
and surrounding grounds are kept in per 
feet order and are usually occupied by sev 
eral artillery companies. 

Visitors should not leave the city withou 
paying a visit to West End, which is situ 
ated on Lake Ponchatrain, and where art 
to be found the boat houses of the St. John': 
Rowing Club, the West End Rowing Club 
and other clubs. Crossing the foot bridge 
the music plaza is reached, where every ev 
ening during the summer concerts are given 
Near by are the summer theatres, side show: 
and the large hotel, which is renowned foi 
its "cuisine" and delicate fish dinners. Pass 
ing behind the pavilion a long wharf is 
reached, at the end of which is the Southerr 
Yacht Club House, the starting point for the 
annual regattas. Beyond the music plaz£ 
extends the Revetment Levee, with its gar- 
dens, flowers, and walks, forming a delight- 
ful promenade along the lake shore. Across 
from the West End are Spanish Fort anc 
Milneburg, both being small villages wit! 
pleasure grounds. The former is situatec 
at the mouth of Bayou St. John, a streair 
navigable for schooners. On the latter is 
to be found the Light House, which is rur 
by a woman, Mrs. Norvell. 

Louisiana, renowned for her sugar, coulc 
not be visited without a trip to a plantation 
which would not only prove interesting, bul 
also instructive. There are a large numbei 
of plantations within easy reach of New Or- 
leans, any one of which could be visited in a 
day, the nearest one being the "Ames" plan- 
tation, just across from Audubon Park 
Other great sights are the cotton factories 
and presses. An examination of their pow- 
erful machinery is worthy of attention 
There are a number within the city and an] 




nspection of them would prove most profit- 

And now we come to another of the inter- 
esting points in this unique city. It is "Mar- 
garet Place," and is situated at the intersec- 
ion of Camp and Prytania streets, and just 
.n front of St. Theresa's Orphan Asylum. 
In the center is a green mound bordered 
vith flowers and surmounted by a pedestal, 
■>n which rests a white marble statue of a 
voman seated in a chair with her arm 
around a little orphan. This woman has a 
)lain, homely face, her thin hair is combed 
>ack from the broad forehead, the eyes are 
leeply set, the features coarse and the 
nouth wide. She is no high-born lady, but 

a woman of the people, untaught, honest, 
simple and industrious. This statue was 
reared in honor of Margaret Haughery, a 
noble and charitable woman who devoted all 
her life to aiding the orphans. Reared in 
poverty, she had, by industry in selling milk, 
accumulated sufficient means to purchase a 
bakery, and by attending strictly to her 
business, she managed in a few years to 
make a fortune. This she devoted to the or- 
phans, without regard to sex, nationality or 
religion. At her death a popular subscrip- 
tion was raised and this statue and park 
dedicated to the memory of one of God's 
grandest women. This is the first statue 
erected in America in honor of a woman. 


The Committee on Local Arrangements 
or the International Kindergarten Union 
Convention, which will be held in New Or- 
eans, March 30 to April 4, are busy with 
he details of plans for entertaining the dele- 
gates. Frequent meetings have been held 
ind the work is advancing nicely. 

Much general interest is being evinced on 
jart of citizens and every effort will be made 
make this meeting a complete success, 
rhe early spring is a very attractive time to 
risk Louisiana. Usually the weather is clear 
ind balmy and most suited to out-of-door 
Measures. The Crescent City has the proud 
lonor of having the finest electric car ser- 
vice in the United States, besides being the 
argest city in area in proportion to its popu- 
ation, hence a number of very interesting 
rolley trips can be made in a short time. 
Doubtless a number of visiting delegates 
vill be interested in taking out-of-town ex- 
cursions, such as a visit to the Teche, a day 
>n the gulfcoast, a trip up the river. Details 
)f information for taking these trips will be 
ssued shortly. 

The following is a list of the committees : 

Mr. A. T. Moss, Chairman Committee 
on Local Arrangements. 

Mr. H. F. Baldwin, Chairman, Finance 

Miss Kate Minor, Chairman Commit- 
tee on Entertainment. 

Miss Margaret Leonard, Chairman 
Committee on Program. 

Mrs. M. L. Anderson, Chairman Com- 
mittee on Music. 

Mrs. L. M. Horner, Chairman Commit- 
tee on Decoration. 

Mrs. Maurice Stern, Chairman Commit- 
tee on Badges. 

Miss Edith Woodruff, Chairman Com- 
mittee on Exhibits. 

Miss Eleanor Riggs, Chairman Com- 
mittee on Press. 

Mr. W. L. Levy, Chairman Committee 
on Place. 

Mr. O. L. Trezevant, Chairman Com- 
mittee on Printing. 

Mr. Charles Colton, Chairman Commit- 
tee on Transportation. 




Principles Useful Even in the Kindergarten. 

In an article in the January number of 
this magazine, the first of a series on the 
Educational Value of Bookbinding, I at- 
tempted to show in a general way that 
bookbinding in the high school is the nat- 
ural outgrowth of the art and manual train- 
ing courses offered in the public schools 
from the kindergarten through the grades. 
The benefits gained physiologically from 
this work were briefly sketched. Then fol- 
lowed a discussion of the psychological, 
moral and sociological, including the indus- 
trial aspects of the subject of bookbinding. 
"The modification going on in the method 
and curriculum of education is as much a 
product of the changed social situation, and 
as much an effort to meet the needs of the 
new society that is forming as are the 
changes in the modes of industry and com- 
merce." The school in its manual and do- 
mestic training is making an effort to put 
itself into line with this change and supply 
to the child the elements of development 
that have been lost by the departure of the 
old household and neighborhood system. 
Such work lends itself to character build- 
ing, habits of order and industry, a sense of 
responsibility and an obligation to do some- 
thing to produce something in the world. 
It trains the producers in observation, in- 
genuity, constructive imagination, logical 
thought, "sense of reality acquired through 
first hand contact with realities." 

Let us brifly take the processes of book- 
binding that involve principles that are 
common to all manual training. Looking 
through the leaves to be bound and arrang- 
ing them consecutively, or having one's 
tools each in its place involves the principle 
of order which is essential to the success of 
any mechanical work. Marking up for sew- 
ing and measurement indicates accuracy. 
Sawing and sewing are activities that speak 
for themselves as everyday occupations. 
The lining of boards by pasting on paper 
shows clearly the principles of shrinkage 
and warping. Hammering the back and 
boards brings to mind a familiar sound. Fil- 
ing boards to prints involves principles of 
fitting which is later carried out when the 

cover is adjusted to the book. Muscular c 
ordination results from the use of tl 
brushes in pasting, glueing and colorir 
edges. Cutting sheets to proper size ar 
the various processes involving the skillfj 
use of the knife show close relation to othi 
branches of manual training. 

My point is not that bookbinding involvi 
principles that are new to all other branch* 
of manual training, but that as brought 1 
some degree of perfection in the high scho 
it gathers up principles that may be tract 
through all the grades from the kindergaj 
ten up, and that it may be used by botj 
sexes without special adaptation. 

The book that usually comes into tl 
hand of the amateur binder for binding 
one that has special value for the owner an 
no longer meets the definition of a boun 
book, which may be described as a colle 
tion of sheets so connected and protecte 
that they may be easily read and handle 
without injury to themselves. In oth< 
words it has "come to pieces." We hav 
then in the beginning to deal with the ii 
stinct of destruction for the purpose of r< 
construction, the materials for binding b< 
ing in the main the same as in the origin; 
form. The old sheets must be patched an 
guarded, and like a made-over garmerl 
come to the finish "as good as new," and i 
the making-over process, connected wit| 
the cords and tapes on which the book i; 
sewn. Their handling and careful adjusi 
ment is confined to bookbinding alone. Th 
rounding and backing of the book for th 
purpose of disposing of the ridges caused b 
the thread, with which it is sewn, and inci 
dentally making grooves in which th 
boards rest also belongs to bookbinding 
alone, as does the headbanding, which i 
merely a development of the old process c 
sewing over raised cords or leather thongJ 
The "finishing" is an art in itself, which ha 
always been used as a method of decoratioi 
for book covers, be they what they may. 

Physiologically and biologically the pro 
cesses of bookbinding involve principle 
which may be traced back to the beginning 
of the race and the individual througl 



phases indicated in the development of the 
child. Folding printed sheets suggests an 
activity that dates back to the constructive 
epoch of the race. From early childhood 
the folding of a handkerchief is a source of 
continued pleasure. The infant will fold and 
pile as the binder piles his sections in shape 
for sewing. Children of three will paste, 
sew, cut and hammer with eagerness. Tear- 
ing comes even earlier than cutting, which 
necessitates a more careful adjustment of 
muscles. The taking apart and building up 
of the book may be traced to the block 
building of the kindergarten, which results 
in bringing order out of disorder. Measure- 
ment is taught in paper-folding, but learned 
when the infant on reaching for an object 
reaches or refuses the effort as the object 
is or is not placed within reaching distance, 
and is known to the earliest forms of life 
through muscular adjustment. 

Coming back to the high school, muscular 
co-ordination with sense-perception, with its 
special relation to attention, judgment, ac- 
curacy and adaptation of means to the end, 
is shown in the sharpening of knives. This 
is accomplished by means of the grindstone 
and oilstone. The knife is sharpened in 
different ways according to the use to which 
it is to be put, involving judgment and adap- 
tation of the means to an end. In the use 
of a grindstone attention and sense-percep- 
tion are exercised. The binder regulates 
the motion of the pedal and the revolution 
of the stone by the activity of the foot. He 
also regulates the pressure of the knife on 
the stone by the fingers according to the 
edge required. If the eye wanders or the 
attention is distracted the results are dis- 
astrous to either the knife or the worker. 

The development of the technique of the 
book from the simple to the more complex 
forms of binding, and the careful choice of 
methods and materials for covering accord- 
ing to its utilitarian purpose are well con- 
sidered in the high school course. This 
sense of proportion is paralleled in the occu- 
pations of the kindergarten, which, together 
with the materials used, are adapted to the 
stage of development of the child. 

Sewing is natural to both boys and girls 
until the western masculine mind was imbued 
with the idea that it is unmanly. Through 
usage the western woman's hands have be- 
come trained to domestic arts, but in the 
East men still embroider and perform with 
the fingers most delicate tasks. Take the 
process of rounding a book, that, is, by care- 

ful manipulation, moulding it into a sym- 
metrical curve. This the child does in clay 
work in the kindergarten, in mud pies and 
sand pile at home. Fitting the board into 
its joint also may be traced to the develop- 
ment of the child through certain race 
stages, as he carefully adjusts his blocks to 
each other. A very young child is distressed 
if he cannot fit the cover to a box or a gar- 
ment to a doll. In the kindergarten, weav- 
ing and the pasting of the parts of a geo- 
metric figure into place further develop 
this activity. Finally the covering of a book 
for protection involves a development from 
the folded cover of the kindergarten to the 
cut, fitted, pared and carefully adjusted 
leather cover of the high school, requiring 
all the activities that have been used 
through the lower grades. Lastly, the fin- 
ishing of the book, the pushing of the tools 
over designs originated by the binder is the 
climax of the mechanical plus the art and 
culture training developed from infancy. 

The fifth general convention of the Religious Ed- 
ucation Association will meet in Washington, D. C, 
February n-13. The general theme is timely from 
whatever aspect we know it. "The Relation of Moral 
and Religious Education to the Life of the Nation." 
The topics to be considered are as follows: "How 
Can the Educational Agencies Be Made More Effec- 
tive as Moral and Religious Forces?" "How Can the 
Moral and Religious Agencies in the Nation Be 
Made More Effective as Educational Forces?" "Ed- 
ucating the Conscience of the Nation." A fourth 
general session is devoted to reviews of work and 
the annual survey of progress by Dean George 
Hodges. President Roosevelt promised to receive 
the delegates in the East Room at the White House 
and address tnem there. The local committee in 
Washington is making preparations which will in- 
sure to all attending the convention the best that 
the nation's capital has to offer. There will be the 
regular reduced railroad rates. 

The Affordby Kindergarten Normal Training 
School of Baltimore is beautifully housed at 2218 
N. Charles street. This year the work has been 
broadened by the addition of special classes in child 
study, games, stories, and literature. A dormitory 
has been opened for out-of-town pupils and every 
thing points to making this, its eighteenth year, its 
most prosperous one. 

"Manual Art With the Scissors," by Mary L. 
Moran, State Critic Teacher, Providence, R. I. 
There is a page for each school month, beginning 
with September. Upon a pleasing dark brown back- 
ground are placed figures, simple in outline and 
vigorous in action, where action is expressed. They 
look as if cut out of thin white paper and will 
tempt the child to try his skill at cutting similar 
houses, animals, dolls, etc., from such paper as he 
finds at hand. As suggested in the preface, the cut- 
ting out of such figures followed by the placing of 
them in pleasing relations upon a background, gives 
excellent practice in what the artists call "com- 
position." Milton Bradley Co., Springfield, Mass. 

Practice Department 

Subjects: Wool and Sheep. 


The following plan is an account of the 
work of a specific group. The subject of 
the wool and the sheep was not approached 
directly, but was the outgrowth of the needs 
of the children in connection with an entire- 
ly different interest. The children had been 
studying about the Indian and the sight of 
an occasional "tepee," encouraged them to 
set up a miniature camp. They had made 
all the necessary utensils, including both 
pottery and baskets of various kinds. They 
had indulged in different primitive experi- 
ences and had quite completed a concrete 
Indian picture, when it was decided to make 
a blanket somewhat in imitation of a Na- 
vajo, that had been loaned to them. The 
making of the blanket, then, became the 
point of departure for a study of the wool, 
which the group planned to procure directly 
from the sheep. 


As the season and environment were fav- 
orable, the children enjoyed the unusual op- 
portunity of observing a sheep sheared. 
They then purchased an entire fleece, which 
they found to weigh about six pounds. The 
children's first occupation was that of wash- 
ing a quantity of the wool in preparation 
for spinning. 

They then separated the strands with 
their hands, soon discovering its sticky, co- 
hesive quality. They carded it by using or- 
dinary curry-combs, which took out all of 
the tangles, and laid the strands in parallel 
position. These they twisted by hand, 
showing in simple primitive fashion, the 
process of drawing out, (more fully devel- 
oped in the spinning process.) An old spin- 
ning wheel was next procured, and with 
help of the teacher some of the wool was 
spun. The class then dyed it with boiled 
water of walnut shucks. (Commercial dyes 
are more satisfactory for bright colors.) 


With interests so closely allied to real 
life, the group was a live one and its spon- 
taneous expression found an outlet in artis- 
tic illustration. A collection of interesting 

stories were taken from history or other 
sources, also pictures illustrating the vari- 
ous types of spinning wheels. Perhaps the 
most interesting of these was the distaff, 
which is still used by the Navajo Indian. I 
Indeed the children were enabled to trace 
some of the primitive inventions down to 
the present time, making models of the sim- 
pler ones. Thus the study was given an 
historic perspective. 


The children not having looms, invented 
their own by making simple frames, into 
which they drove holes and strung the warp.| 
As the wool prepared was not sufficient for' 
the quantity needed, they used carpet yarnj 
also. When all the weaving was finished,! 
it was sewed together, making a good-sizedj 
blanket, which had a design of stripes, withj 
a border pattern at either end. (It is sug- 
gested here that a warp of linen or cotton 
be used, finer than the threads that form 
the woof. This is a more practical method 
in the hands of children, though it does not| 
so well demonstrate the process of making 1 
woolen cloth.) During the weaving of this 
blanket, the children compared the woolen 
thread with textile fibers, cotton, silk, flax, 
hemp, pineapple, hair, camel's and goat's 
hair; also grass, straw, reeds, and rushes. 
They brought in various woolen materials 
and contrasted those that raveled easily, like 
mohair and brilliantine, with closer weaves, 
such as cashmere or cheviot. It will be seen 
that this subject offers a rich field both from 
the social, economic and historic standpoint, 
to say nothing of its geographical interest. 


After the experience of the sheep-shear- 
ing it was with interest that the children re- 
turned to the fields with several problems 
for investigation. One of the children of 
the group discovered a pet lamb in the 
neighborhood, and this called forth much 
spontaneous observation. The lamb loved 
to be cuddled and petted and played and 
skipped with the children. The band of 
sheep followed a leader, or in the fields, 



groups could be seen feeding together. Thus 

the little observers became acquainted with 

their gentle, affectionate and social natures. 


The children found upon investigation 
and inquiry, that rape and alfalfa are grown 
in pastures for sheep. Sometimes a succes- 
sion of green crops are cultivated. Lambs 
are fed on corn, often mixed with peas. 


The above question was asked by several 

different children. They moreover decided 

that the mouth must have something to do 

with the answer, and so the teacher showed 

them the cleft upper-lip, and the tough pad 

in the upper part of the mouth. With the 

help of the pad, the lower teeth, and a nod 

of the head, the sheep is able to get at roots 

when food is scarce; gathers in the grass 

thus torn off, by the aid of the long flexible 

tongue. The class was interested in trying 

to imitate the nodding of the head and the 

motion of the jaw, as thus produced by the 

sheep, and further noticed that when they 

were resting they chewed a cud like the 



The children also spoke of the sensitive 
nose, and thought it must aid in their selec- 
tion of food. The teacher, however, cor- 
rected this inference, for it seems not to be 
the case, as sheep, are very undiscriminating 
in the matter of food, eating without injury 
what would be poisonous to most other ani- 
mals. This sense seems rather to serve as a 
means of enabling sheep to trace their way 
and track their kin, as they are great wan- 
derers. A mother sheep can always recog- 
nize her own lamb by its "smell." 


The children of the group discussed, did 
not have the opportunity of seeing horned 
sheep, but any class would be interested in 
examining the spiral horns, which are hol- 
low. These are real horns. The solid kind, 
like those of the deer, are called antlers. 
The children might be able to find the rings 
that mark annual periods of growth and 
thus determine the age of a sheep. Pictures 
of wild ones can be shown. Compare them 
with tame sheep. 


The group also visited a winter corral, 

into which the sheep are placed over night. 

This is connected with open sheds and into 

these they can go for protection against rain 

or snow. 


In inquiring into what sort of conditions 
are best for profitable sheep raising, the chil- 
dren were interested in looking at various 
pictures, and in visiting the park. There, 
among others, was the African sheep, which 
has far more hair than wool. At some fu- 
ture lesson in a more advanced grade these 
children will be interested in discovering 
that the temperate climate is best for sheep 
raising, as the animals readily adapt them- 
selves to climatic conditions. 


It has been thought that the first sheep 
were wild. The children were interested in 
discussing the advantages of their slender 
legs in climbing. They noticed that the 
hoofs were almost hollow and by experi- 
menting with a rubber disc, came to under- 
stand why they were well adapted for cling- 
ing to slippery rocks. One child made the 
remark that the hoof was sharp in order to 
dig away the snow and ice from grass and 
roots in winter. 

Large bands were seen coming to town 
with the herder, assisted by shepherd dogs, 
usually collies, who help to keep the sheep 
in the middle of the road, or ifin camp, 
guard them. 


The favorite season for the use of this 
subject seems to be the spring, or the time 
for sheep shearing. As the kindergarten 
plan suggested, however, there is a possible 
correlation of this subject with the Christ- 
mas thought. It is not a convenient time 
for direct observation, but there are many 
beautiful stories relating to both the shep- 
herd and sheep. All the stories of David 
and John, the Manger, and the Wise Men, 
are in Mrs. Proudfoot's Child Christ Tales, 
published by Flannigan. There are also 
many appropriate pictures pertaining to the 
birth of Christ, and to the shepherds that 
may be used, for example, Feuerstein's The 
Holy Night, Paul Baudry's Saint John, Mu- 
rillo's The Christ Child, and the Lamb, Le- 
rolle's The Nativity, Bourguereau's Adora- 
tion of the Shepherds. 

A suggestion of a possible talk with the 



Long, long ago all animals were wild 
and cared for themselves as best they could. 
It is said that the sheep were the first of all 
animals to be tamed by man. "When David 
was a shepherd lad" great flocks of sheep 
were pastured on the hills and in the valleys 
of his country, and there are boys there to- 
day, who, like David, care for the sheep, and 
who probably think of him and the beauti- 
ful songs he left for the whole world when 
he went away. 

Across the great ocean is another coun- 
try, hilly and rugged, just the kind of a 
country sheep like, and there you may see 
great white flocks, and with them the beau- 
tiful dog that we call the shepherd dog. He 
does not watch over them alone, for the 
shepherd is there too, but he is a very won- 
derful helper. A man who once cared for 
sheep on the hills of Scotland has written 
many good stories about the shepherd dog, 
(perhaps you can find some of them.) His 
name is James Hogg — and his book is called 
"The Etterick Shepherd." (Bring in a 
touch of the Highland shepherd life — the 
plaidie, the bagpipe, dialect, and the like.) 

These are not the only places where sheep 
are to be found, for they are in nearly all 
parts of the world except regions of very 
extreme heat and cold. 

In the western mountains of our country 
— the great Rockies — bands of wild sheep 
live. Travelers can often see them leaping 
among the high rocks and following their 
shepherd. This shepherd is neither man, 
nor boy, nor dog, but a strong and fearless 
one of their own kind, who knows where the 
best pastures are to be found, and how to 
lead his flock away from danger. Mr. Ern- 
est Seton Thompson has written a beautiful 
story about a mountain sheep. It is called 

After such an introduction the observa- 
tional study can follow in its appropriate 

In working out any nature study plan, let 
it be remembered above all, that when an 
animal is taken as the subject, that little 
children learn more through service to that 
animal than through any amount of logical 

It offers an ethical opportunity. The 
child's sympathy and interest are awakened 
and through his own activity he is brought 
into harmony with the life about him. In 
this way, the teacher, as Froebel suggests, 
is making it possible for the child to inform 

and instruct himself and thus "he becomes 
member of the all life, and, as such, freel 
and spontaneously to live." 

Program for the First Five Grades. 

Winter Subjects: Frost, Ice, and Snow. 

A. A plan for the first three grades. 

I. Frost. 

Observation of frost on the window pane 
with its fairy pictures, leads us to an obser 
vation of the beautiful, white, glistenin; 
landscape. To contemplate Jack Frost an< 
appreciate his work, there must be an op 
portunity for a field lesson on a frosty morn 
ing. Consider him first as the messenger o 
autumn, who does not come to kill, but tc 
give us warning that winter is coming 
(Give to children the bright and happj 
thought rather than the negative sugges 

Jack Frost helps in the preparation foi 
winter by bringing first of all the beautifu 
colors of the fall. He opens the chestnut 
burrs, and the like. How does he make m 
feel? What does the frost cover? Observe 
twigs and foliage bedecked with this glisten 
ing moss. Examine some of the frost crys- 
tals through a microscope. Of course the 
best mornings for this observation will b* 
when everything is covered with hoar-frost 
then, even with the naked eye, the separate 
crystals can be studied like so many brilliant 
feathers and ferns. Where do we find the 
heaviest frost on the windows? (In the bath 
room, kitchen, and wash room.) Why? 
Observe the steam forming on the window 
panes, and then watch the effect of the cold 
upon it. If this is impossible, in order to 
watch the forming of frost crystals, put ice 
and salt into a glass vessel, when frost will 
form on the outside. 

II. Ice. 

Is Jack Frost responsible for the ice? 
Children tell where they have seen ice on 
the way to school. Mention other places 
where ice is to be found. Place a pan of 
cold water out on the window ledge, and if 
a cold day needle-like crystals will form. 
Study one, its size, shape, color and form. 
Place the pan out again, and after two or 
three hours see how the crystals have inter- 
laced to form solid ice. 

Icicles and their formation may be ob- 
served by hanging up a can with a small 
hole in the bottom, arranged so that the 
water can trickle through and gradually 
freeze. The expansive quality of ice can 



e demonstrated by filling a bottle with 
r ater and allowing it to freeze. The ice 
rystals stretch out, and not finding room 
nough to expand, break the bottle. Speak 
f the bursting of pitchers, water pipes, etc. 
yhy do rocks and boulders burst? (Water 
oaking into rocks must expand when it 

Consider the uses of ice. 
Let this study be largely an aesthetic one, 
onsidering first, the beauty of the land- 
cape, second, the characteristics of the 
now. Snow crystals may be observed by 
atching them on a black cloth, and exam- 
ling the different star forms with the 

Is a heavy fall of snow a benefit or other- 
vise? (A benefit, because it protects roots 
nf plants from frost and modifies the cold. 
?he melting of it in the spring helps to 
weak up frost in the ground.) Study the 
urther uses of snow. 

1 B. Suggestions for Fourth and Fifth 

Snowfall may be determined by melting 
now in the gauge, and measuring the depth 
)f water produced. On an average, ten 
inches of snow make one inch of water, but 
he proportion is variable. 

A more or less extensive and inclusive 
study of ice harvesting may be entered into 
py children of fourth and fifth grades, and 
IviU be found profitable and interesting. As- 
certain an average depth of "ripe" ice. Make 
:omparison of weight' and volume. Investi- 
gate the method of marking and cutting 
ce; size and weight of cakes; method of 
;ransporting, storing, and handling of the 
same. In what region of the United States 
is ice harvesting most extensively carried 
an? What methods are employed in the 
instruction of ice palaces? What are ice 
boats? Find pictures to illustrate. Give 
the children some opportunities for con- 
structive work. Make models of ice-saws, 
ice-plows, or of ice-boats. 


James Johonnot's Grandfather Stories: 
The Snow King. 

Harriet L. Coolidge's In the Fairyland: 
Jack Frost and His Fairies. 
S. E. Wiltse's Kindergarten Songs and 
Talks : 

a. A Story of Willie Winkie. 

b. The Snowflakes. 

Emilie Poulsson's In the Child's World : 

Jack Frost and His Work. 

Jessie Gaynor's Songs of the Child World, 

a. Coasting. 

b. Skating. 

c. The Snowman. 

Eleanor Smith's Songs for Little Chil- 
dren, Part 2: 

Jack Frost. 

Patty Hill's Song Stories for the Kinder- 
garten : 

Merry Little Snowflakes. 

Children, Children, Winter Is Here ! 


Frank Dempster's Sherman's Little Folk 

a. The Snow Weaver. 

b. January. 

c. Wizard Frost. 

d. Snow Flakes. 

Mat Lovejoy's Nature in Verse: 

a. Jack Frost — selected. 

b. Frost Pictures — selected. 

c. Little Snow Flakes — selected. 



February is so rich with historical interests that 
the problem is rather what not to do with them 
than what to do. Still in trying each year to vary 
the work from the preceding years the teacher will 
be glad to have more suggestions than time would 
permit her to carry out. It may be well to remind 
ourselves that the teaching of historic facts and 
connections is not the work of the kindergarten but 
such work should be used only with more advanced 

The plan which follows introduces historic work 
because these outlines are to be used by primary 
teachers as well as kindergartners, each selecting 
that which is helpful to her own grade and disre- 
garding that which is not well adapted to her class. 
Besides considering the lives of Washington and 
Lincoln we must not forget that this is the month 
when Cupid figures. Valentines must be made and 
sent. The postman is called upon to help us and 
we will have him deliver a valentine to us in per- 
son. The study of the soldier and his employments 
must not exclude the attention to that other faith- 
ful helper, who through storm and sunshine is ever 
active. His work and services are more closely as- 
sociated with the home life than that of the soldier 
and his employment is better understood by the 
children. The soldier hats and flags, badges and 
drums are all necessary to the completion of the 
thought of February, but the postman's whistle will 
not create discord nor his coat of grey disturb the 
soldier's blue. 

The dove figures so prominently on the valentines 
in the shop windows and the pigeons are always 
with us be it summer or winter, so it will not be 
inadvisable in our thought of the animal world to 
stop at the dove cot and pigeon house and consider 
something of the ways of the dwellers therein. 

The winter sports are still enjoyed and the beau- 



ties of the snow-covered buildings and fields should 
still enter into our work as a reminder of what has 
gone before and a suggestion of what the approach- 
ing months will bring. 

Let us now consider definitely how all of these 
thoughts may be reproduced in Drawing, Folding, 
Paper Cutting and Paper Tearing. 



Lincoln's log cabin. 

Branch of cotton plant. 

Basket filled with cotton. 

Float of logs on river. 

First American flag. 

Independence Hall. 

Liberty bell. 



Colonial hat. 







Winter scenes. 

Illustrate story work. 

Furled bag (book cover.) 

The valentines may be made in a great variety 
of forms. Those described here are the ones made 
on oblong paper. The heart shaped valentines are 
included under different headings. Select an ob- 
long paper, either of pure white or soft grey. Draw 
a border of some suitable color. Draw a bunch of 
violets or a red rose in the center. Under this print 
an appropriate sentiment in the colors already in- 
troduced. In each corner such words as Love, Truth, 
Faith, Constancy may be added. Such a valentine 
might then have a cover pasted on. Make it of 
tissue paper the proper color. These covers should 
be shaped to correspond to the edge of the valen- 
tine and may be cut in a design or in strips for 
shutter effects. But they must open to reveal the 
beauty of the message and then shut again to close 
it from the vulgar gaze. 

Free Drawing. 

Child making a valentine. 

Postman at work. 
Cotton fields with slaves at work. 
Betsey Ross making first flag. 
Washington on his horse. 
American soldier. 

English soldier. 

Pigeon house with pigeons. 

Illustrate story work. 

Soldier hat. 

Practice Drawing. 

Logs cm z. $\oa»t 


Lib arty 

_QDD_D[|Q_aaDF r 
Independence Hall 


Postman's bag. 

School house, lamp post and mail box on one has 




Strips for badges. 

Circles for badges. 

Tent with flag. 

Soldier and tent. 

Pilgrim house. 


Flight of pigeons (paste on mount with pigeo 

Badges may be made by cutting strips of rei 
white and blue paper about four inches long an 
one inch wide. Then cut a circle of one of the: 
colors. Paste the strips together at one end i 
proper position and then paste circle over the strip 

Drawing and Cutting. 

Soldier and tents. 



Flag and staff. 



Wreaths of flowers in honor of Washington and 

Illustrate story work. 

A very effective valentine can be made by draw- 
ing one heart over another and cutting this out. 
Flowers may be drawn on the hearts or scrap pic- 
tures pasted. A cover as described before adds to 
the mystery of the valentine. 

A cannon may be made in one of two ways: 1. 
Draw a picture of the body of the cannon and pic- 
tures of wheels. Cut these out and run a splint 
through a wheel, then the cannon through the other 


Pigeon house. 

To make envelopes for valentines take a square 
of paper a suitable size; fold diameters; fold each 
corner to the center. Place the valentine in the 
envelopes and seal with two over-lapping hearts. 
Place a red heart in the stamp corner. 

The postman's bag is made of heavy paper, almost 
square in shape. Fold the long diameter. Cut off 
the loose corners beginning to cut at the closed 

Paste the slanting edges. Paste straps extending 
from front to back of bag long enough to allow for 
opening the bag to slip in baby letters. 

The log cabin is a very effective piece of construc- 




wheel. 2. Take a piece of paper and roll it into 
a long cylinder for the body of the cannon. Draw 
and cut the wheels. Paste on each side of cannon. 
To make the fort take a good-sized piece of heavy 
paper, oblong in shape. Mark it on either side to 
represent stones. Cut holes for lookouts and firing. 
Paste the short ends together. These should be 
made in connection with the cannon so that the 
position of the body of the cannon on the wheels 
corresponds with the holes made for firing. Placed 
on a hill of sand in the sand tray with tents, etc., 
the fort makes a very realistic scene. 

Folding and Cutting. 


Envelopes for valentines. 

Postman's bag. 

Postman's uniform. 

Log cabin. 


tion and can be easily made if the children be prop- 
erly directed. Fold the sixteen inch square and cut 
the folds at opposite ends as described for the barn 
form in previous article. Before pasting all lines 
indicating the logs must be drawn this wise: 

For the roof and sides of the cabin the logs run 
parallel to the cuts. 

For the peak the logs run diagonally across the 
square that is pasted on the outside. The other 
square is left blank. 

Paste as described before and cut the door in the 
long side. If the children be advanced enough the 
windows might be indicated in one side ' \ before 
pasting corners of cabin. 

To make the knapsack first secure bogus or heavy 
manilla paper. The foundation form is the square 
box described in previous article. Make two such 
boxes, but before pasting the corners cut off the 
two outside squares at the side that is to be the top 
of the knapsack. This leaves an oblong piece for 
the lid. Now paste each box. Then slip one box 



inside the other and paste, leaving the lids to over- 

Take a strip of paper a little longer than the 
width of the knapsack and roll it in a cylinder. 
Paste it on the outside lid. Cut long strips for 
straps and paste so that the knapsack can be opened. 

The tents may be more or less elaborate according 
to the development of the children. The simplest 
one being made by folding one diameter and stand- 
ing it on the sides. Many of them are improved by 
pasting a support on the back so that a city of tents 


support the pigeon house or branches from the 
Christmas tree may be stored for such purposes. 


Valentine covers. 






can be formed at the end of the work. Just as 
simple or almost as easily made is the tent with 
only one diagonal folded and stood on end. An- 
other is made by folding one diameter and cutting 
from the bottom open corners to the top closed cor- 
ner and cutting from the bottom near the fold par- 
allel to the first cut till it strikes the fold. This 
makes the opening for the door. 

Still another way is to fold as in the last; cut 
outer edges to form the door; cut the fold a proper 
height and fold back tne curtains. 

For the pigeon house the children should be given 
a small square piece of paper. If it is not colored 
they should be allowed to color it. This paper is 
folded, cut and pasted as described for the barn, 
etc. Now each child is given a cardboard a little 
larger than the base of the pigeon house. This is 
tacked to the blunt end of a meat skewer. The 
pigeon house is pasted on this and the stick is 
pushed into a support made of clay or putty. The 
children may gather stout twigs in their walks to 





A simple division of the industries intro- 
duced to kindergarten children is that sug- 
gested by the prayer song: 

"Father of all, in heaven above, 
We thank thee for thy love; 
Our food, our homes, and all we wear, 
Tell of thy loving care." 

The first two of these necessities of life 
receive much attention in kindergartens. 
We have Baker and Carpenter talks, songs, 
and games. 

The subject of clothing, concerning which 



Carlyle has so instructively written, was 

neglected by the author of the Mother Play 

Book, and his twentieth century disciples 

seem rather inclined to continue ignoring 

it. But for the benefit of those who feel 

that the child's legitimate interest in his 

apparel should be more extensively utilized, 

the following plan, already several times 

employed, is outlined: 


(a) A New or Old Dress? (silhouette 

(b) Touch game, 
(c- Cloth raveling, 
(d) Cotton Game. 


A little girl named Nellie had three sis- 
ters older than she was. When the oldest 
sister, Marguerite, grew too big for her 
dresses, she gave them to Pauline, the next 
sister; when Pauline outgrew them, they 
were given to Charlotte, the next sister; 
and when they were too short for Charlotte 
they were made over for Nellie. 

Nellie grew tired of the plan after awhile. 
"O dear!'' she said to herself one day, "I 
wish I could buy me a brand new dress. 
How lovely it would be to have — say, a 
pink silk, that never had been worn before." 

"So you think," observed a caterpillar 
crossing the path just then, "that the silk 
goods that are sold in stores are brand new. 
Some cousins of mine go to the trouble of 
spinning for themselves blankets. Every 
now and then their blankets are ripped up, 
and by and by they are made over into 
dresses for ladies, that's all." 

"Dear me," said Nellie. "Well, if I had 
a nice soft woolen dress, your cousins could- 
n't say that they had worn that. That 
would surely be new." 

"Baa!" spoke something behind her. It 
was Pet Lamb's voice. 

"Young as I am, I know who gets our 
winter clothes when it grows too warm for 
us to wear them. We don't mind your cut- 
ting our long wool off, but it's our old coats 
you're using just the same." 

At least we don't go to you for the pretty 
muslin dresses," thought Nellie, "though I 
suppose the little cotton seeds in the field 
over there would say that we take their 
white jackets to make even our thinnest 
frocks. Perhaps nothing is out and out 
new, any way, so I won't mind my having 
to wear my sisters' things." 


The silhouettes, grouped on the back of 
a leaf from a portfolio of wall paper sam- 
ples, were easily and effectively made by a 
very unskillful artist. She outlined from a 
magazine picture a little girl in a sunbonnet, 
a caterpillar, and a sheep. A brush dipped 
in India ink then blackened the enclosed 
surfaces and beautifully covered up all small 
deficiencies. The stem bearing the single 
cotton boll, was sketched with a pen and 
the boll left white. These illustrations, 
hung up, may be pointed to as some child 
reviews the story. 


i. Fabrics of the three kinds mentioned 
in the story may be given as a puzzle to the 
children as they take their turn at being 
blindfolded, or the guesser may be led about 
the circle to feel the director's skirt, or a 
playmate's duck suit, or a hair ribbon. 

2. A piece of coarse cloth of simplest 
weave is passed to each child that he may 
ravel a few threads. Even a bit of drawn- 
work as occupation might be sometimes 
given if the kind of cloth mentioned were 
used and the threads to be drawn out were 
pulled an inch or so beyond the cloth before 
it was presented to the child. 

3. The weaving of a carpet-rag rug for 
the kindergarten doll house may then fol- 
low. A fairly satisfactory loom is con- 
structed from a large sewing card closely 
pricked. Cut an oblong from the center of 
the card so that a row of holes is left at the 
topand one at the bottom. Fixthe warp,con- 
sisting of bright embroidery cotton, by 
means of these holes. Narrow strips of cal- 
ico, three bright, harmonious colors, consti- 
tute the filling. 

4. Where possible, plan a visit to a cot- 
ton gin. The following words may be 
chanted to tones in the same octave as fol- 
lows : 

Fluffy cotton bolls we gather 
In the pleasant autumn weather; 
When our baskets all are full 
Horses will the burden pull. 
To the busy town we're going 
With the cotton we've been growing. 
In the gin the saws will tear 
From the seeds the lint they bear. 
Then the cotton, pressed so neatly 
In the mill is changed completely. 
Some is spun to threads so fine, 
To make clothes like your's and mine. 

1. Several children each with hands on hips are 
the baskets; the others reach up to pick the bolls. 

2. Form a wagon of children and empty baskets. 
Then hitch up the horses and drive to town. 

3. Let a ring of children facing outward extend 
arms forward with fingers slightly spread, and then 



revolve slowly to represent a section of the cylinder 
■with saw-teeth. Brush teeth at one point in the 
revolution to release lint. 

4. Let a parallelogram of children be drawn 
out into a line, as in marching where each rank 
marches sideward and attaches itself to the next 


TERESA F. HATCH, Mansfield, Ohio. 

For complete expression to some chil- 
dren a morning of directed circle and table 
work is too strenuous — in fact, ' tis my be- 
lief, come entirely from experience and ex- 
periment with the children that in general 
better results are gained, there is greater 
physical comfort and development, hence, 
more perfect mental growth with a short 
period of perfectly free play. 

We find that a part of the game period 
devoted to free play, gives the children op- 
portunity for relaxation which the directed 
games cannot. The limitations made as a 
result of numbers gives the children rules 
they seldom violate. They willingly sub- 
mit to these few rules because of their sense 
of justice, which is easily aroused and exor- 
cised if they understand. 

With this happy time in mind we have 
planned and fitted up a "Play Corner," as it 
is always called. The large room offers 
most excellent opportunities for this. Large, 
low windows on either side border this little 
space. Above and on either side of the cor- 
ner are shelves, from end to end we have 
hung Japanese lanterns, which the children 

Within is a little couch, a box with a lid, 
this the children, with help, covered with 
red burlap and then they sewed pillows of 
red and green materials, stuffing them with 
cut papers, all had a hand in fixing. A little 
rocker, small table and doll cradle, the bed 
clothes made by the children, a doll's ham- 
mock on a frame of the children's handi- 
work, and a few other playthings are the 

For wall decorations we have mounted 
just below the shelf, on a red background, 
a row of children's pictures. But the crown- 
ing features are the rugs the little hands 
wove, on a loom as large as could possibly 
be used. It stood against the wall, conveni- 
ently handy for anyone to work on at any 
time. The warp was of strong twine, the 
woof of carpet rags. It was a happy time 
when our first rug was done. Later we 
made matting on the same loom. This was 
entirely of raffia in stripes of color. It is 
all very coarse work, several strands of 
raffia and wide carpet rags being used. 

Here we find the children happily play- 
ing at any free play period. Sometimes it 1 * 

is a family living happily at home. Some- 
times two or three are seated on the little 

*Abridged by the Editor. 

couch looking at pictures while others are 
at the table playing with some toy found in 
its little drawer. 

The dolls generally figure in some way 
being rocked in some little mother's arms 
or put to sleep in the cradle. 

At times a little one rests herself on the 
couch. The play corner is the delight oi 
all ; it is their own. 

While this side plav is going on one may! 
see others at the blackboard; building at the: 
sand table; looking at the books or fish that! 
are on a shelf low enough for all to reach. 

Sometimes they clamor for a story to be] 
read ; then a little group of eager listeners! 
surround the story teller. 

Little groups are about the room every-l 
where in free, orderly, quiet play. Here the' 



They were traveling on the continent 

Through Holland, France, and Spain, 
And now were "doing" Switzerland 

By steamboat, stage and train. 
There were Father, Mother, Walter and 

And last, but by no means least, 
Was little Ted, the family pet, 

Whose interest never ceased. < 

In Berne, the city of bears were they, 
Where the children with delight, 

Fed the bears in the pit, and longed to buy, 
Every bear that met their sight. 

There were painted bears, bears carved in 
wood ; 
Bears sitting, or standing upright. 
There were "great big bears," and "middle- 
sized bears," 
And bears of a "wee, wee" height. 

But night had come and the children all 

Were on their way to bed, 
When hugging fast his shaggy pet, 

Our boy from the U. S. said : 

"I like live bears, — and carved ones too — 

For every Bruin I care — 
But the dearest one of all, I think, 

Is my Roosevelt Teddy Bear." 

*The bear is the emblem of Switzerland's capital 
city, Berne. Three or more living bears are kept 
in a pit within the city limits and are great pets, 
being continually regaled with the cakes and nuts 
from their many visitors. Bears are imitated in a 
variety of materials and in every possible attitude. 
They are frequently represented seated at an easel 
witli a tiny landscape upon which they are supposed 
to be at work. Needless to say few visitors to the 
city are able to leave it without purchasing a bear 
in one form or another. 















Danny-maunie had partly pulled the big 
Morris chair — the one the children loved — 
in front of the library fire ; then it became a 
race as to which of the three, Danny- 
maunie, Little Edmunds, or "Sisser" should 
first "get on board." 

"flurry! Hurry! Car's going to start!" 
called out Little E. and one never did see 
such a scramble to get a seat. 

It was really a most remarkable chair. 
One could have no idea how important a 
place it occupied in the household. 

If one wished to travel, it was quite the 
easiest matter to transform it at once into a 
railroad train, a trolley car, or a steamer, 
not to mention a Broadway stage. 

There was always accommodation for its 
passengers ; if one could not get inside, one 
could always hang on the outside, to say 
nothing of a seat on the roof, — the top. 

"Oh, no, indeed ! We never in this world 
could get along without the big chair !" 
Maunie had said, and she, if any one, knew. 

One can scarcely realize how lovely and 
"comfy" it was in the library, with the cur- 
tains drawn and the fire burning so brightly. 

Just now, too, Danny-favver was playing 
the piano in the parlor, and the music float- 
ed out so softly and tenderly. 

But best of all, Maunie had said, that as 
Danny-maunie was to be "mother-bird" to- 
night, they could sit up a little longer than 

So it was two very contented little chil- 
dren that snuggled close to Danny-maunie 
in the big chair before the fire. 

"Let's go to Philadelphia, Danny-mau- 
nie !" said Little E. 

"Me, too!" cried "Sisser." 

So with Little E. serving in the double 
capacity of motorman and "ticket taker," 
they had started on their trip. 

It would be impossible to tell of all the 
strange, unusual sights seen, to say nothing 
of the numerous conversations held with 
imaginary persons, at the different stations 
along the way; in all of which the children 
participated with their usual delight. 

But they were tired of play by now ; there- 
upon Danny-maunie, having opened a much- 
used picture book, they were soon in full 
enjoyment oLits contents; and with eager 

little faces glued to the open page, they gave i 
to each picture a most exhaustive examina- J 

It truly was a wonderful book ; filled from ! 
cover to cover with most delightful descrip- 
tions of childhood and of animal life; to- 
gether with frequent portrayals of whole 
families of the little young things most dear 
to a child's heart. 

"See, 'Emmet' !" said "Sisser," pointing 
with chubby finger to a delightful basketful 
of tiny kittens. "Mine, mine!" and she laid 
her soft little cheek on the open page in 
loving demonstration. 

"Here comes my little pony!" shouted 
Little E., as a familiar picture came into 
view. "And here come the baby-rabbits! 
now which one will you have 'Sisser'?" and 
then followed the usual delightful choosing 
of the favorite one for possession. 

Among the representations they came 
quite unexpectedly upon the picture of a 
little child sleeping; the air above him filled 
with all manner of hideous, floating crea- 

The little face on the pillow was pitifully 
suggestive of suffering; and, in truth, there 
was no disguising the fact that the poor 
little sleeper was being painfully beset by 
these horrible, grinning shapes. 

There were no comments whatever on 
this gruesome picture. It was passed in 
most ominously suggestive silence. 

But the usual hour for the arrival of the 
"sand-man" had long since passed ; and hav- 
ing inspected the very last page, the chil- 
dren were now willing to make ready for 

"Listen !" said Danny-maunie ; and per- 
fect silence filled the room. "Listen ! Don't 
you hear the 'Slumber Boat' coming down 
the river? Hadn't you better whistle her to 
stop?" and immediately a small whistle 
sounded forth. 

"Shall we get on our 'things,' Danny- 
maunie?" asked Little E., immediately 
echoed by "Sisser" "det on sings?" 

"Yes! I think we had better get ready!" 
assented Danny-maunie ; and after due prep- 
aration, each little passenger was ready to 
set sail. 

Sometimes, when apprehensive of any 



disturbing influence contrary to sleep, Dan- 
ny-maunie would employ a charm regarded 
by them with especial favor, which had 
often apparently proven very conducive to 
the securing of a short, happy voyage to 

So sealing the eyes tight shut with kisses, 
pressing the sweet lips close with numerous 
magical passes of the finger tips, and con- 
juring sweet dreams into each expectantly 
Waiting ear, Danny-maunie — as a last pre- 
caution — placed what the children desig- 
nated as a "watch-out" in the shape of an 
especially impressive kiss upon each rosy 

The object of this "watch-out" was to see 
to it that these different avenues of sight 
and sound remained closed; which "watch- 
out" was by them held to be exceedingly 
important to the success of the charm. 

There was yet one more incantation nec- 
essary to the perfect completion of the spell, 
and, as a very last "send-off," standing by 
the now perfectly motionless, attentive little 
figures. Danny-maunie softly repeated the 
accustomed lines : 

Sleepy eyes stay shut up tight; 

Sweet mouth, too, 'till morning light; 

Little ears must hear 110 sound, 

For the "watch-out" is around. 

"Danny-maunie! Danny-maunie!" came 
the clear voice from overhead with a note 
of unrest in it? ''ntonation. 

Danny-maunie hastened to the foot of the 
stairs, calling responsively, "Yes, Man! 
What is it?" 

"Danny-maunie !" continued the dear lit- 
tle voice, "That picture!" 

Danny-maunie's heart sank with forebod- 
ing, but she called cheerily back, "Oh, yes, 
Little Man! You mean those dear little 
baby-rabbits! Weren't they darling? And 
that little boy. too! Wasn't he having the 
nicest time in feeding them? How many 
rabbits did you count? Wasn't there an all 
white one? And two or thre spotted ones? 
And how about that sweet, cunning one 
with really black ears? 

"Now close your eyes laddie, and see if 
you cannot remember each one. Maybe you 
can count them all over again. And Danny- 
maunie returned to the library. 

"Danny-maunie ! Oh, Danny-maunie !" 
again the insistent voice, this time with an 
added note of real terror. 

Quickly hastening to his relief, Danny- 
maunie gathered the distressed little figure 
closely to her breast, endeavoring to soothe 
his disquiet. "Dear Little Man ! Dear Little 

Man!" she murmured, "What is it?" 

"Oh, Danny-maunie! That picture!" re- 
peated the little boy. 

"But, Man !" entreated Danny-maunie, 
"Don't think about that picture." 

"Remember all those lovely live things 
you saw in the book ; those cunning dog- 
gies; and that dear pony, with the boy upon 
his back." 

"And don't you remember that dear, dear 
basketful of baby-kittens? and then all those 
little rabbits, and — " 

"But, Danny-maunie," interrupted the 
little boy, lifting pleading, anguished eyes to 
her face in the endeavor to make plain his 
mental distress, "My thinker, my thinker — 
makes — makes me—" and he paused, unable 
to express his very real misery. 

But Danny-maunie understood perfectly, 
as she gathered the dear little form still 
closer, realizing his extremity, and filled 
with an intense desire to help him. 

But how? How could she allay his 

Very suddenly the way became clear to 

"Little Man!" she said, "Listen!" And 
speaking very clearly, she proceeded to give 
him a detailed account of her purpose. 

"I am going downstairs to the library, 
and I am going to get a pair of scissors, and 
I will cut that picture entirely out of the 

"Then I am going out into the kitchen, 
and I will put that picture into the fire and 
burn it. 

"Then you cannot think about it any 
more, because it will not be there. It will 
be burned. See?" 

Keeping absolute faith with the little lad, 
Danny-maunie proceeded with the exact 
carrying out of the plan agreed upon, giving 
— for the comfort of the vitally interested 
little listener upstairs — very marked prom- 
inence to the necessary sounds arising from 
each detail. 

Finally, when the miserable source of all 
this distress had been reduced to ashes, 
Danny-maunie. returning to the foot of the 
stairs,' called softly, "Dear Little Man? It 
is entirely gone! It is burned! Did you 

"Yes, Danny-maunie !" came the sweet- 
voiced reply. 

A few minutes later, a satisfied, sleepy 
little voice came floating down: 

"Danny-maunie, I am thinking about 
those baby-rabbits now." 

Pedagogical Digest Department 



Edited by Manfred J. Holmes, Illinois 
State Normal University, Normal, 111., Sec- 
retary of the Society. 

The fact that the National Society for the 
Scientific Study of Education (formerly 
Herbart Society), devoted its Yearbook 
for 1907 to the discussion of the Kindergar- 
ten is an indication of the important place 
that kindergarten principles and practices 
are holding in the large field of education 
today. It shows that it is the purpose of 
fair-minded men and women to know just 
what the kindergarten has stood for, and is 
now straining to attain, and what may be 
its exact place in relation to the general sys- 
tem of public education. 

The contributors to the year book are all 
representative in their respective fields, and 
we may accept their papers as characteristic 
of the thought and deed of kindergartners 
throughout the country today. It is true 
that there are other aspects of kindergarten 
education, particularly those in reference to 
primary teaching that are clamoring for 
consideration here and now. Let us hope 
that these will be considered in a similar 
book shortly. 

The introduction to the book is by Ada 
Van Stone Harris,* who has shown in the 
past ten or fifteen years as keen an insight 
into, and as ready solution of, the educa- 
tional p